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of  Intercommunication 



When  found,  make  a  note  of," — CAPTAIN  CUTTLE. 


JANUARY — JUNE  1886. 



OFFICE,     22,     TOOK'S     COURT,     CHANCERY    LANE,     E.G. 

Index  Supplement  to  the  Note  and  Queries,  with  No.  30,  July  24,  1886. 






7»S.  I.  JAN.  2/86.] 



CONTENTS.— N°  1. 

NOTES :— History  of  the  Thames,  1—'  Decameron  '  in  Eng- 
lish, 3— York  Minster,  4— Sheaf  of  Misprints— "  Ifs  and 
Ands  "—Keats,  6— Social  Clubs—"  Filius  Populi  "—Seventh 
Daughter — The  Josepbins — A  Drowned  Corpse— Suggested 
Press  Error—"  Sitting  on  both  sides,"  6. 

QUERIES  :— Tunisia— Bell  of  the  Hop-Platform—Belgium, 
7— Highland  Kilt— Hon.  Mrs.  Norton— '  Lothair  '—MS.  of 
•Game  of  Chess '—Proverbial  Phrase— Scotch  Names  of 
Fishes— Irish  Parliament— Pigott  Racket's  'Life  of  Wil- 
liams'— "Hang  sorrow" — 'Multiply  s  Merry  Method,' 8 — 
'  Rapids  of  Niagara '— J.  Thurloe— W.  Harries— Cogers'  Hall 
— Scotch  Traders  in  Sweden — Latin  Poem— Carisbrook  Castle 
— "  The  Eight  Braves  "-Classical  Jingle,  9. 

REPLIES  :— Coronation  Stone,  9  —  Burgomasco  —  Venetian 
Glass — Peerage  of  Scales,  11 — '  Horse  Nausese  '—Clerk  of  the 
Kitchen— W.  H.  Swepstone— Double  Tuition  Fee— Abp. 
Augustine,  12— Josselyn — Feet  of  Fines — Pope's  '  Iliad,' 13 
—Els— Shields  of  Twelve  Tribes— 'Paradise  Lost 'in  Prose 
— Bosky — Nuremberg  Nimbus— Author  of  Pamphlet— Hol- 
bein— Become:  Axes,  14  —  R.  \Vharton  —  Inscriptions  on 
AVells  —  Coligny — Tyrociny — When  was  Burns  born  ?  15 — 
"  Morrow-masse  preest  "  —  W.  Longsword  —  Billament  — 
Father  and  Son  Bishops— "  Pull  Devil"— Talbot,  Earl  of 
Shrewsbury,  16— Seal  of  Grand  Inquisitor— Scochyns— Act 
of  Union- Cronebane  Halfpenny,  17— Jury  List— Arms  of 
Halifax— Bartolozzi:  Vestris,  18. 

NOTES  ON  BOOKS  :— Uzanne's  'La  Francaise  du  SiScle'— 
Hulbert's  '  Supplementary  Annals  of  Almondbury '  — 
Grove's  '  Dictionary  of  Music.' 

Notices  to  Correspondents,  &c. 


O  could  I  flow  like  thee,  and  make  thy  stream 
My  great  example  as  it  is  my  theme — 
Though  deep,  yet  clear,  though  gentle,  yet  not  dull, 
Strong  without  rage,  without  o'erflowing  full. 

Sir  J.  Denham. 

Among  the  "  chief  things  of  the  ancient  moun- 
tains and  the  precious  things  of  the  lasting  hills  " 
preserved  in  the  British  Museum  is  a  certain 
rudely  chipped  flint,  which  once  formed  part  of 
Sir  Hans  Sloane's  collections,  bequeathed  by  him 
to  the  nation  at  his  death  in  1752.  In  the  Sloane 
Catalogue  it  is  thus  described  : — 

"  No.  246.  A  British  weapon,  found  with  elephant's 
tooth,  opposite  to  black  Mary's  near  Grayes  inn  lane — 
Conyers.  It  is  a  large  black  flint,  shaped  into  the  figure 
of  a  spear's  point,  K." 

The  references  to  "  Conyers "  and  "  K."  are,  for- 
tunately, fully  explained  in  a  letter  on  London 
antiquities  written  by  Mr.  John  Bagford  to 
Thomas  Hearne,  the  antiquary,  and  printed  among 
the  introductory  matter  to  Hearne's  edition  of 
Leland's  'Collectanea.'  The  whole  passage  runs 
thus : — 

"  And  here  I  cannot  forget  to  mention  the  honest 
Industry  of  my  old  Friend  Mr.  John  Conyers,  an  Apothe- 

cary formerly  living  in  Fleet-Street,  who  made  it  his 
chief  Business  to  make  curious  Observations,  and  to 
collect  such  Antiquities  as  were  daily  found  in  and  about 
London.  His  Character  is  very  well  known,  and  there- 
fore I  will  not  attempt  it.  Yet  this  I  must  note  that  he 
was  at  great  Expence  in  prosecuting  his  Discoveries,  and 
that  he  is  remembered  with  respect  by  most  of  our 
Antiquaries  that  are  now  living.  'Tis  this  very  Gentle- 
man that  discovered  the  Body  of  an  Elephant,  as  he  was 
digging  for  Gravel  in  a  Field  near  to  the  sign  of  Sir 
John  Old-Castle  in  the  Fields,  not  far  from  Battlebridge, 
and  near  to  the  River  of  Wells,  which  tho'  now  dryed  up 
was  a  considerable  River  in  the  time  of  the  Romans. 
How  this  Elephant  came  there?  is  the  Question.  I 
know  some  will  have  it  to  have  layn  there  ever  since  the 
Universal  Deluge.  For  my  own  part  I  take  it  to  have 
been  brought  over  with  many  others  by  the  Romans  in 
the  Reign  of  Claudius  the  Emperour,  and  conjecture  (for 
a  liberty  of  guessing  may  be  indulged  to  me  as  well  as  to 
others  that  maintain  different  Hypotheses)  that  it  was 
killed  in  some  Fight  by  a  Britain.  For  not  far  from  the 
Place  where  it  was  found,  a  British  Weapon  made  of  a 
Flint  Lance  like  unto  the  Head  of  a  Spear,  fastned  into 
a  Shaft  of  a  good  Length,  which  was  a  Weapon  very 
common  amongst  the  Ancient  Britains,  was  also  dug  up, 
they  having  not  at  that  time  the  use  of  Iron  or  Brass,  as 
the  Romans  had.  This  conjecture,  perhaps,  may  seem 
odd  to  some ;  but  I  am  satisfied  my  self,  having  often 
viewed  this  Flint  Weapon,  which  was  once  in  the  Pos- 
session of  that  Generous  Patron  of  Learning,  the  Reve- 
rend and  very  Worthy  Dr.  Charlett,  Master  of  University 
College,  and  is  now  preserved  amongst  the  curious  Col- 
lections of  Mr.  John  Kemp,  from  whence  I  have  thought 
fit  to  send  you  the  exact  Form  and  Bigness  of  it  [a  coarse 
woodcut  of  the  flint  occupies  the  next  page].  This  dis- 
covery was  made  in  the  presence  of  the  foresaid  Mr. 
Conyers,  and  I  remember  that  formerly  many  such  bones 
were  shown  for  Giants-Bones,  particularly  one  in  the 
Church  of  Aldermanbury  which  was  hung  in  a  Chain  on 
a  Pillar  of  the  Church  ;  and  such  another  was  kept  in 
St.  Laurence's  Church,  much  of  the  same  Bigness.  All 
which  bones  were  publickly  to  be  seen  before  the  dread- 
ful Fire  of  London,  as  it  appears  to  me  from  the  Chro- 
nicles of  Stow,  Grafton,  Munday,  &c."* 

Who  or  what  the  "  black  Mary "  referred  to  in 
the  Sloane  catalogue  may  have  been  I  know  not  ; 
but  although  she  has  long  since  been  topographic- 
ally dead  and  buried,  her  silent  ghost  still  per- 
petually revisits  its  former  haunts.  In  Gary's  map 
of  London  in  1792  "Black  Mary's  Hole"  appears 
as  part  of  an  unnamed  continuation  of  Coppice 
Kow,  immediately  before  it  passes  Bagnigge  Wells, 
a  spot  identifiable  in  the  London  of  to-day  as  that 
part  of  Cross  Street  fronting  the  Clerkenwell 
House  of  Correction.  "  Black  Maria  "  for  at  least 
some  five-and-twenty  years  has  been  a  favourite 
London  synonym  for  a  prison  van,  and  it  seems 
difficult  to  avoid  the  conclusion  that  the  first 
vehicle  to  which  the  name  was  applied  was  the  one 
which  conveyed  its  duly  qualified  passengers  to 
this  establishment  at  Clerkenwell,  situated  exactly 
"  opposite  black  Mary's."  I  note  here,  moreover, 
two  other  etymologies.  The  House  of  Correction 
is  known  to  its  frequenters  as  "  The  Steel,"  a  fact 

*  Leland'a  '  Collectanea,'  Hearne,  second  ed.,  vol.  i. 
p.  Ixiii. 


8. 1.  JAN.  2,  '86. 

duly  recorded  in  Dickens's  '  Dictionary  of  London,' 
s.v.  "Prisons";  but  I  do  not  know  of  its  having 
been  placed  on  record  that  the  word  is  one  formed 
from  "  Bastille,"  on  the  same  principle  as  bus  from 
"  omnibus."  Since  the  taking  of  the  original  Bas- 
tille, indeed,  the  word  has  passed  into  common 
use  as  a  synonym  alike  for  a  prison  and  a  work- 
house. The  other  derivation  is  a  little  less  obvious, 
but  hardly  less  certain.  "  The  Steel "  is  generally 
known  as  Coldbath  Fields  Prison,  and  the  history 
of  this  particular  cold  bath  is  thus  related  : — 

"  The  most  noted  and  first  about  London  was  that  near 
Sir  John  Oldcastle's,  where,  in  the  year  1697;  Mr.  Bains 
undertook  and  still  manages  this  business  of  Gold  Bath- 
ing, which  they  say  is  good  against  Rheumatisms,  Con- 
vulsions in  the  Nerves,  &c.,  but  of  that  those  who  have 
made  the  Experiments  are  the  best  judges.  The  Baths 
are  2$.  6d.  if  the  Chair  is  used,  and  2s.  without  it.  Hours 
are  from  5  in  the  Morning  to  1  Afternoon."  * 

Bagnigge  Wells,  which  a  hundred  years  later 
had  altogether  eclipsed  the  fame  of  Mr.  Bains's 
establishment,  are  not  mentioned,  though  they 
were  almost  within  a  stone's  throw  of  "  the  Cold 
Bath,"  which  I  believe  still  exists.  It  is  tolerably 
certain,  therefore,  that  the  name  was  given  after 
1708,  when  the  '  New  View  of  London  '  was  pub- 
lished, and  it  seems  highly  probable  that  Bag- 
nigge Wells  were  originally  a  rival  establish- 
ment, to  which  the  enterprising  proprietor  gave 
the  more  ambitious  name  of  "The  Bagnios" — a 
word  which,  not  being  generally  understanded  of 
the  people,  gave  rise  to  the  later  appellation,  in 
which,  by  the  way,  the  double  g  was  always 
sounded  soft.  Battle  Bridge  lay  a  little  to  the 
north-west  of  "  Black  Mary's,"  but  the  only  record 
of  it  left  in  modern  topography  is  the  Battle 
Bridge  Road,  which  runs  at  the  back  of  King's 
Cross  and  St.  Pancras  stations. 

Whether  the  "  Eiver  of  Wells,"  the  Fleet  brook 
or  river,  and  the  Old  Bourne  were,  as  Pennant 
seems  to  think,  three  different  streams  which 
united  about  the  bottom  of  Holborn  Hill,  or 
whether  the  Fleet  brook  is  simply  an  alias  of  the 
Old  Bourne,  of  which  the  River  of  Wells  was  a 
tributary,  may  perhaps  form  the  subject  of  a 
future  chapter  on  the  buried  affluents  of  the 
Thames.  In  the  meanwhile,  the  particular  gravel 
pit  where  the  flint  weapon  was  found  "  in  the 
presence  of  the  foresaid  Mr.  Conyers  "  may  safely 
be  localized  within  a  few  yards  of  the  northern 
corner  of  the  House  of  Correction,  where  Calthorpe 
Street  joins  Cross  Street. 

The  date  of  the  discovery  is  not  so  definitely 
determinable  as  the  place.  Prof.  Boyd  Dawkinsf 
assigns  it  to  "about  1690,"  which  may  be  correct, 
but  requires  confirmation.  Bagford's  letter  is 

*  'A  New  View  of  London'  (2  vols.  8vo,,  1708,  com- 
piled, says  a  MS.  note  in  my  copy  by  a  Mr.  Christopher 
Hatton,  an  agent  for  a  fire  office),  s.v.  "  Cold  Bath  " 
vol.  ii.  p.  785. 

t  '  Early  Man  in  Britain,'  p.  159. 

dated  "Charter-House,  1714/15";  and  that  Con- 
yers had  then  been  dead  for  some  time  is  evident 
from  a  passage  on  p.  Ixviii.  Until  the  date  of 
Conyers's  death  is  ascertained,  which  would  give 
the  latest  limit,  the  nearest  safe  approximation  to 
the  date  of  the  discovery  is  "  about  the  end  of  the 
seventeenth  or  beginning  of  the  eighteenth  century." 

I  have  entered  into  these  details  because  this  is 
by  a  whole  century  the  earliest  recorded  discovery 
of  any  of  those  implements  to  which  Sir  John 
Lubbock  has  given  the  name  of  "  palaeolithic,"  the 
rediscovery  of  which  in  our  own  time  has  vindi- 
cated for  our  race  an  antiquity  beyond  the  dreams 
of  Egyptian  chronology. 

This  flint,  in  fact,  though  chipped  instead  of 
worn,  is  considerably  older  than  the  one  on  which 
the  Ousel  of  Cilgwri  sat  when  the  Eagle  of 
Gwernabwy  came  to  consult  him  before  marrying 
his  second  wife,  the  Owl  of  Cwmcawlwyd,  as  related 
in  the  tale  of  the  «  Ancients  of  the  World.'*  "  The 
Eagle,"  says  the  story,  "  found  the  Ousel  sitting 
on  a  small  bit  of  hard  flint,  and  he  asked  him  the 
age  and  history  of  the  Owl,  and  the  Ousel  an- 
swered him  thus  :  '  See,  here,  how  small  this 
stone  is  under  me ;  it  is  not  more  than  a  child  of 
seven  years  would  take  up  in  his  hand,  and  I 
have  seen  it  a  load  for  three  hundred  yoke  of  the 
largest  oxen,  and  it  never  was  worn  at  all  except- 
ing by  my  cleaning  my  beak  upon  it  once  every 
night  before  going  to  sleep,  and  striking  my  wings 
upon  it  every  morning.'"  Save  the  backbone  of 
the  world  itself,  the  historian  goes  on  to  say,  there 
is  nought  older  of  the  things  that  had  their  be- 
ginning in  the  age  of  this  present  world  than  the 
Eagle  of  Gwernabwy,  the  Stag  of  Rhedynvre,  the 
Salmon  of  Llyn  Livon,  the  Ousel  of  Cilgwri,  the 
Toad  of  Cors  Vochno,  and  the  Owl  of  Cwmcaw- 
lwyd. Yet  the  senior  resident  of  these  zoological 
antiques  was,  it  is  probably  safe  to  assert,  unborn 
and  unthought  of  at  the  time  when  our  nameless 
granduncle  chipped  this  flint  weapon  and  inad- 
vertently bequeathed  it,  first  to  Mr.  John  Conyers, 
then  to  Dr.  Charlet,  then  to  Mr.  Kemp,  then  to 
Sir  Hans  Sloane,  and  through  Sir  Hans  Sloane  to 
the  British  nation.  Thousands  of  tools  like  it 
have  since  been  found,  not  only  in  Britain,  but 
France,  Italy,  Greece,  Palestine,  India,  and  a 
whole  atlasful  of  other  countries ;  and  likely 
enough  any  day  still  earlier  traces  of  man  may 
turn  up,  possibly  have  already  turned  up,  in  lands 
more  likely  to  have  been  the  cradle  of  our  race. 
But  in  the  meanwhile  science  cannot  point  to  one 
single  monument  of  the  existence  of  man  on  our 
planet  which  is  known  to  ba  older  than  thin 
worked  flint  found  opposite  Black  Mary's.  It  is 
the  first  found  of  the  earliest  kno?en  records  of 
humanity.  BROTHER  FABIAN. 

(To  le  continued.) 

lolo  MSS.,  p.  601. 

7th  S,  I.  JAN.  2,  '86.] 



A  year  or  two  ago  I  remember  seeing  a  question 
asked  in  the  Athenceum  whether  there  does  not 
exist,  or  ever  has  existed,  in  Middle  English  a 
translation  of  Boccaccio's  novels.  The  question 
was  founded  upon  a  statement  in  an  old  Italian 
writer,  and  I  think  the  conclusion  arrived  at  was 
that  the  allusion  in  the  Italian  writer  was  to 
Chaucer,  with  whose  works  that  writer  was  im- 
perfectly, or  not  at  all,  acquainted. 

The  Italian  writer  may  not,  after  all,  have 
intended  to  refer  to  Chaucer,  and  I  think  there 
is  a  good  deal  of  evidence  pointing  to  the  former 
existence  of  a  translation  now,  perhaps,  lost. 

In  1741  Charles  Balguy,  M.B.,  a  physician 
practising  in  Peterborough,  published  anonymously 
a  translation  of  the  *  Decameron.'  This  he  dedi- 
cated to  his  friend  Bache  Thornhill,  of  Stanton,  in 
Derbyshire,  and  in  the  preface  he  says  : — 

"Two  translations  there  are  in  French  that  have 
come  to  my  knowledge,  and  the  same  number  in  our  own 
language,  if  they  may  be  styled  so ;  for  such,  liberties 
are  taken  everywhere  in  altering  everything  according  to 
the  people's  own  taste  and  fancy,  that  a  great  part  of 
both  bears  very  little  resemblance  to  the  original." 

Now  here  is  a  distinct  reference  to  two  English 
translation?.  But  what  were  they?  What  else 
was  there  except  the  edition  printed  by  Jaggard 
in  1620-5  and  the  subsequent  reprint  or  reprints 
thereof  ?  An  anonymous  edition  of  '  The  Novels 
and  Tales  of  the  Ren  owned  John  Boccacio,' printed 
for  Awnsham  Churchill  in  1684,  lies  before  me. 
It  is  described  on  the  title-page  as  "the  fifth 
edition,  much  corrected  and  amended."  I  have 
no  copy  of  the  edition  of  1620-5,  but  as  this 
edition  of  1684  contains  a  dedication  to  Sir  Philip 
Herbert,  Earl  of  Montgomery,  I  take  it  to  be  a 
slightly  altered  reprint  of  the  edition  of  1620-5. 
I  do  not  understand  why  this  book  is  called  "  the 
fifth  edition."  I  never  saw  or  heard  of  a  second, 
third,  or  fourth  edition,  and  Lowndes  does  not 
mention  them.  The  writer  of  the  dedication  to 
the  Earl  of  Montgomery  thus  speaks  of  the 
novels  : — 

"I  know,  most  worthy  Lord,  that  many  of  them  have 
long  since  been  published  before,  as  stoln  from  the  first 
original  author,  and  yet  not  beautified  with  his  sweet 
stile  and  elocution  of  phrase,  neither  savouring  of  his 
singular  moral  applications.  For  as  it  was  his  full  scope 
and  aim  by  discovering  all  vices  in  their  ugly  deformities 
to  make  their  mortal  enemies,  the  sacred  vertuea,  to  shine 
the  clearer,  being  set  down  by  them  and  compared  with 
them,  so  every  true  and  upright  judgment,  in  observing 
the  course  of  these  well-carried  novels,  shall  plainly  per- 
ceive that  there  is  no  spare  made  of  reproof  in  any  degree 
whatsoever  where  sin  is  embraced,  and  grace  neglected." 

An  English  edition  of  the  '  Decameron,'  without 
date,  and  somewhat  altered  from  that  of  1741,  has 
been  lately  published  by  Messrs.  Chatto  &  Windus, 
"with  Introduction  by  Thomas  Wright,  M.A., 
F.S.A.,"  in  which  are  the  following  words  :— 

"  Before  the  year  1570,  William  Paynter,  clerk  of  the 
office  of  arms  within  the  Tower  of  London,  and  who 
seems  to  have  been  master  of  the  school  of  Sevenoaks  in 
Kent,  printed  a  very  considerable  part  of  Boccaccio's 
novels.  His  first  collection  is  entitled  '"  The  Palace  of 
Pleasure,"  the  first  volume,  containing  sixty  novels  out 
of  Boccaccio.  London,  1566.'  It  is  dedicated  to  Lord 
Warwick.  A  second  volume  soon  appeared, ' "  The  Palace 
of  Pleasure,"  the  second  volume,  containing  thirty-four 
novels.  London,  1567.'  This  is  dedicated  to  Sir  George 
Howard,  and  dated  from  his  house  near  the  Tower,  as  is 
the  former  volume." 

The  reader  is  thus  led  to  believe  that  Paynter 
translated  and  published  no  fewer  than  ninety-four 
of  the  hundred  novels  which  make  up  the  c  De- 
cameron.' But  what  are  the  facts  ?  I  have  no 
copy  of  the  edition  of  1567,  but  I  have  that  of 
1575,  which  is  dedicated  to  the  Earl  of  Warwick 
from  "nere  the  Tower  of  London,  the  first  of 
lanuarie,  1566."  After  referring,  in  an  epistle  to 
the  reader,  to  the  authors  from  whom  his  novels 
are  derived,  Paynter  goes  on  to  say : — 

"  Certaine  haue  I  culled  out  of  the  Decamerone  of 
Giouan  Boccaccio,  wherein  be  conteined  one  hundred 
Nouelles,  amonges  whiche  there  be  some  (in  my  Judge- 
ment) that  be  worthy  to  be  condempned  to  perpetual 
prison,  but  of  them  such  haue  I  redemed  to  the  libertie 
of  our  vulgar  as  may  be  best  liked,  and  better  suffered. 
Although  the  sixt  part  of  the  same  hundreth  may  full 
well  be  permitted.  And  as  I  my  selfe  haue  already  done 
many  other  of  the  same  worke  yet  for  this  present  I  haue 
thought  good  to  publish  only  tenne  in  number,  the  reste 
I  haue  referred  to  them  that  be  able  with  better  stile  to 
expresse  the  authours  eloquence,  or  vntil  I  adioyne  to 
this  another  tome,  if  none  other  in  the  meane  time  do 
preuent  me,  which  with  all  my  heart  1  wishe  and  desire  : 
because  the  workes  of  Boccaccio  for  his  stile,  order  of 
writing,  grauitie,  and  sententious  discourse,  is  worthy  of 
intire  promulgation." 

Thus,  although  this  edition  of  1575  contains 
sixty-six  novels,  only  ten  of  these — and  not  sixty 
— are  taken  from  the  '  Decameron.'  The  second 
volume  of  '  The  Palace  of  Pleasure '  in  my  posses- 
sion is  that  known  as  the  third  edition,  said  to 
have  been  printed  about  1580.  It  has  no  title- 
page,  but  it  contains  an  "  epistle  "  to  "  Sir  George 
Howard,  Knight,  Maister  of  the  Quene's  Maiesties 
Armarye,"  dated  "  from  my  pore  house  besides  the 
Towre  of  London,  the  iiij  of  Nouember,  1567."  It 
contains  thirty-five  novels.  Following  an  address 
to  the  reader  is  a  list  of  "  authorities  from  whence 
these  Nouelles  be  collected  and  in  the  same 
avouched."  Including  Boccaccio  there  are  twenty- 
four  of  these  authorities,  and,  so  far  as  I  can  make 
out,  only  two  or  three  of  the  tales  are  taken  from 
the  'Decameron.'  Either,  then,  the  editions  of 
1566  and  1567  are  entirely  different  books  from 
that  of  1575  and  that  of  circa  1580,  or  else  Wright 
made  a  mistake  which  in  such  an  able  and  scholarly 
writer  is  quite  unaccountable. 

Considering  the  great  rarity,  even  in  an  im- 
perfect state,  of  copies  of  '  The  Palace  of  Pleasure,' 
it  is  not  unreasonable  to  suppose  that  prose  trans- 
lations of  many  of  the  novels  have  been  altogether 


[7th  S.  I.  JAN.  2,  'S6, 

lost,  or  yet  remain  to  be  unearthed.  A  novel  o 
romance  is  more  than  any  other  book  liable  to  bi 
damaged  by  excessive  use,  and  to  require  frequen 
rebinding.  Hence  the  binder — durus  arator,  as 
Mr.  Lang  calls  him — ploughs  the  book  down  to 
the  quick,  and  in  the  end  it  perishes  as  though  i 
had  never  been.  Paynter  himself  gives  us  reason 
to  suppose  that  romances  were  carried  by  travellers 
on  foot  or  on  horseback  for  amusement. 

"  Pleasaunt  [they  be]  so  well  abroade  aa  at  home,  to 
auoyde  the  griefe  of  winters  night  and  length  of  sommers 
day,  which  the  trauailers  on  foote  may  vse  for  a  staye  to 
ease  their  weried  bodye.  and  the  iourneors  on  horsback 
for  a  chariot  or  lesse  painful  meane  of  trauaile  in  staade 
of  a  merie  companion  to  shorten  the  tedious  toyle  of 
wearie  wayes." 

The  small  size  of  the  two  volumes  of  'The  Palace 
of  Pleasure '  would  make  them  suitable  to  be  car- 
ried in  the  pocket.  My  copy,  in  an  old  binding, 
is  strongly  perfumed.  As  the  leaves  are  turned 
over  a  fragrance  as  of  bergamot  arises  from  them. 

I  forget  where  I  have  seen  it  stated  that  Burton, 
in  '  The  Anatomy  of  Melancholy,'  first  published 
in  1621,  alleges  that  Boccaccio's  novels  were  com- 
monly related  at  English  firesides.  I  have  not 
been  able  to  find  the  passage,  as  the  various 
editions  are  imperfectly  indexed.  If  found  it  would 
add  weight  to  the  evidence  that,  either  in  the  time 
of  Paynter  or  before  his  time,  there  existed  in 
English  translations  of  the  novels  other  than  the 
few  which  are  contained  in  'The  Canterbury  Tales' 
and  '  The  Palace  of  Pleasure,'  and  other  than  the 
metrical  versions  of  one  or  two  tales  which  ap- 
peared in  the  time  of  Elizabeth.  It  will  have  been 
seen  above  that  Paynter  declares  that  he  himself 
had  in  1566  "  done  many  other  "  of  the  novels. 
It  is  interesting  to  note  that  he  speaks  of  his 
collection  as  "  these  newes  or  nouelles." 

S.  0.  ADDY. 

In  the  year  1802  William  Colquett,  of  Christ's 
College,  Cambridge,  published  at  Chester  a  quarto 
volume  of  poems,  one  of  which  poems  is,  I 
believe  (for  I  have  not  seen  the  book),  a  de- 
scription of  York  Minster.  I  do  not  know,  but 
doubtless  all  really  well-informed  schoolboys  know, 
whether  any  other  poem  on  York  Minster  exists 
in  print.  Even  such  a  boy,  however,  cannot  be 
expected  to  have  heard  of  the  MS.  poem  now  in 
question,  a  neatly  written  volume  of  about  a 
hundred  pages,  dated  1808,  and  marked  "  Second 
edition,"  as  if  to  show  that  it  had  been  circulated 
in  manuscript,  for  certainly  it  was  never  published. 
It  is  a  mock  epic,  with  mock  criticisms  at  the 
end,  such  as  those  which  long  afterwards  were 
made  popular  by  Mr.  Hosea  Bigelow  and  others. 
It  deals  mainly  with  the  people  and  the  doings  of 
York  and  its  neighbourhood  as  they  were  at  the 
end  of  the  last  century  and  at  the  beginning  of 

this.  And  in  deference  to  the  feelings  of  some 
masculine  contributors  of  '  N.  &  Q.'  (for  as  to  the 
women,  they  are  not  so  sensitive)  I  respectfully 
suppress  what  my  author  says  on  those  subjects. 
It  is,  I  regret  to  say,  very  far  from  favourable. 
There  are,  however,  two  episodes  in  the  poem 
which  may  be  of  some  slight  general  interest,  and 
therefore  may  deserve  place  in  '  N.  &  Q.'  One 
of  these  is  an  attempt,  evidently  sincere,  to  de- 
scribe the  effect  of  mediaeval  architecture  upon 
minds  familiar,  indeed,  with  Gray  and  Walpole, 
but  ignorant  of  the  "revival"  that  was  yet  to 
come.  It  is  this  : — 

Whoe'er  thou  art,  whom  torturing  griefs  molest, 
Or  Care's  dull  weariness  despoils  of  rest, 
Whom  blighted  hopes  and  wither'd  joys  have  made 
A  moody  wanderer  in  a  world  of  shade ; 
Or  whom  the  Muse  invites  to  seek,  resign'd 
To  heav'nly  contemplation,  solace  kind 
That  cheers  the  ruffled  soul,  and  drives  away 
All  tedious  irksome  jarrings  of  the  day  : 
If  thou  would'st  lull  awhile  thy  woe  or  care, 
Or  taste  calm  joy,  with  lonely  step  repair 
At  midnight,  when  the  full-orb'd  moon  rides  high 
And  light-wlng'd  clouds  skim  fleetly  o'er  the  eky, 
To  where  St.  Peter's  solemn  temple  stands 
In  Gothic  pride,  unmatch'd  in  other  lands  ; 
Where  nought  is  heard,  save  the  slow  soften'd  swell 
Of  distant  watchdog's  long  long  moaning  yell  ; 
Or  the  shrill  hoot  of  owl,  that  moping  sits 
In  loophole  lone,  or  through  dim  shadow  flits; 
Or,  loudly  pealing  from  the  western  tower, 
The  deep-voiced  warning  of  the  midnight  hour. 
When  all  is  hush'd,  then  in  thy  thrilling  gaze, 
'Mid  silence  audible  and  sweet  amaze, 
The  vast  and  varied  pile  survey,  and  o'er 
Thy  soul  will  steal  a  bliss  unknown  before  : 
Grey  walls  and  buttresses  in  masses  deep, 
On  which  soft  gleams  of  ivory  splendour  sleep, 
And,  mildly  breaking  'cross  that  tranquil  scene, 
Smooth  gulpbs  of  ebon  shadow  intervene ; 
On  purple  windows  silvery  moonbeams  shine, 
Where  climbing  wreaths  of  tracery  gently  twine ; 
Niches  and  tabernacles  rang'd  around, 
With  clustred  canopies  aspiring  crown'd, 
Mellow'd  in  rich  variety  of  grace  ; 
While  tow'rds  the  azure  cope  of  heav'nly  space, 
The  towers  and  pinnacles  in  hoary  light 
Rear  their  fair  heads  on  high,  serenely  bright. 
A  scene  so  meek,  so  holy,  so  sublime, 
Would  awe  to  peace  the  sullen  soul  of  crime  ; 
E'en  o'er  the  dimmest  eye  bland  lustre  spread, 
And  gladness  on  the  saddest  spirit  shed. 

The  other  episode  describes,  in  strains  quite  as 
ood  as  it  deserves,  the  valley  of  the  Ouse,  one 
of  the  dullest  and  tamest  of  English  rivers.     The 
author  is  pleased  to  speak  of  it  thus  : — 
low  sweet  the  change,  from  harsh  forensic  broils, 
''rom  crowded  haunts  of  busy  men.  and  toils 
3f  anxious  litigation's  bootless  feuds, 
Po  Nature's  ever-grateful  solitudes, 
)r  temp'rate  pleasures  of  the  rural  life, 
lemote  from  Cities  and  exempt  from  strife  ! 
^air  shines  the  stream,  where  lazy  craft  amuse 
^heir  leisure  on  the  sleepy  tide  of  Ouse  ; 
ligh  in  mid-heaven,  light  purple  clouds  o'ershado 
^e  fields  and  auburn  woods  beneath  display'd  : 
n  distant  sunny  gleam,  a  golden  haze 

7«>  S.  I.  JAN.  2,  '86.] 


Veils  the  blue  champaign  and  the  slanting  rays 
Through  hazel  thickets,  far  from  public  road, 
Young  errant  pillagers  their  satchels  load  : 
Here,  ruddy  peasants,  strong  with  gladd'ning  toil, 
In  gabled  stacks  the  ripen'd  treasures  pile ; 
There,  screen'd  with  venerable  trees,  appears 
That  decent  mansion,*  where  smooth  glide  the  years 
Of  wealthy  Margaret,  f  justly-honour'd  dame  : 
On  nearer  foreground,  mark,  in  search  of  game, 

J  himself,  in  fowler's  sober  guise, 

With  gun  across  his  shoulder,  blithely  hies 
O'er  the  brown  stubble  ;  while,  not  far  astray, 
His  cautious  pointers  sniff  their  stealing  way  : 
Through  all  the  scene,  with  sweetly  mingled  hues, 
Woods,  plains,  and  sky,  refreshing  calm  diffuse. 

I  make  no  comment  on  the  merits  or  demerits 
of  these  verses.  They  are  composed  in  the  spirit 
of  the  later  eighteenth  century,  and  the  literary 
sources  of  their  inspiration  are  not  far  to  seek. 
They  seem  to  have  been  written  in  mature  life,  for 
the  author  of  them  died  in  1816,  at  the  age  of  fifty- 
three.  It  may  be  worth  while  to  add,  as  an 
approximate  test  of  his  "  culture,"  that  in  his 
Preface,  Address  to  the  Header,  and  mock  criticisms 
he  quotes  or  refers  to  the  following  authors  : 
Homer,  Horace,  Dante,  Tasso,  Camoens,  Shake- 
speare, Milton,  Schiller,  Southey,  Scott,  and 
Byron  ;  and  he  does  not  mention  Wordsworth  or 
Coleridge  or  Keats.  A.  J.  M. 

A  SHEAF  OF  MISPRINTED  WORDS. — The  follow- 
ing press  errors  are  culled  from  Emerson's  '  Poems ' 
(Routledge,  1850)  :— 

The  Sexton  tolling  the  bell  at  noon, 
Dreams  not  that  great  Napoleon 
Stops  his  horse,  and  lifts  with  delight 
Whilst  his  files  sweep  round  yon  Alpine  height. 

.P.  7. 
Corrections  :  Deems,  lists. 

And  all  the  hours  of  the  year 
With  their  own  harvest  hovered  were.— P.  37. 
Cor. :  honored. 
Where  feeds  the  mouse,  and  walks  the  surly  bear. 

P.  53. 
Cor. :  moose,  stalks. 

Let  the  starred  shade  which  mighty  falls 
Still  celebrate  their  funerals.— P.  68. 
Cor.:  nightly. 

Trendrant  time  behoves  to  hurry 

All  to  yean  and  all  to  bury.— P.  69. 
Cor.:    Trenchant,  i.e.,   disposed  to   "slit  the 
thin- spun  life." 

Up  !  where  airy  citadel 

O'erlooks  the  purging  landscape's  swell. — P,  73. 
Cor. :  surging. 

Gentle  pilgrim,  if  thou  know 
The  gamut  old  of  Pan, 
And  how  the  hills  began.— P.  82. 
Cor. :  of  old. 

Beningbrough  Hall,  on  the  Ouse. 
f-  Margaret  Earle,  nee  Boucher,  widow  of  Giles  Earle. 
J  The  author. 

I  cannot  leave 
My  buried  thought.— P.  93. 
Cor.:  honied. 

And  worship  that  world-ivarning  spark 
Which  dazzles  me  in  midnight  dark.— P.  98. 
Cor. :  world-warming. 

The  flowers,  tiny  feet  of  Shakers, 
Worship  him  ever. — P.  114. 
Cor.:  sect. 

VfQpour  New  England  flowers.— P.  115. 
Cor. :  poor.     (I  am  afraid  there  are  more  errors 
between  p.  115  and  p.  162,  but  I  have  not  de- 
tected them  yet). 

On  thine  orchard's  edge  belong 
All  the  brass  of  plume  and  song.— P.  162. 
Cor. :  To,  birds. 

Hither  Tiring  the  veiled  beauty.— P.  167. 
Cor. :  bring. 

May  the  sovran  destiny 
Grant  a  victory  every  morn. — P.  172. 
Cor. :  Thee  may. 

Who  his  friends  shirt,  or  hem  of  his  shirt, 

Shall  spare  to  pledge. — P.  174. 
Cor. :  skirt. 

Shy  then  not  hell,  and  trust  thou  well 
Heaven  is  secure. — P.  174. 
Cor.:  Shun  thou. 

Or  bow  above  the  tempest  pent.— P.  199. 
Cor. :  bent. 

The  fact  that  Emerson's  style  is  obscure  and 
unpicturesque  may  help  to  account  for  these  almost 
unparalleled  blunders  in  a  reputable  edition  of  a 
popular  author.  Such  errors  as  "  lifts "  and 
"  feet  "  (for  lists  and  sect)  suggest,  strange  to  say, 
the  use  of  the  long  s  in  the  copy.  I  add  one  from 
'  Eight  Essays,'  by  Emerson,  of  same  date,  whence 
more  may  be  found  for  the  seeking  : — 

"  Nature  is  erect  and  serves  as  a  deferential  thermo- 
meter."—P.  148. 
Cor. :  differential. 

Athenaeum  Club. 

C.  M.  I. 

"!FS  AND  ANDS."— At  col.  2,  p.  317,  of  the 
'  New  English  Dictionary,'  the  earliest  quotation 
given  for  the  use  of  this  expression  is  1638.  The 
expression  occurs  in  T.  Nash's  introduction  to 
R.  Greene's  '  Menapton,'  1589  :— 

"  Sufficeth  them  to  bodge  vp  a  blanke  verse  with  ifs 
and  ands,  and  other  while  for  recreation  after  their 
caudle  stuffe,  hauing  starched  their  beardes  most 
curiouslie,  to  make  a  peripateticall  path  into  the  inner 
parts  of  the  Citie."— Arbor's  reprint,  1880,  p.  10. 


KEATS. — In  the  Athenceum,  p.  709,  for  Dec.  12, 
Mr.  W.  Rendle  gives  some  interesting  researches 
into  the  hospital  books  as  to  Keats  at  Guy's 
Hospital.  He  shows  that  Keats  was  a  dresser, 
March  3,  1816.  This  is  an  indication  that  Keats 
was  entered  for  the  higher  study  of  the  profession, 
and  he  must  have  paid  an  extra  fee  for  the  dresser- 



L  th  S.  I.  JAN.  2,  '£6. 

ship.  This  was,  in  those  days,  a  perquisite  of  the 
hospital  surgeon,  and  not,  as  now,  a  competitive 
prize  for  the  school.  It  is  clear  that  he  was  in  a 
fair  position,  with  the  prospect  of  a  respectable 
professional  career.  Some  have  chosen  to  regard 
him  as  in  a  low  position.  HYDE  CLARKE. 

LATIONS WITH  FREEMASONRY. — In  an  interesting 
pamphlet  which  treats  of  the  higher  grades  of 
Freemasonry,  published  in  Dublin  towards  the 
end  of  last  century,  I  find,  in  a  collection  of 
Masonic  songs,  several  relating  to  the  strange  asso- 
ciations which  then  existed  for  social  purposes.  I 
was  not  aware  that  these  clubs  had  any  possible 
relation  to  Freemasonry,  but  the  collection  of  songs 
appended  to  this  pamphlet  makes  me  desirous  of 
ascertaining  any  particulars  which  may  be  known 
to  your  readers  with  reference  to  such  a  possible 

There  are  three  songs  relating  to  the  "  Society 
of  Bucks";  two  for  the  "Honorable  Order  of  Select 
Albions";  one  for  the  "Honorable  Lumper  Troop"; 
two  for  the  "Ancient  Corporation  of  Stroud 
Green";  one  for  the  "Corporation  of  Gray's  Inn 
Lane  "  (this  society  is  stated  to  have  been  founded 
in  1740) ;  three  for  the  "  Laudable  Corporation 
of  Southwark";  four  for  the  "  Ancient  Family  of 
Leeches  ";  one  in  honour  of  the  "  Worthy  Court 
of  Do-Right";  one  for  the  "  Free  and  Easy  Coun- 
sellors under  the  Cauliflower  ";  one  for  the  "  Birth 
Night  Club  at  the  Harrow  in  Grey  Friars,  New- 
gate Street ";  one  for  the  "  Bright  Stars  of  Isling- 
ton." W.  FRAZER,  F.R.C.S.I. 

"  FILIUS  POPULI."— While  the  phrase  "  Filius 
Dei"  is  being  discussed  in  '  N.  &  Q.'  it  may  be 
as  well  to  note  that  John  Kington  (vicar  of 
St.  Danstan's,  Canterbury,  1606-1613)  designated 
a  child  "who  had  EO  father"  as  "filius  populi." 
For  instance:  "Johannes  filius  patience  &  filius 
populi  (1608);  Maria  filia  populi  (1611);  Henry  & 
beneta  fillij  populi  (1612)."  I  may  add,  for  the 
information  of  the  readers  of  '  N.  &  Q./  that  I  am 
copying  these  registers  with  a  view  to  their  pub- 
lication. Afterwards  I  hope  to  edit  the  registers 
of  St.  Peter's,  Canterbury.  J.  M.  COWPER. 


xii.  204,  501,  are  several  communications  on  the 
supposed  healing  powers  of  seventh  sons  ;  but  no 
mention  is  made  of  seventh  daughters.  From  the 
following  paragraph,  from  the  Post  Man,  Oct.  6-9, 
1711  (cited  inFennell's.4n<.  Chron.  andLit.  Adv., 
p.  190),  it  would  seem  that  the  seventh  sons  are 
not  to  have  a  monopoly  of  this  power,  but  that 
seventh  daughters  share  the  same  honour  : — 

"There  is  lately  come  to  town  Martha  Sneath,  a 
gentlewoman  who  is  the  seventh  daughter,  who  hath 
eured  the  evil  for  this  twenty  years,  both  ia  town  and 

country;  she  uaeth  medicines,  but  toucheth  seven 
mornings;  likewise  a  diet  drink  that  cures  the  dropsy; 
she  is  to  be  spoken  with  any  time  of  th«  day  at  Mrs. 
Smith's,  in  Black  Horse  Yard,  in  Nightingale  Lane, 
East  Smithfield." 


THE  JOSEPHINS. — A  correspondent  of  the  Times 
newspaper  proposes  the  adoption  of  this  name, 
instead  of  Jacobins,  for  the  followers  of  Mr.  Joseph 
Chamberlain.  The  term  is  already  in  use  in  the 
political  nomenclature  of  the  Austrian  empire, 
where  it  has  much  the  same  meaning  as  Era&iian 
with  us.  Josephinismus  denotes,  since  the  days  of 
Joseph  II.,  the  oppression  of  the  Church  by  the 
State,  and  may  still  be  met  with  in  the  Koman 
Catholic  newspapers  of  Vienna  and  Munich. 

A.  K. 

How  TO  FIND  A  DROWNED  CORPSE. — The  fol- 
lowing extract  is  from  the  Stamford  Mercury, 
Dec.  18,  1885:— 

''At  Ketton,  on  Tuesday,  an  inquest  was  held  by 
Mr.  Sheild,  coroner,  touching  the  death  of  Harry  Baker, 
aged  twenty-three,  who  was  missed  on  the  night  of  the 
27th  of  November,  after  the  termination  of  the  polling 
for  the  county  election,  and  was  believed  to  have  walked 
into  the  ford  near  the  stone  bridge  during  the  darkness. 
The  river  at  the  time  was  running  strongly,  and  deceased 
had  no  companions  with  him.  The  dragging  irons  from 
Stamford  were  obtained,  and  a  protracted  search  was 
made  in  the  river,  but  without  result.  However,  in 
obedience  to  the  wish  of  Baker's  mother,  a  loaf  charged 
with  quicksilver  (said  to  be  scraped  from  an  old  looking 
glass)  was  cast  upon  the  waters,  and  it  came  to  a  standstill 
in  the  river  at  the  bottom  of  Mrs.  Lewin's  field.  Here  the 
grappling  hooks  were  put  in,  and  at  four  o'clock  on 
Monday  afternoon  last  the  corpse  was  brought  to  the 
surface,  having  been  in  the  water  seventeen  days.  The 
river  at  this  spot  had  been  dragged  several  times  before. 
The  jury  returned  a  verdict  in  accordance  with  the 


Amoretlo.  Father  shall  I  draw? 

Sir  RadericJce.  No  sonne  keepe  thy  peace,  and  hold  the 
peace."  '  The  Returne  from  Pernassus,'  1606,  IV.  ii. 

Is  not  there  a  transposition  here  of  the  words  thy 
and  the  in  Sir  Radericke's  reply?  I  think  we 
should  read 

No  sonne  keep  the  peace,  and  hold  thy  peace. 

C.  M.  I. 
Athenaeum  Club. 

It  is  not  a  little  curious  that  this  Transatlantic 
phrase,  which  we  have  heard  often  of  late  in  con- 
nexion with  the  elections,  should  not  only  embody 
the  same  idea  as  the  Latin  prcevaricatio,  viz., 
" straddling  with  distorted  legs"  (see  Trench, 
'  English  Past  and  Present,'  tenth  ed.  p.  300),  but 
should  also  carry  with  it  almost  exactly  the  same 
figurative  meaning  as  the  classical  word. 



.  I.  JiH.  2,  '66.J 


We  must  request  correspondents  desiring  information 
on  family  matters  of  only  private  interest,  to  affix  their 
names  and  addresses  to  their  queries,  in  order  that  the 
answers  may  be  addressed  to  them  direct. 

TUNISIA. — I  seek  the  aid  of  your  contributors 
in  forming  a  list  as  ample  as  possible  of  what  has 
been  written  on  Tunisia.  I  know  already  the 
books  of  Ibn-Hancal,  El-Bekri,  Shaw,  Peyssonuel 
et  Desfontaines,  Hebenatreit,  C.  T.  Falbe,  Sir 
Grenville  Temple,  Dr.  H.  Earth,  Dr.  L.  Frank, 
E.  Pellissier,  Tissot,  Berbrugger,  Beule,  V.  Guerin, 
Le"on  Michel,  Thomas  Macgill,  Madame  de  Voisins, 
Pierre  Giffard,  Prince  J.  Lubomirski,  Victor  Cam- 
bon,  Boddy,  Albert  de  la  Berge,  Madame  Barbe- 
Paterson,  Prof.  G.  Perpetua,  Lieut.-Col.  Playfair. 
There  should  be  much  to  add  to  these,  especially 
Spanish,  Italian,  and  German.  I  request  also 
references  to  magazine  articles,  &c.,  not  to  be 
found  in  Poole's  '  Index  to  Periodical  Literature.' 
A  note  of  any  existing  pictures,  engravings,  or 
good  photographs  would  be  welcome. 

In  the  work  of  Thomas  Macgill  above  men- 
tioned, *  An  Account  of  Tunis  '  (London,  Long- 
mans, 1816),  we  read  :— 

"  The  Dutch  engineer  (who  went  to  Tunis  for  the 
purpose  of  draining  the  lake)  has  a  very  valuable  col- 
lection both  of  medals  and  of  stones,  and  also  several 
curious  inscriptions,  which  he  intends  one  day  to  lay 
before  the  public.  His  work  will  be  very  interesting, 
for,  from  a  residence  of  ten  years,  with  the  intention 
from  the  beginning  to  publish,  he  has  collected  a  great 
deal  of  very  curious  information.  Another  work  will 
also  shortly  appear,  written  by  the  Danish  Consul,  Mr. 
Lunby,  a  man  of  great  classical  knowledge,  which  will 
contain  many  interesting  details,  both  regarding  the 
ancient  and  modern  state  of  Tunis  :  and  should  Mr. 
Tulin,  his  Swedish  Majesty's  Consul-General,  be  per- 
suaded to  publish  the  h'ne  views  which  his  pencil  has 
drawn,  during  a  residence  of  thirty-five  years  in  Tunis, 
the  public  will  receive  a  gratification  of  no  ordinary 

Have  the  proposed  works  of  Mr.  Lunby  or  of 
Mr.  Tulin  ever  appeared,  or  that  of  the  Dutch 
engineer,  whose  name  I  should  be  pleased  to 
learn?  H.  S.  A. 

BELL  OF  THE  HOP. — Can  any  one  say  what  the 
"bell"  of  the  hop  exactly  is,  and  why  it  is  so 
called?  In  Bradley's  'Fam.  Diet.'  (1772),  s.  v. 
"  Hop,"  we  read,  "  About  August  the  Hop  will 
begin  to  be  in  the  Bell  or  Button  ";  and  Plat  (1594) 
*  Jewel  House,'  i.  43,  has  "  his  hops  are  more 
kindly,  and  the  bels  of  them  much  larger."  There  is 
also  a  cognate  verb,  of  still  earlier  appearance  :  thus, 
in  the  'Perfite  Platforrne  of  a  Hoppe  Garden' 
(1578),  p.  33,  we  have,  "  Commonly e  at  Saint 
Margarets  daye  Hoppes  blowe,  and  at  Lammas 
they  bell";  and  similarly  Worlidge,  *  Systema 
Agriculturse '  (1681),  p.  150,  says,  under  the 
heading  "When  Hops  Blow,  Bell,  and  Kipen," 
"  Towards  the  end  of  July  Hops  Blow,  and  about 

the  beginning  of  August  they  Bell,  and  are  some- 
times ripe  at  the  end  of  August,  but  commonly  at 
the  beginning  of  September."  This  is  quoted  in 
many  subsequent  encyclopaedias.  The  expression 
"in  the  bell "  above  recalls  the  expression  used  by 
Burns  in  'The  Cottar's  Saturday  Night,' "  how  'twas 
a  towmond  auld  sin'  lint  was  in  the  bell."  This  is 
usually  taken,  I  suppose,  as  meaning  "  in  flower," 
flax  having  a  blue  campanulate  flower  ;  if  so,  it 
must  be  distinct  from  the  phrase  "  in  the  bell " 
applied  to  the  hop.  But  bollen  is  an  old  pa.  pple. 
from  a  vb.  to  bell,  meaning  swollen;  and  a  cognate 
boiled  is  used  of  flax  in  Exodus  ix.  31,  in  the 
sense,  apparently,  of  in  seed.  Can  any  "  man  of 
Kent "  or  Sussex  tell  us  what  the  bell  of  the  hop  is  ; 
or  even  if  it  is  still  in  use  ?  J.  A.  H.  MURRAY. 
The  Scriptorium,  Oxford. 

PLATFORM. — I  want  early  examples  of  this  in 
the  ordinary  modern  English  sense  of  a  raised 
structure  for  a  number  of  speakers,  a  sense  unknown 
to  dictionaries  forty  years  ago.  1  think  it  ought  to 
be  found  in  accounts  of  Anti-Corn-Law  or  early 
teetotal  meetings,  or  even,  possibly,  of  political 
meetings  at  the  time  of  the  Reform  Bill  of  1832. 
It  may  be  noted,  in  passing,  that  the  sense  of  a 
political  or  party  programme,  which  we  are  indebted 
to  the  United  States  for  preserving,  and  which 
many  people,  I  find,  think  to  be  derived  from  the 
modern  wooden  platform  at  a  public  meeting,  was 
very  common  in  England  more  than  three  hundred 
years  ago.  In  1547  the  Bishop  of  Winchester 
urged  on  the  Lord  Protector  "  that  the  Bishop  of 
St.  Davids  laid  a  platform  for  confusion  and 
disturbances  in  the  state"  (Strype),  while  the 
programme  of  the  former  was  described  by  Foxe  as 
"  Winchester's  devillish  platform."  So  we  find  "  the 
Puritan  platforme  "  and  "  the  Genevan  platforme." 
But  English  examples  are  rare  from  1688  until 
they  reappear  in  reference  to  American  politics, 
one  of  which  I  find  in  1837 ;  this  must  have  been 
about  the  time  that  the  material  "  platform  "  at  a 
public  meeting  was  also  coming  in.  Examples  of 
the  "  platform  "  at  a  railway  station  would  also  be 
useful.  Many  people  still  alive  must  well  remember 
the  first  use  of  both.  J.  A.  H.  MURRAY. 

The  Scriptorium,  Oxford. 

BELGIUM.  —  I  have  seen  it  stated  that  this 
was  a  brand  new  name  invented  for  the  southern 
Netherlands  in  1830,  with  reference,  of  course,  to 
the  ancient  Belgse.  But  I  find  in  the  London 
Gazette,  No.  4584,  anno  T709,  the  advertisement 
of  "  a  neat  and  large  new  Map  of  Modern  Belgium 
or  Lower  Germany,"  and  I  find  Btlgian  and  Belgic 
common  in  English  since  1600.  H.  Cockeram, 
by  the  way,  in  his  '  Dictionarie  '  of  1621,  has  the 
curious  entry  in  part  in.,  under  the  heading 
"  People  of  Sundry  Qualities,"  "  Belgeans,  People 
of  the  Low  Countries  Somersetshire,  Wiltshire, 
and  Hampshire."  Are  Wiltshire  men,  &c.,  any- 



[7"'  S.  I.  JAN.  2,  '86. 

where  else  called  Belgians  ?  The  next  "  people  " 
are  Androgynie  and  Centaures,  and  a  preceding 
one  is  Antipodes,  so  that  the  company  is  rather 
mixed.  One  almost  expects  to  find  Moon-rakers, 
but  that  would  have  been  too  conscious.  There  is 
plenty  of  unconscious  fun — conscientiously  earnest. 

J.  A.  H.  MURRAY. 
The  Scriptorium,  Oxford. 

HIGHLAND  KILT. — At  a  private  dinner  table, 
a  short  time  since,  a  great  authority  said  that  the 
Scotch  kilt  was  a  garment  of  comparatively  recent 
introduction  into  Scotland,  and  that  he  did  not 
know  of  any  instance  of  the  use  of  the  kilt  before 
the  year  1700.  Perhaps  some  of  your  readers  can 
give  the  names  of  works  which  can  be  referred 
to  on  the  subject.  W.  A.  P. 

THE  HON.  MRS.  NORTON. — Could  any  of  your 
readers  whose  taste  is  for  contemporary  memoirs 
inform  me  where  I  should  be  likely  to  find  par- 
ticulars about  the  late  Mrs.  Norton  and  her 
family  ?  I  am  familiar,  of  course,  with  all  the 
official  Sheridan  literature  ;  but  there  are  many 
little-known  memoirs  in  which  there  is  much 
curious  information,  and  which  I  should  like,  in 
Lamb's  phrase,  "to  pickaxe  open"  if  I  knew 
where  to  look  for  them.  All  will  be  fish,  however, 
to  this  Sheridan  net.  What  is  common  can  be 
thrown  back  into  the  sea. 


Athenaeum  Club. 

'LOTHAIR.'  — Can  any  reader  of  *  N.  &  Q.' 
furnish  a  key  to  the  characters  in  Lord  Beacons- 
field's  '  Lothair,'  similar  to  that  given  some  years 
ago  in  your  columns  to  '  Endymion  '  ? 

C.  W.  SUTTON. 

121,  Chorlton  Road,  Manchester. 

Some  twenty  years  ago  the  late  Mr.  Stewart, 
bookseller,  of  King  William  Street,  advertised  in 
a  Supplement  to  '  N.  &  Q.'  a  list  of  MSS.  that 
he  was  offering  for  sale.  On  the  list  was  a  MS. 
of  Middleton's  *  Game  at  Chess,'  which  (according 
to  Mr.  Stewart)  differed  widely  from  the  printed 
copies  and  the  other  MSS.  I  am  very  anxious  to 
trace  this  MS.,  and  shall  be  greatly  obliged  to 
any  reader  of  '  N.  &  Q.'  who  will  aid  me  in  the 
search.  I  have  tried  in  vain  to  find  the  Supple- 
ment. Mr.  Stewart's  account  -  books  were  un- 
fortunately destroyed  after  he  retired  from  busi- 
ness. A.  H.  BULLEN. 

17,  Sumatra  Road,  West  Hampstead,  N.W. 

obliged  if  I  could  be  informed  where  is  to  be  found 
the  origin  of  "  If  the  mountain  will  not  come  to 
Mahomet,  Mahomet  must  go  to  the  mountain." 

Percy  Lodge,  Winchmore  Hill,  N. 

SCOTCH  NAMES  OF  FISHES. — In  William  Stew- 
art's metrical  translation  of  Hector  Boece's 
'  Scotorum  Historia '  the  following  passage  occurs. 
The  writer  is  speaking  of  the  early  traffic  between 
France  and  Scotland : — 

Quhair  mony  schip  of  merchandice  thair  wes, 
Quhilk  in  the  tyme  wer  earning  out  of  France 
With  qubeit  and  flour  and  wyne  of  Orleance, 
And  for  till  by  thair  merchandice  agane, 
As  selch  and  salmone,  scuir,  pellat,  and  pran. 

What  do  the  three  italicized  words  mean  ?  I 
cannot  find  them  in  Jamieson.  Stewart  has  para- 
phrased the  original  very  freely.  Boece  simply 
speaks  of  Frenchmen  "  qui  mercatus  causa  advene- 
rant."  P.  J.  ANDERSON. 

2,  East  Craibstone  Street,  Aberdeen. 

[Scuir  is  probably  sturgeon  (Germ.  Stur^).  Pran  may 
be  brandling=parr,  samlet ;  and  it  is  possible  that  pellat 
is  powan,  or  some  member  of  the  charr  or  salmon 

THE  IRISH  PARLIAMENT. — It  is  stated  in  the 
Times  of  Saturday,  December  19,  1885,  that  if  an 
Irish  Parliament  were  granted  we  should  still  be 
hampered  with  eighty  hostile  votes  in  the  House 
of  Commons.  During  the  period  of  the  indepen- 
dent Irish  Parliament  of  1780-1801  were  there 
any  representatives  of  Irish  constituencies  in  the 
English  House  of  Commons  ?  W.  A  P. 

PIGOTT  FAMILY. —Was  Sir  William  Pigott, 
Bart.,  of  Dublin,  descended  from  the  Huguenot 
family  of  Picquett,  Marquess  de  Majanes  of 
Picardy,  and  are  their  arms  and  motto  at  all 
similar  ?  Smiles,  in  his  '  Hist,  of  the  Huguenots,' 
mentions  a  family  named  Pigott,  who  settled  in 
Ireland.  Who  are  the  present  descendants  of 
this  family  ?  PICQOETT. 

—  (])  Who  is  "Dr.  Bishop,  the  new  Bishop  of 
Chalcedon,  who  is  come  to  London  privately" 
(i.  94)?  Is  it  Dr.  Eichard  Smith?  (2)  In 
part  ii.  p.  49  (fourth  line  from  foot)  he  says,  "  Let 
him  bite  a  bay  leaf,"  &c.  What  does  this  mean  ? 
(3)  In  the  paragraph  placed  over  the  "  Errata": — 
"This  manuscript  was  writ  by  the  reverend  author 
about  forty  years  since,  in  a  small  white  letter." 
What  is  "  a  small  white  letter  "  ? 


"HANG   SORROW."  —  There  was  a  song  sung 
publicly  in  alehouses  and  other  places  about  1764, 
in  connexion  with  the  poor  law  enactments  of 
George  III.'s  reign,  which  ran  thus: — 
Hang  sorrow,  cast  away  care, 
The  parish  is  bound  to  maintain  ua. 

Where  can  the  entire  song  be  met  with  ;  and  is 
the  authorship  ascertained  ?  C.  A.  WARD. 

Haverstock  Hill. 

I  shall  be  obliged  for  information  with  regard  to 

7<»>  S.  I.  JAN.  2,  '86.] 



the  authorship  of  a  16mo.  book  entitled  " '  Mar- 
maduke  Multiply's  Merry  Method  of  making 
Minor  Mathematicians ;  or,  the  Multiplication 
Table  illustrated  by  sixty-nine  appropriate  en- 
gravings.' I.  F.  C.  London :  printed  for  J. 
Harris."  The  work  is  without  date,  but  belongs, 
apparently,  to  about  1820.  It  would  be  difficult  to 
exaggerate  the  interest  and  charm  of  the  "  sixty- 
nine  appropriate  engravings,"  which  are  well  calcu- 
lated to  drive  home  wholesome  mathematical  and 
other  truths  in  the  mind  of  the  dullest  child. 

A.  W.  R. 

1  THE  RAPIDS  OF  NIAGARA.'  —  Can  any  of 
your  correspondents  favour  me  with  the  author- 
ship of  a  piece  with  the  above  title,  thought  to  be 
by  J.  B.  Gough,  the  American  temperance  lecturer, 
and  say  also  where  I  may  find  it  in  full  ? 

H.  B.  SAXTON. 

8,  Ossington  Villas,  N.  Sherwood  Street,  Nottingham. 

CROMWELL.  —  Whom  did  he  marry,  and  what 
children  had  he  by  each  wife  ? 


Walla  Walla,  W.T.,  U.S.A. 

WILLIAM  HARRIES. — Can  any  of  your  readers 
inform  me  what  was  the  relationship  of  William 
Harries  to  Sir  Thomas  Harries,  Bart.,  of  Tong 
Castle,  co.  Salop,  one  of  the  Cruckton  Hall 
Harrieses  ?  In  the  Public  Record  Office  of  Ireland 
mention  is  made  of  William  Harries  in  Roll  2, 
Forty-nine  Officers'  Roll  (skin  123),  as  a  commis- 
sioned officer  in  the  service  of  Charles  I.  up  to  his 
death,  and  had  a  Government  debenture  for  a 
certain  sum  of  money  granted  to  him  after  the 
rebellion  of  1641.  He  died  in  1685.  His  de- 
scendants in  Ireland  have  since  borne  heraldic 
arms,  same  as  those  of  the  Baronet  of  Tong 
Castle.  And  is  there  to  be  found  anywhere  in- 
formation of  the  now  extinct  family  of  Harries,  of 
Cruckton  Hall,  prior  to  the  year  1463  ? 


42,  Lady  Lane,  Waterford. 

COGERS'  HALL.  —  Cunningham  says  it  is  in 
Bride  Lane  ;  Mr.  Walford  says  Shoe  Lane,  formerly 
at  No.  10.  Who  is  right ;  or  has  it  been  removed, 
and  so  both  are  right,  or  half  right  ?  It  is  pre- 
tended that  coger  is  from  cogitare ;  Hotten  says 
from  cogitators,  and  not  from  codger  or  cadger. 
Mr.  Walford  says  it  is  not  from  codger,  which 
means  "  a  drinker  of  cogs."  What  is  a  cog  in  this 
sense,  if  sense  it  have  ?  Code  is  cobbler's- wax.  A 
codger's-end  is  the  end  of  a  shoemaker's  thread, 
according  to  Halliwell ;  but  I  don't  think  it  is ;  it  is 
rather  what  a  cobbler  works  with,  a  bristle  and 
waxed  thread,  commonly  called  a  wax-end,  which 
does  not  mean  the  end  of  a  thread,  but  the  whole 
thread  used  by  a  leather-stitcher.  Cunningham 
says  it  was  established  1756,  Walford  says  1755. 

Will  readers  help  to  put    all   these    bent  pins 
straight  ?  C.  A.  WARD. 

Haverstock  Hill. 

SCOTCH  TRADERS  IN  SWEDEN. — Some  years  ago 
I  read  an  account  of  Scotch  traders  in  Sweden  and 
North  Germany  in  the  seventeenth  century.  The 
author  mentioned  the  existence  of  numerous  Scotch 
names  in  the  cemeteries  of  the  Baltic  towns  of  that 
date.  Can  any  of  your  readers  supply  the  name 
of  the  work  ?  J.  P. 

LATIN  POEM. — Who  was  the  author  of  the 
hexameters  beginning  with  the  well-known  line 

Propria  quae  maribus  tribuunter  raascula  dicas, 
and  concluding  with 

Et  valeo,  caleo ;  gaudent  hsec  namque  supine? 

T.  W.  R. 

WIGHT. — Where  can  I  see  plans  (to  scale,  if  pos- 
sible) of  all  the  buildings  in  this  castle  and  plans 
of  this  town  of  any  date  prior  to  1700  ? 

C.  A.  J.  M. 

"THE  EIGHT  BRAVES  OF  INDIA."— This  title 
was  applied  at  the  time  of  the  mutiny  to  certain 
Englishmen.  I  am.  anxious  to  know  by  whom  ; 
and  also  who  were  the  eight  braves. 

M.  H.  WHITE. 

17,  Clarendon  Cresent,  Edinburgh.  N.B. 

Quid  sit  honos,  rogitas  ?  Onus,  aut  ovog,  aut,  si  ita 

Est  ovap  :  hoc  certum  est,  dvdtiroT'  lariv  o  vovq. 

A  friend  requests  me  to  say  whence  comes  the 
above  bilingual  post-classical  jingle.  In  my  friend's 
cause  and  my  own  ignorance  I  appeal  to  'N.  &Q.' 
Its  atrocious  puns  might  seem  to  claim  for  it  a 
place  in  some  classical  burlesque.  Did  such  a 
thing  exist  ?  If  Sir  John  Falstaff  had  but  "  small 
Latin  and  less  Greek,"  and  could  not  have  been 
himself  its  author,  he  would,  I  think,  at  any  rate 
(if  one  may  judge  by  his  "catechism"  on  the 
subject  in  '1  Henry  IV.,'  V.  i.),  have  given  it  his 



(6th  S.  xii.  449.) 

Keating's  'History  of  Ireland'  (arranged  for 
students  of  Celtic,  and  a  literal  translation),  gives 
the  story  of  the  Stone  of  Fate  and  of  Eochaidh, 
King  of  Erin,  as  follows. 

The  tribe  of  Danann,  on  leaving  Greece,  where 
they  had  learnt  necromancy  and  other  arts,  went  to 
Norway,  where  they  settled  professors  in  four  cities 
to  teach  the  Norwegians,  and  from  there  went  to  the 
North  of  Alban,  taking  with  them  from  Norway 



.  I.  JAN.  2, :* 

"four  precious  jewels,"  namely,  the  Stone  of 
Virtue,  also  called  the  Stone  of  Fate,  Lia  Fail,  so 
called  from  the  city  of  Falias,  whence  it  was 
brought,  the  spear  and  the  sword  of  Lugh,  and  the 
caldron  of  Dagda.  These  they  took  to  Erin,  where 
they  settled,  having  conquered  the  Firbolgs  at  the 
Battle  of  South  Moytura.  The  Stone  of  Fate  had 
for  its  particular  virtue  that  in  whatever  country  it 
should  be,  a  man  of  the  Scottish  or  Irish  race,  "  of 
the  seed  of  Milidh  of  Spain,"  would  be  king. 

In  '  The  History  of  Alban,'  by  Hector  Bcetius,  is 
the  rhyme : — 

Cinuidh  Scuit,  noble  the  tribe, 

Unless  the  prophecy  was  a  falsehood, 

Where  they  find  the  Lia  Fail. 

They  have  a  right  to  take  sovereignty. 

Fergus  Mor,  King  of  Alban,  having  conquered 
that  country,  sent  to  borrow  Lia  Fail  to  be  crowned 
upon,  being  of  the  Scottish  tribe  ;  Muirtach  Mac 
Earca,  King  of  Erin,  lent  the  stone,  but  it  was  never 
returned,  and  fell  into  the  hands  of  Edward  L, 
who  sent  it  to  England  from  the  monastery  of 
Scone,  "so  that  the  prophecy  of  that  stone 
was  vorified  in  the  king  we  have  now,  namely,  the 
first  King  Charles,  and  in  his  father  King  James, 
who  both  came  from  the  Cinuidh  Scuit,  who  took 
the  title  of  Kin'g  of  the  Saxons  on  the  stone 

Eochaidh,  son  of  Ere,  was  the  last  king  of  the 
Firbolgs,  and  was  defeated  at  Moytura  by  the 
Dananns,  after  he  had  reigned  ten  years  ;  his  wife 
Taillte,  daughter  of  Madhmor,  King  of  Spain,  mar- 
ried, after  his  death,  Eochaidh  Garbh,  son  of  Donach 
Dali,  a  chief  of  the  Tuatha  De  Danann. 

It  is  a  pity  the  reign  of  Eochaidh  was  disturbed, 
for  Keating  says  : — 

"  There  was  no  destructive  rain  nor  tempestuous  weather 
during  his  time,  nor  a  year  without  great  produce  and 
fruit.  It  is  in  his  time  that  all  the  injustice  and  un- 
lawfulness of  Erin  were  suppressed,  and  sure  and  excellent 
laws  were  ordained  in  it.'' 

It  is  satisfactory  to  learn  that  "injustice  and 
unlawfulness  "  were  indigenous  to  the  soil  of  Erin, 
and  are  not,  as  we  have  been  since  told,  a  later 
importation  of  "  the  Saxon."  B.  F.  SCARLETT. 

The  amplest  and  best  account  is  probably  in 
Stanley's  *  Historical  Memorials  of  Westminster 
Abbey'  (London,  1868).  A  very  long  and  inter- 
esting account  will  be  found  in  Neale's  '  History  of 
S.  Peter's,  Westminster'  (1818).  An  historical 
and  critical  resume,  of  the  subject,  especially  as  to 
the  stone's  antiquity,  may  be  seen  in  Skene's  *  The 
Coronation  Stone'  (Edinburgh,  1869),  which  is 
reviewed  in  Banner  of  Israel  (Guest,  London, 
1877),  Nos.  6,  7.  See  also  Planches  '  Royal  Re- 
cords'  (1838),  and  the  Gentleman's  Magazine  (1779), 
p.  452.  The  most  singular  and  original  suggestions 
concerning  this  famous  stone  are  found  in  Glover's 
*  England  the  Remnant  of  Judah.'  In  a  periodical 
by  H.ine,  the  Glory  Leader  (London,  Guest,  1875-7), 

are  collected  sixty-nine  extracts  upon  the  corona- 
tion stone,  from  the  above  and  other  authors. 

A.  B.  G. 

There  is  a  long  article  by  an  Indian  subscriber, 
accompanied  by  an  editorial  note,  on  the  history  of 
the  coronation  stone,  in  '  N.  &  Q.,'  1st  S.  ix.  123-4  ; 
a  similar  query  to  that  of  MR.  E.  MALAN  occurs 
at  2nd  S.  v.  316  ;  its  geological  character  is  investi- 
gated, with  an  editorial  reference  to  Dean  Stanley's 
'  Memorials  of  Westminster  Abbey,'  pp.  499-500. 
at  4th  S.  i.  101;  and  at  p.  209  of  the  same  volume 
MR.  S.  REDMOND  remarks  : — 

( During  the  last  quarter  of  a  century  many  elaborate 
and  learned  articles  Have  been  published  in  reference  to 
the  Liah  Fhayl  (so  pronounced),  or  "  stone  of  destiny," 
and  much  logic  has  been  expended  on  both  sides  of  the 
vexed  question,  but  the  mystery  of  the  tradition  attached 
to  the  atone  has  uot  received  any  illumination." 

And  he  closes  his  note  with  "  a  hope  that  these 
facts "  (such,  that  is,  as  are  stated  in  the  note) 
"  may  elicit  some  further  information  on  this  inter- 
esting question."  So  the  subject  remains  as  far  as 
'N.  &  Q.'  has  taken  part  in  the  discussions 
respecting  it.  ED.  MARSHALL. 

Probably  MR.  EDWARD  MALAN  will  find  all  he 
requires  about  the  Lia  Fail  and  coronation  chair  in 
the  '  Diet,  of  Miracles,'  pp.  206-8. 


The  Lia  Fail,  the  celebrated  coronation  stone  of 
the  ancient  Irish  kings,  is  composed  of  granular 
limestone,  and  is  at  present  about  six  feet  above 
the  ground ;  but  its  real  height  is  said  to  be  twelve 
feet.  At  its  base  it  is  four  feet  in  circumference, 
and  is  not  unlike  in  shape  the  Round  Towers. 
At  p.  124  of  the  late  Sir  W.  R.  Wilde's  delightful 
'The  Beauties  of  the  Boyne'  is  an  engraving  of  the 
supposed  Lia  Fail,  and  from  the  same  book  the 
following  is  quoted: — 

"Between  the  house  of  Cormac  and  the  rath  of  the 
Forrath  existed,  it  is  supposed,  the  ruins  of  Tea-Mur, 
from  which  'femur,  or  Tara,  takes  its  name,  in  memory 
of  a  Milesian  queen  called  Tea.  In  the  centre  of  the 
internal  mound  of  the  Forrath  stands  an  upright  stele,  or 
circular  pillar-stone,  which  was  formerly  on  the  top  of  the 
Mound  of  Hostages,  but  was  removed  to  this  spot  in  the 
year  1798,  and  erected  as  a  headstone  to  the  grave  of 
thirty-seven  of  the  insurgents  who  were  killed  in  a 
skirmish  with  the  military  in  this  neighbourhood.  Dr. 
Petrie  supposes  this  stone  to  be  the  celebrated  Lia  Fail, 
on  which  the  early  Irish  kings  were  crowned,  and  which 
has  been  generally  believed  to  have  been  carried  to 
Scotland  for  the  coronation  of  Fergus  Mac  Enrk,  and 
afterwards  removed  by  Edward  I.  from  Scone  to  West- 
minster Abbey.  The  Lia  Fail  was  the  stone  so  famed 
in  ancient  history,  which  was  said  to  have  roared  beneath 
the  Irish  kings  at  the  time  of  their  inauguration.  For 
the  various  authorities  bearing  upon  this  point  we 
must  refer  our  readers  to  the  *  History  and  Antiquities  of 
Tara  Hill.'  We  fully  acknowledge  the  force  of  the 
reasoning  of  Dr.  Petrie  on  this  subject,  and  admit  the 
validity  of  his  arguments  with  respect  to  the  history 
of  the  Stone  of  Destiny,  and  we  must  believe  that  it  is 
not  that  now  in  Westminster  Abbey ;  but  at  the  same 

.  I.  JAN.  2,  '86.] 



time  we  are  not  by  any  means  convinced  that  this  round 
pillar  stone  now  placed  over  the  croppies'  grave  is  the  stone. 
Perhaps  the  fiat  sculptured  stone,  latterly  called  the  Cross 
of  St.  Adam  nan,  may  have  been  it.  This  opinion  was 
likewise  held  by  O'Donotan  in  his  valuable  and  volumi- 
nous letters  on  Tara." 

Freegrove  Road,  N. 

DUCTOR (6th  S.  xii.  468). — 1.  Burgomasco  =  Bur- 
gomaster, is  the  etymological  blunder  of  an  igno- 
ramus. The  Burgomask  (dance),  '  Mids.  N.  D./ 
V.  i.  350,  Ital.  lergamasca,  was  a  grotesque  rustic 
dance,  adopted  from  the  inhabitants  of  Berga- 
masco,  a  canton  or  district  of  the  Lombardo- Vene- 
tian kingdom,  of  which  Bergamo  was,  or  it  maybe 
is,  the  chief  city.  The  Italian  buffoons  also,  as 
stated  by  Hanmer,  imitated  and  burlesqued  the 
clownishness  and  uncouth  dialect  of  these  Berga- 
mascos.  Marston's  Balurdo,— Ital.  balordo,  "  a  fool 
or  noddy,  or  giddy-pated  fellow,"  as  Matzagente  is 
"  a  man  queller  " — the  fool  of  the  play,  represents 
himself  as  the  son  and  heir  of  a  wealthy  mounte- 
banking buffoon;  or,  if  one  likes  to  take  it  liter- 
ally, though  "  mountebanking "  is  against  this, 
the  son  of  a  mountebanking  Bergamasco  clown. 

2.  F.  S. — Letters  are  commonly  affixed  as  private 
marks  of  the  price  ;  but  as  an  outsider  is  not  sup- 
posed to  know  these,  even  if  they  were  used  at 
that  day,  it  is  more  likely,  as  the  gloves  were  deli- 
cate and  "  whipt  about  with  silk,"  that  F.  stood 
for  fine,  or  for  some  other  word,  and  S.  for  silk, 
and  that  3*.  2d.  was  known  to  the  girl  of  the  period 
and  to  many  of  the  audience  to  be  the  selling  price 
of  such. 

3.  Bumbo  Fair  I  take  to  be  a  feigned  name, 
for  bombo  in  Italian  is  "  a  humming,  a  buzzing,  a 
resounding  hoarse  noise"  (Florio),   an  excellent 
epithet  for  a  fair.  Bumbo,  a  snail  or  cockle,  would 
hardly  suit. 

4.  Conductor  I  can  only  guess  at.     From  "  His 
Majesty's  service,"  from   the  unfrequency  of  his 
journeys,  and  from  the  name  Chester  [Castle],  I 
would  conjecture  that  he  was  the  guide  or  com- 
mander of  a  convoy  of  military  or  other  stores. 
The  rank  or  title  still  exists,  or  until  very  lately 
did  exist,  in  the  Royal  Artillery. 


VENETIAN  GLASS  (6th  S.  xii.  88,  138,  311).— 
"  The  second  Duke  of  Buckingham  has  the  merit 
of  much  improving  the  manufacture  of  British 
glass  by  means  of  certain  Venetian  artists  whom 
he  brought  to  London  in  1670  "  (see  Dr.  Lardner's 
'  Cabinet  Cyclopaedia,'  "Useful  Arts,  Porcelain 
and  Glass  Manufacture,"  1832). 


xii.  426).— The  name  of  the  fifth  Lord  Scales  was 
certainly  Robert  (not  Thomas),  and  it  is  so  given 

both  in  his  inquisition  and  in  Sir  H.  Nicolas's 
'  Calendar  of  Heirs.'  His  wife  was  Elizabeth, 
d.  of  Sir  Matthew  Bruce  of  Gower  ;  she  m. 
secondly  Sir  Henry  Percy  of  Athole,  arid  d. 
Jan.  21,  1440.  That  Lord  Scales  was  the  first 
husband  is  plainly  shown  by  the  ages  of  her 
children — Robert,  sixth  Lord  Scales,  b.  in  1396  ; 
Thomas,  seventh  Lord,  b.  in  1400 ;  Elizabeth 
Percy,  b.  1412/3  ;  and  Margaret  Percy,  b.  1415/6. 
I  can  see  no  evidence  that  Lord  Scales  married  a 
Bardolf,  nor  that  William,  fifth  Lord  Bardolf,  had 
a  daughter  of  the  name  of  Elizabeth  or  Joan.  It 
is,  however,  quite  possible  that  there  was  such  a 
contract,  if  not  a  marriage,  in  the  childhood  of 
both,  and  the  bride  may  have  died  so  young  as  to 
account  for  her  non-appearance  in  the  Bardolf 
pedigree.  HERMENTRUDE. 

1.  Robert  de  Scales,  Chivaler,  was  summoned 
to  attend  the  Parliament  which  met  on  Saturday, 
Sept.  30,   1402,  and  was  adjourned  to  Monday, 
Oct.  2. 

2.  An  inquisition  was  held  at  Stoke  Ferry  on 
Feb.    19,    1403.    before     Will.    Appleyard,    the 
Escheator   for  the  county  of  Norfolk,  when   the 
jury  found  that  Sir  Robert  Scales  died  on  Dec.  7, 
1402,  and  that  Robert,  his  son,  was  his  heir,  aged 
six  years  d  amplius. 

3.  By  an  inquisition  held  at    Lynn   Episcopi, 
before  Sir  John  Ingaldesthorp,  Knt.,  on  Friday, 
April  26, 1415,  it  was  found  that  Joanna,  late  wife 
of  Sir  Roger  Scales,  died  on  Jan.  7,  1415,  and  that 
Robert,  son  of  Robert  Scales  (i.  e.,  grandson  of  Sir 
Roger),   was    her  heir,   aged    eighteen    years    et 

4.  By  an  inquisition  held  at  Lynn  Episcopi  on 
Wednesday,  July  14,  1418,  it  was  found  that  by 
the  death  of  Johanna  aforesaid  the  reversion  of 
certain  manors,  &c.,  belonged  to  Robert,  son  of  Sir 
Robert   Scales,  Knt.,  as  heir  of  Sir  Roger,    his 
grandfather ;   that  is,  Robert  Scales,  son  of  Sir 
Robert,  was  still  alive. 

5.  By  a  precipe  of  Henry  V.,  dated  Feb.  28, 
1421,  the  Escheator  of  the  county  of  Norfolk  is 
ordered  to  give  seisin  of  certain  estates  to  Thomas, 
brother  and  heir  of  Robert,  son  of  Robert  Scales, 
Chivaler,  who  had  lately  died  dum  infra  etatem  et 
in  custodia  nostra  fuit. 

6.  By  an  inquisition  held  at  Lynn  Episcopi  on 
Thursday,  Oct.  1,  1460,  it  was  found  that  Thomas, 
Dominus  de  Scales,  Miles,  died  July  25  of  that 
year,    and    that    Elizabeth,   late   wife   of    Henry 
Bourghier,  Esq.,  was  his  daughter  and  heir,  aged 
twenty-four  years  et  amplius. 

7.  By   the   Patent   Roll  of  2  Ed.  IV.,  dated 
Leicester,  May  27,  1462,  a  grant  of  the  wardship 
of  certain  lands,  &c.,  in  South  Lynn  is  made  to 
Anthony    Woodville     and     Elizabeth    his    wife, 
daughter  and  heir  of  Thomas,  late  Lord  Scales. 

8.  By  an  inquisition  held  at  Hertford,  Oct.  28, 



7*  S.  I.  JAN.  2,  '86. 

1485,  it  was  found  that  Elizabeth,  daughter  and 
heir  of  Thomas,  Lord  Scales,  died  on  Sept.  2, 1473, 
and  that  Anthony,  her  husband  (Lord  Rivers),  died 
June  20,  1484,  that  there  was  no  issue  of  the 
marriage,  and  that  a  great  deal  else  had  happened. 
Two  claimants  for  the  lordship  and  estates  ap- 
peared, viz.,  William  Tindale,  who  claimed  descent 
from  Elizabeth,  daughter  of  Robert  Scales  and 
sister  of  Sir  Roger,  who  was  father  of  No.  1,  and 
John  de  Veer,  Earl  of  Oxford,  who  claimed 
descent  from  Margaret,  daughter  of  the  said  Sir 

Almost  all  the  above  may  be  found  in  the 
minutes  of  evidence  in  the  petition  of  Sir  Charles 
Tempest  claiming  the  style  and  title  of  Lord  de 
Scales,  which  was  presented  in  1857.  One 
difficulty  presents  itself  which  I  cannot  ex- 
plain :  Robert  Scales  (No.  2),  son  of  Sir  Robert, 
was  six  years  old  in  February,  1403,  that  is  he 
was  born  not  later  than  January,  1397;  also  he 
was  declared  to  be  eighteen  on  January  7,  1415 
(No.  3),  that  is  he  was  probably  born  in  1396  ; 
also  by  No.  4  in  1418  he  was  alive  and  heir  to  his 
grandmother,  and  he  must  have  been  of  age. 
Nevertheless,  by  No.  5  it  is  expressly  said  that  he 
died  under  age,  his  estates  being  then  in  the  king's 
hands,  ratione  minoris  etatis. 


*  HOB^E  NAUSEA* (6th  S.  xii.  408).— 'Debrett7  for 
1884,  p.  635,  has  :— 

"  Peel,  Right  Hon.  Sir  Laurence,  P.O.,  D.C.L.,  son  of 
Joseph  Peel,  Esq.,  of  Soutbgate;  b.  1799;  ed.  at  St.  John's 
Coll.,  Camb.  (B.A.  1821,  M.A.  1824) ;  called  to  the  Bar  at 
the  Middle  Temple,  1824  ;  was  Advocate-Gen,  in  Bengal 
1840-2;  Chief- Justice  of  Calcutta  1842-55,  and  Vice- 
Pree.  of  Legislative  Council  at  Calcutta  1854-5;  is  a  D  L 
for  City  of  London;  Hon.  D.C.L.  of  Oxford  1858;  cr. 
K.B.  1842,  P.C.  1856.  Bonchurch,  I.W.;  Athenreum 

From  the  account  of  the  family  of  Peel  of  Peele 
Fold  in  Burke's  'Landed  Gentry,'  ii.  1017  (ed. 
1853),  it  appears  that  the  above  Joseph  Peel  was 
the  sixth  son  of  Robert  Peel  of  Peele  Fold,  and 
brother  of  the  first  baronet.  This  Joseph,  of 
Bowes,  near  London,  m.  Ann  Haworth,  and  had, 
with  other  issue,  "Lawrence  (Sir),  Knt.,  Chief 
Justice  of  Bengal."  In  Burke's  'Peerage,'  1868, 
p.  868,  the  entry  is  simply  "  Joseph,  d.  leaving 
issue  in  1820."  Burke  (*  Landed  Gentry7)  spells 
the  Lawrence  with  a  10,  and  this  name  seems  to 
have  come  into  the  family  in  1712,  by  the  marriage 
of  William  Peele  to  Anne,  d.  of  Lawrence  Walms- 
ley,  of  Upper  Darwent,  in  Lancashire.  Sir  Lau- 
rence Peel  died  July  22,  1884.  I  think  there  was 
an  obituary  notice  of  him  in  the  Times. 


I  also  have  a  copy  of  this  work,  and  have 
always  understood  that  its  author  was  the  late 
Sir  Lawrence  Peel,  who  from  1842  to  1855  was 
Chief  Justice  of  the  Supreme  Court  at  Calcutta. 

Sir  Lawrence,  who  died  in  1884,  was  the  son  of 
Joseph  Peel,  a  younger  brother  of  Sir  Robert 
Peel,  first  baronet,  and  uncle  of  the  great 
statesman.  H.  W.  FORSYTH  HARWOOD. 

12,  Onslow  Gardens,  S.W. 

[Other  correspondents  are  thanked  for  information  to 
the  same  effect.] 

CLERK  OF  THE  KITCHEN  (6th  S.  xii.  409,  475). — 
According  to  Chambers 's  Journal  (1882,  p.  153), 
art.  'The  Queen's  Household,'  the  Clerk  of  the 
Kitchen  receives  a  salary  of  700Z.,  with  his  board. 
Under  him  are  four  clerks,  who  keep  the  accounts, 
check  weights  and  measures,  and  give  orders  to  the 
tradesmen ;  a  messenger ;  and  a  "  necessary  woman." 


This  office  exists  in  the  royal  household  at 
present.  SEBASTIAN. 

W.  H.  SWEPSTONE  (6th  S.  xii.  493).— If  MR. 
EBBLEWHITE  will  apply  to  Mr.  William  Henry 
Swepstone,  solicitor,  Guardians'  Office,  York  Street 
West,  Ratclifie,  I  think  he  will  obtain  all  the  in- 
formation which  he  requires. 


71,  Brecknock  Road. 

DOUBLE  TUITION  FEE  (6th  S.  xii.  388).— A 
double  tuition  fee  was  required  by  Isocrates,  not 
because  his  pupil  had  been  under  another  master, 
but  because  he  was  too  loquacious,  as  appears  from 
the  following  notice  : — 

"  Isocrates  orator  a  Cbarseone  loquace,  in  schola  ejus 
vergari  capiente,  duplicem  petebat  mercedem ;  cumque 
causam  Charaeon  percunctaretur  :  unam  peto,  respondit, 
ut  loqui,  alteram  ut  silere  discas." — Abbas  Maximus, 
'  Serm.,'  xlvii.,  De  Loquacitate,  p.  242  (Tigur.,  1546). 

See  also  Stobseus,  *  Anthologia,'  xxxvi. 


(6th  S.  xii.  89,  313,  357,  414).— Lingard  (no 
mean  authority  on  such  subjects)  says  : — 

"  It  was  pretended  that  miracles  had  been  wrought  at 
his  [Earl  of  Lancaster]  tomb,  and  on  the  hill  where  he 
was  beheaded.  In  consequence  a  guard  of  fourteen  men- 
at-arms  was  appointed  to  prevent  all  access  to  the 
place  (Lei. '  Coll.,'  ii.  466).  Soon  after  the  coronation  of 
the  young  king,  a  letter  was  written  at  the  request  of 
the  Commons  in  Parliament  to  the  Pope,  to  ask  for  the 
canonization  of  Lancaster,  and  of  his  friend  Robert, 
Archbishop  of  Canterbury.  The  request  was  not  noticed 
(Rym.,  iv.  Rot.  Parl.,  ii.  7)." 


I  venture  to  ask  of  the  Editor  as  early  an  oppor- 
tunity as  suits  his  convenience  to  correct  an  un- 
fortunate blunder  in  my  reply  on  p.  414,  by  which 
I  am  made  to  say  what  I  did  not  at  all  mean.  It 
was  the  Earl,  not  the  Archbishop,  whose  saintliness 
I  called  in  question ;  and  who  is  responsible  for 
the  mistake  I  know  not.  If  I  am  in  fault,  I  beg 
leave  to  offer  an  apology.  HERMENTRUDE. 

7ti'  S.  I.  JAN.  2,  '86.] 



JOSSELYN   OF    HORKSLEY,   CO.   ESSEX  (6th  S.  U. 

267,  453;  iii.  96;  vii.  207).— As  a  descendant  of 
John  Josselyn,  M.P.  for  Buckingham,  through 
Lady  Wentworth,  sister  to  Sir  Thomas  Josselyn, 
I  write  to  notice  a  statement  by  one  of  your  corre- 
spondents that  "New  Hall  was  built  by  one  of 
the  Jocelyns  over  two  hundred  years  ago."  Surely 
longer  than  that  !  Lady  Wentworth,  who  was 
left  a  widow  in  1557,  and  who  is  buried  at  Burn- 
ham  Church,  Bucks,  is  described  as  the  daughter 
of  "  John  Josselyn,  of  New  Hall  Josselyn,  in  the 
co.  of  Essex  "  in  an  old  pedigree,  and  John  Jos- 
selyn of  New  Hall  Josselyn,  must  have  been  so 
described  at  the  date  of  his  wedding.  D. 

FEET  OF  FINES  (6th  S.  xii.  449).— The  latest 
and  best  authority  on  the  character  of  the  several 
public  records  has  this  account  of  the  feet  of  fines  : 

"  Fines,  feet  of :  Common  Pleas,  Henry  II.  to  1834 
(in  which  year  they  were  abolished): — 

"  There  were  five  essential  parts  to  the  levying  of  a 
fine  :  (1)  The  original  writ  of  right,  usually  of  covenant, 
issued  out  of  the  Common  Pleas  against  the  conusor  and 
the  praecipe,  which  was  a  summary  of  the  writ,  and  upon 
which  the  fine  was  levied,  (2)  The  royal  license  (licentia 
concordandi)  for  the  levying  of  the  fine,  for  which  the 
Crown  was  paid  a  sum  of  money  called  king's  silver, 
which  was  the  post-fine,  as  distinguished  from  the  pro- 
fine,  which  was  due  on  the  writ.  (3)  The  conusance,  or 
concord  itself,  which  was  the  agreement  expressing  the 
terms  of  the  assurance,  and  was,  indeed,  the  conveyance. 
(4)  The  note  of  the  fine,  which  was  an  abstract  of  the 
original  contract  or  concord.  (5)  The  foot  of  the  fine, 
or  the  last  part  of  it,  which  contained  all  the  matter, 
the  day,  year,  and  place,  and  before  what  justices  it  had 
been  levied.  A  fine  was  said  to  be  engrossed  when  the 
chirographer  made  the  indentures  of  the  fine  and  de- 
livered them  to  the  party  to  whom  the  conusance  was 
made.  The  chirograph  or  indentures  were  evidence  of 
the  fine."— Alex.  Ch.  Ewald,  '  Our  Public  Records :  a 
Brief  Handbook  to  the  National  Archives,'  Lond..  1873, 
P.  72. 

Blackstone  observes  that  the  foot  of  the  fine  is 
"  the  conclusion  of  it,  which  includes  the  whole 

matter usually  beginning  thus, '  Heec  est  finalis 

concordia'"  (bk.  ii.  ch.  xxi.  §5). 


A  fine  is  a  sum  of  money  paid  to  the  Crown  for 
permission  to  alienate  or  convey  land.  The  foot 
of  the  fine  is  the  portion  of  the  deed  which  recites 
the  final  agreement  between  the  parties ;  that 
which  contains  an  abstract  of  the  proceedings 
(which  were  of  the  nature  of  a  fictitious  suit)  is 
called  the  note  of  the  fine.  Originally  the  feet 
were  kept  in  the  King's  Treasury  and  the  notes  in 
the  Common  Bench.  Owing  to  several  cases  of 
embezzlement  or  substitution  of  these  documents, 
it  was  ordained  by  statute  in  1403  (5  Hen.  IV., 
c.  14)  that  all  such  writs  of  covenant  and  notes  of 
the  same  were  to  be  "  inrolled  in  a  roll  to  be  a 
record  for  ever,  to  remain  in  the  safe  custody  of 
the  chief  clerk  of  the  Common  Bench."  The  foot 
of  the  fine  usually  begins  with  the  words  "  Hsec 

est  finalis  concordia,"  and  recites  the  whole  pro- 
ceedings at  length,  including  the  "  parties,  the  day, 
year,  and  place,  when,  where,  and  before  whom 
the  fine  was  acknowledged  or  levied  "  (Stephen's 
*  Commentaries,'  i.  570).  By  a  statute  23  Eliz., 
c.  3,  an  office  was  appointed,  to  be  called  the 
Office  for  the  Inrolment  of  Writs  for  Fines  and 
Kecoveries  (see  Thomas's  *  Handbook  of  Public 
Eecords,'  p.  129).  J.  H.  WYLIE. 

Fines  were  a  very  ancient  class  of  conveyances 
by  matter  of  record,  consisting  of  fictitious  suits  in 
the  Court  of  Common  Pleas,  commenced  and  then 
compromised  by  leave  of  the  Court.  They  were 
called  fines  because  they  put  an  end  not  only  to 
the  pretended  suit,  but  also  to  all  claims  not  made 
within  a  certain  time.  The  foot  of  a  fine  was  its  con- 
clusion, of  which  indentures  were  made  and  de- 
livered to  the  parties,  reciting  the  whole  proceedings 
at  length.  Fines  were  abolished  by  3  &  4  Will. 
IV.,  c.  74.  See  Steph.  '  Com.,'  ninth  edition,  vol.  i. 
pp.  562  sq.-  2  <B1.  Com./  348  sq.;  'Co.  Litt./ 
121a,  n.  (1);  Williams's  '  Keal  Property,'  twelfth 
edition,  pp.  48  sq. ;  2  '  Eoll.  Abr.'  13,  &c. 



"Pedes  Finium"and  similar  records  are  fully 
explained  in  *  How  to  Write  the  History  of  a 
Parish,'  by  J.  Charles  Cox  (London,  Bemrose  & 
Sons)  ;  see  pp.  40-42.  ESTE. 

The  foot  of  a  fine  is  the  fifth  or  last  part  of  it, 
containing  all  the  matter,  the  day,  year,  place,  and 
names  of  the  justices  by  whom  it  was  levied. 


xii.  467,  503). — The  ' Iliad'  was  originally  pub- 
lished in  six  volumes,  1715-20,  quarto  and  folio. 
The  quarto  edition  contains  eight  pages  on  which 
the  names  of  the  subscribers  are  given.  This  list 
immediately  precedes  the  preface.  The  copy  of 
the  folio  edition  which  I  have  seen  did  not  contain 
any  list  of  subscribers,  and  differed  in  many  re- 
spects from  the  quarto  edition.  The  authority  for 
the  statement  in  Lowndes  to  which  F.  D.  refers  is 
the  following  extract  from  Johnson's  '  Life  of 

"  Of  the  quartos  it  was,  I  believe,  stipulated  that  none 
should  be  printed  but  for  the  author,  that  the  subscrip- 
tion might  not  be  depreciated ;  but  Lintot  impressed  the 
same  pages  upon  a  small  folio,  and  paper,  perhaps,  a  little 
thinner;  and  sold  exactly  at  half  the  price — for  half-a- 
guinea  each  volume  —  books  so  little  inferior  to  th« 
quartos  that  by  a  fraud  of  trade,  those  folios,  being 
afterwards  shortened  by  cutting  away  the  top  and 
bottom,  were  sold  as  copies  printed  for  the  subscribers. 
Lintot  printed  250  on  royal  paper  in  folio  for  two 
guineas  a  volume ;  of  the  small  folio,  having  printed 
1,750  copies  of  the  first  volume,  he  reduced  the  number 
in  the  other  volumes  to  1,000."—'  The  Works  of  Samuel 
Johnson,  LL.D.,'  1825,  vol.  viii.  p.  251. 

G.  F.  R.  B. 



.  I.  JAN.  2,  '€6. 

ELS  IN  PLACE-NAMES  (6th  S.  xii.  269,  330).— 
Elsass,  about  =  "  settlement  on  the  El  or  Al." 
From  same  root,  rivers  Els,  Elsa,  Olsa,  Hz. 


208,  315,  417).— These  are  to  be  seen  on  the  walls 
over  the  piers  of  the  nave  (six  on  either  side)  of  niy 
parish  church  of  Prestbury,  Cheshire,  underneath 
paintings  of  the  twelve  apostles,  and  probably 
painted  at  the  same  time  (1719). 


[Many  other  similar  records  Lave  reached  us.] 

"  PARADISE  LOST  "  IN  PROSE  (6th  S.  xi.  267, 
318,  492  ;  xii.  296).— Isaac  D'Israeli,  in  his  de- 
lightful '  Curiosities  of  Literature,'  has  the  follow- 
ing on  this  subject  : — 

"  Two  singular  literary  follies  have  been  practised  on 
Milton.  There  ia  a  prose  version  of  his  '  Paradise  Lost,' 
which  was  innocently  translated  from  the  French  version 
of  his  epic  !  One  Green  published  a  specimen  of  a  new 
version  of  the  '  Paradise  Lost '  into  blank  verse  !  For  this 
purpose  he  has  utterly  ruined  the  harmony  of  Milton's 
cadences,  by  what  he  conceived  to  be  '  bringing  that 
amazing  work  somewhat  nearer  the  summit  of  perfec- 
tion.' "—Vol.  i.  p.  305, 1867  edition. 

J.  J.  FAHIE. 

Teheran,  Persia. 

[The  permission  reputedly  given  Dryden  by  Milton 
to  "  tag  bis  verses  "  is.  of  course,  recalled.] 

BOSKY  (6th  S.  xii.  389,  435).— It  may  interest 
PROF.  SKEAT  to  know  how  "  Busk  as  a  surname  " 
(to  which  he  alludes)  came  into  being.  It  was 
reduced  to  that  form  of  spelling  by  my  great-grand- 
father, Jacob  Hans  Busk.  The  family  had  for 
generations  been  designated  in  Normandy  as  Du 
Busc,  having  for  bearing  a  tree  ppr.  on  a  field 
argent.  My  late  brother's  papers  have  not  come 
into  my  hands,  but  he  had  evidence  of  the  exist- 
ence of  the  name  in  Norman  records  so  far  back 
as  the  year  1315.  Nicolas  du  Busc  was  sent  to 
Sweden  as  French  ambassador  in  1659,  ultimately 
settling  and  residing  t  here  till  his  death,  about  1708. 
Either  he  or  his  son  Hans  Hanssen  added  a  final  k, 
probably  out  of  conformity  with  local  fondness  for 
that  letter,  making  it  Busck.  Hans  Hanssen 
Busck's  son,  Jacob  Hans  Busk  (at  that  time  Busck) 
above  named,  came  to  England  in  1712,  and  was 
naturalized  8-9  George  I.  Being  both  a  practical 
and  a  humorous  man,  he  said  he  would  save  his 
descendants  the  trouble  of  writing  two  letters 
henceforth  where  one  answered  all  the  purpose, 
and  accordingly  reduced  the  spelling  to  Busk. 
If  PROF.  SKKAT'S  researches  have  brought  him 
across  any  earlier  instance  of  "Busk  as  a  sur- 
name," so  spelt,  it  would  interest  me  much  if  he 
would  kindly  tell  me  of  it.  R.  H.  BUSK. 

"NUREMBERG  NIMBUS"  (6th  S.  xii.  467).— 
This  name  was  given  by  the  late  Mr.  Holt  to  the 

common  ornamental  cruciform  nimbus  with  termi- 
nations to  the  cross  resembling  fleurs-de-lis.  He 
might  as  well  have  called  it  the  London  or  West- 
minster, as  it  occurs  in  Wynkyn  de  Worde's 
4  Sermo  pro  Episcopo  Pueroruin,'  &c.  It  was 
common  in  paintings,  illuminated  MSS.,  and 
printed  books  in  many  parts  of  Europe.  It  is 
surely  not  worth  while  to  revive  this  question, 
which  was  disposed  of  at  the  time  that  the  foolish 
assertion  was  made,  especially  by  Mr.  T.  Fuller 
Russell  and  myself,  in  the  *  Ecclesiologist '  ("  Fair- 
ford  Windows")  and  before  the  Royal  Archaeo- 
logical Institution  of  Great  Britain,  at  one  of  the 
meetings  of  which  my  old  friend  showed  an  ex- 
ample of  this  form  in  a  MS.  Sarum  missal  of  the 
middle  of  the  fifteenth  century.  I  have  two  ex- 
amples in  German  pictures  of  the  same  date  oppo- 
site me  as  I  write.  J.  C.  J. 

409). — I  should  be  much  obliged  if  MR.  COPE 
would  give  me  the  Italian  recipe  for  capillaire. 

C.  A.  WARD. 

Haverstock  Hill. 

HOLBEIN  (6th  S.  xii.  429).— There  is  a  note  re- 
specting Holbein  in  Add.  MS.,  British  Museum 
Library,  1106,  p.  13,  in  the  "  Collection  relating 
to  London,"  by  J.  Bagford,  annotator  of  Stowe, 
circa  1703.  It  contains  nothing  that  is  not  found 
elsewhere,  and  gives  incorrectly  the  date  of  Hol- 
bein's death  as  "  1554,  in  the  65  yeare  of  his 
age";  but  adds  the  curious  statement  that  "he 
painted  with  his  left  hand."  Is  this  correct  ? 

J.  M. 

BECOME  :  AXES  (6th  S.  xii.  288,  392).— DR. 
NICHOLSON'S  query,  referring  to  the  word  axes  as 
employed  by  Reg.  Scot  in  the  'Discouerie  of  Witch- 
craft,' does  not  appear  to  have  elicited  a  reply. 
The  passage  in  question  runs  thus  : — "  He  shall 
not  be  condemned  with  false  witnesse,  nor  taken 
with  fairies,  or  anie  maner  of  axes,  nor  yet  with 
the  falling  euill"  (first  edition,  p.  232).  Elsewhere 
(p.  271)  Scot  specifies  "  More  charmes  for  agues," 
one  of  which  contains  this  sentence:  "  So  let  neuer 
the  hot  or  cold  fit  of  this  ague  come  anie  more  vnto 
this  man." 

Turning  next  to  *  A  Goode  Booke  of  Medicines, 
called  the  Treasure  of  Poore  Men,'  printed  by 
Thomas  Colwell,  circa  1558,  I  find  the  following 
formula  : — 

"  For  the  Fever  Tertian. 

Take  the  ioyce  of  plantan  and  temper  it  with  wine, 
or  with  iii  sponefull  of  water,  and  drynke  it  a  lytle 
before  the  Axes  come,  and  lay  thee  to  slepe  and  couer 
thee  warme.  Or  take  the  lease  sperewort  and  Betaine 
and  temper  the  ioyce  tberewytb,  with  wyne  or  water,  or 
drynke  a  cup  full  before  the  Axes  come  :  and  this  will 
swage  the  coldnes." 

Again  : — 

"  Take  a  good  handfull  of  wormewodde,  and  grynde  it 
as  small  aa  grenesauce,  and  put  therein  broun  bread,  and 

7*  S.  I.  JAK.  2,  '86.] 



pouder  of  Comine,  and  temper  it  with  Asell  made  thycke 
as  grene  sauce,  and  when  thou  feleet  the  axes  come  go  to 
thy  naked  bed  and  make  thee  ryght  warme,  and  laye  it 
to  thy  stomake,"  &c. 

From  these  illustrations  it  is  clear  that  axes  = 
access,  accession  of  the  paroxysm  of  intermittent 
paludal  fever,  either  of  the  quotidian,  the  tertian, 
or  the  quartan  type — "  anie  maner  of  axes" — which 
commences  with  "  the  cold  fit."  In  the  "  '  Homish 

Apothecarye translated   out   of    the  Almaine 

speche  into  English  by  Jhon.  Hollybush.'  Im- 
printed at  Collen  by  Arnold  Birckman.  In  the 
yeare  of  our  Lord  M.D.LXJ.,"  the  same  idea  is  con- 
veyed by  the  word  "assaulting": — "When  ye 
know  the  houre  of  the  assaultinge,  then  take  of 
thys  drinke  followvnge,"  &c.  Philip  Barrough,.  in 
his  'Method  of  Physick'  (1590,  1596,  1601),  de- 
scribes the  accession  and  remission  of  intermittent 
fevers  as  "fits  and  slakings."  His  book  was,  how- 
ever, written  for  the  use  of  students  rather  than 
for  the  Lady  Bountifuls  of  the  period. 



RICHARD  WHARTON  (6th  S.  xii.  447). — In  idly 
turning  over  the  pages  of  Guillim's  *  Heraldry/  of 
date  1679,  the  other  day,  singularly  enough  I 
happened  to  stumble  across  the  name  and  armorial 
bearings  of  a  Lord  Philip  Wharton,  Baron  Whar- 
ton,  of  Wharton,  in  Westmoreland.  Arms  thus 
described  :  Sable,  a  maunch  argent  within  a  bor- 
dure  or,  an  orle  of  lions'  paws  in  saltire  gules  by 
the  name  Wharton.  His  lordship  I  find  married 

twice,  firstly,  to ,  by  whom  he  had  three  sons ; 

secondly,  to  Ann,  daughter  to  William  Oarr,  Esq., 
of  Fernihast,  in  Scotland.  This  second  wife's 
bearings  appear  with  his  own.  By  his  second 
marriage  he  had  a  son  William,  whose  armorial 
achievements  as  an  esquire  are  found  in  the  same 
volume.  Unfortunately  from  this  source  no  clue 
to  names  or  deeds  of  the  three  eldest  sons  is  de- 
rivable. The  knowledge  that  there  were  such 
representatives,  however,  with  the  facts  above  de- 
tailed, may,  I  believe,  prove  of  some  service  to 
American  genealogists.  A.  CAMPBELL  BLAIR. 

349,  394).— The  Greek  inscription  J$i\£ovt  K.T.\., 
given  by  F.  G.  from  "  the  old  font  which  formerly 
belonged  to  the  church  at  Melton  Mowbray,"  may 
also  be  found  on  the  font  in  the  parish  church  of 
Dedham,  Essex.  Will  some  one  tell  me  which  is 
the  older  ;  and  what  is  their  common  origin  ? 

[See  5'h  S.  viii.  77.] 

COLIGNY  (6th  S.  xii.  448).— H.  0.  will  find 
Coligny  one  of  the  principal  characters  spoken  of 
in  Voltaire's  'Henriade,'  chant  2.  The  notes 
accompanying  Hachette's  edition  of  Voltaire's 
'  Works,'  vol.  xv.  ('  CEuvres  de  Voltaire,' 
tome  xv.),  are  very  ample.  I  know  of  no  Eng- 

lish translation  of  the  poem,  which  I  fancy  would 
lose  its  force  if  rendered  in  another  language. 


H.  C.'s  friend  will  find  many  references  to 
Coligny  in  the  second  canto  of  the  '  Henriade.' 
There  are  several  English  translations  of  the  poem. 

G.  F.  E.  B. 

TYROCINY  (6th  S.  xii.  130,  255,  358).— 

A  Discourse  of  the  Terrestial  Paradise  aiming  at  a 

more  probable  Discovery  of  ye  True  Situation  of  that 

Happy   Place    of  our    First  Parents  Habitation.      By 

Marmaduke  Carver,  Rector  of  Harthill  in  ye  county  of 

York London  :  printed  by  James  Flesher 1666. 

8vo.     Pp.  34,  map,  168. 

In  the  above  curious  work,  at  signature  A  7,  p.  xiii, 
occurs  the  following  passage  : — "  In  my  younger 
years  and  first  Tyrociny  in  Divinity." 


WHEN  WAS  ROBERT  BURNS  BORN  ?  (6th  S.  xii. 
387, 473.) — Burns's  published  writings  are  not  so 
pure  as  they  might  be,  and  I  believe  it  is  now 
understood  that  those  unpublished  are  still  coarser. 
Probably,  therefore,  the  "  freedom "  of  the  ten 
songs  or  ballads  mentioned  by  MR.  THOMPSON  is 
no  reason  for  doubting  their  authenticity. 

Moore's  'Life  of  Lord  Byron,'  though  I  read  it 
when  I  went  through  my  attack  of  Byron-madness 
at  about  twenty,  has  only  just  come  in  my  way 
for  a  second  time.  I  find  almost  at  this  moment 
the  following  in  the  journal,  dated  December  13, 
1813  :— 

"  Allen  has  lent  me  a  quantity  of  Burns'  unpublished, 
and  never  to  be  published,  letters.  They  are  full  of 
oaths  and  obscene  songs.  What  an  antithetical  mind  ! 
tenderness,  roughness,  delicacy,  coarseness,  sentiment, 
sensuality,  soaring  and  grovelling,  dirt  and  deity,  all 
mixed  up  in  that  one  compound  of  inspired  clay  !  " 

C.  S.  F.  WARREN,  M.A. 
Treneglos,  Kenwyn,  Truro. 

"  Yestreen  I  got  a  pint  of  wine  "  is  referred  to 
in  the  '  Correspondence '  (Currie's  ed.,  1801).  The 
postscript  is  probably  Burns's  also.  "  The  Patri- 
archs "  was,  it  is  believed,  from  Burns's  pen.  "  Ye 
hae  lien  wrang,  lassie,"  is  in  the  poet's  published 
works,  but  is  not  so  free  as  a  song  of  the  same 
title.  "  Supper  is  not  ready  "  is  not,  so  far  as  I 
am  aware,  attributed  to  Burns.  "  The  Union " 
I  know  not.  "  Wha'll  kiss  me  now"  I  think  is  not 
Burns's.  "The  Fornicator"  is  said  to  be  the 
production  of  the  poet  named.  "  The  Case  of 
Conscience"  is  not  known  to  have  been  written 
by  Burns.  "Jacob  and  Rachel"  I  am  not  ac- 
quainted with.  "  Donald  Brodie  '  is  to  be  found 
in  the  poet's  works.  ALFRED  CHAS.  JONAS. 


The  most  singular  thing  about  this  matter  is 
the  variations  that  have  crept  into  Dr.  Ourrie's 
'Life'  of  the  poet.  In  the  first  edition  (1800) 
January  29  is,  I  believe,  given  as  the  date,  though 



7*  S.  I.  JAN.  2,  '86. 

Gilbert  Burns  says  the  25th.  I  think  I  am  correct 
in  stating  that  all  subsequent  editions  up  to  1819 
give  January  29,  while  the  edition  of  1819  gives 
July  29.  In  the  "  Diamond  Edition "  of  Dr. 
Carrie's  '  Life,'  published  in  1835,  the  date  is  again 
made  January  29.  The  probable  explanation  is 
that  the  alteration  arose  from  a  misprint,  which 
Dr.  Currie,  amid  the  varied  occupations  of  an 
active  professional  career,  had  overlooked.  Eead- 
ing  his  preface  to  the  first  edition,  we  must  not 
be  uncharitable.  It  is  more  difficult,  however,  to 
acquit  him  of  blame  in  permitting  January  29  to 
appear  at  all  when  we  reflect  that  almost  certainly 
he  must  have  read  the  poet's  celebrated  lines 
quoted  by  MR.  E.  H.  MARSHALL,  which  I  agree 
with  that  gentleman  in  thinking  entirely  settle 
the  point — a  conclusion  which  modern  custom 
and  editors  universally  concur  in. 

4,  Cleveland  Road,  Baling,  W. 

"A  MORROW-MASSE   FREEST"  (6th    S.    xi.    248, 

338  ;  xii.  91,  270). — This  expression  occurs  in 
*  The  Life  of  Long  Meg  of  Westminster,'  1635, 
reprinted  in  '  Miscellanea  Antiqua  Anglicana,' 
1816  :— 

"  On  a  day  when  ghee  was  growne  more  strong,  it 
chanced  that  Frier  Oliuer  who  was  one  of  the  morrow 
Masse  Priests,  called  to  remembrance  that  Meg  was 
eicke :  whereupon  taking  his  Portuce  by  his  side,  hee 
thought  to  fetch  some  spending  money  from  her,  and 
walkt  to  her  house,  where  he  came  very  grauely,"  &c. — 
Pp.  27-28. 

The  inference  of  your  correspondent  E.  H.  H. 
with  regard  to  the  position  of  these  priests  is  no 
doubt  correct.  '  Long  Meg '  was  probably  com- 
piled in  the  early  part  of  Elizabeth's  reign. 

W.  F.  P. 

WILLIAM  LONGSWORD  (6th  S.  xii.  246,  396, 
478). — Will  HERMENTRUDE  be  kind  enough  to 
give  me  her  authority  for  a  statement  (made  in 
'  N.  &  Q.;  many  years  ago)  that  William  Long- 
sword  died  at  the  age  of  seventy-three  ?  I  have 
seen  the  same  age  assigned  to  him  in  more 
than  one  book,  and  should  like  to  track  it  back 
to  its  source,  if  possible.  Of  course  I  need 
hardly  say  that,  if  this  assertion  be  true,  it  is 
almost  impossible  for  him  to  have  been  Fair  Eosa- 
mond's  son.  The  objections  to  admitting  this 
maternity  are  more  than  one  ;  but,  on  the  other 
hand,  no  one  objection  is  at  all  conclusive.  If 
HERMENTRUDE  or  any  other  of  your  readers  could 
supply  an  exact  reference  to  the  letter  of  Henry  III. 
in  which  he  recommends  the  marriage  of  Maud 
Clifford  with  William  Longsword  (III.)  some  light 
might  be  thrown  on  a  very  puzzling  subject.  As 
it  is  (and  I  should  be  ashamed  to  confess  how  much 
time  I  have  spent  upon  this  question)  I  cannot 
find  any  allusion  to  William  Longsword's  maternity 
earlier  than  the  sixteenth  century ;  and  even  then 
it  is  only  part  of  a  very  confused  account  which 

makes  Geoffrey  of  York  his  full  brother — a  state- 
ment that  is  demonstrably  wrong. 

May  I  again  ask  for  any  information  from  our 
early  literature  that  bears  upon  the  Eosamond 
legend?  T.  A.  A. 

BILLAMENT  (6th  S.  xii.  208,  299).— Planche,  in 
his  '  History  of  British  Costume'  (1846),  p.  249, 
writes  of  the  head  of  a  female  of  the  time  of 
Henry  VIII.  being  "attired  with  a  billiment 
[habiliment]  of  gold."  GEO.  H.  BBJERLEY. 


FATHER  AND  SON  BOTH  BISHOPS  (6th  S.  xii. 
467). — Another  case  is  John  Gregg,  Bishop  of 
Cork,  consecrated  1862,  and  Eobert  Gregg,  con- 
secrated Bishop  of  Ossory  in  1875,  in  the  lifetime 
of  his  father.  Cotton's  *  Fasti  Eccles.  Hib.,'  Supp. 

C.  E. 

"PULL  DEVIL,  PULL  BAKER"  (2nd  S.  iii.  228, 
258,  316). — No  very  early  date,  nor  much  authen- 
tic history,  has  been  found  for  this  proverbial 
phrase.  The  Philological  Society's  Dictionary  has 
no  earlier  authority  than  the  first  gentry  above 
noted,  an  epigram  then  (1857)  current  at  Hong- 
Kong.  The  second  and  third  contributions  alike 
assume  for  its  origin  some  legendary  struggle  be- 
tween that  familiar  object  of  popular  hatred,  the 
dishonest  baker,  and  the  devil  come  to  fetch  him 
to  his  doom.  The  third,  indeed,  which  is  signed 
"Anon.,"  and  gives  no  date  or  pretence  of  authen- 
tication for  the  wonderful  vision  recorded,  has 
very  much,  to  my  eye,  the  appearance  of  a  joke 
played  off  on  the  editor.  However,  I  have  found 
that  the  proverb  in  some  shape  was  known  to  Sir 
Walter  Scott,  for  in '  Old  Mortality,'  chap,  xxxviii., 
he  makes  Cuddie  say  that  he  was  "  pu'ed  twa  ways 
at  anes,  like  Punch  and  the  Deevil  rugging  about 
the  Baker  at  the  fair."  Did  such  an  incident  ever 
form  a  scene  in  the  Punch  drama  ?  I  do  not  my- 
self remember  it.  If  the  devil  and  the  baker 
were  struggling,  and  Punch  rescued  the  baker,  I 
am  afraid  that  in  the  eyes  of  the  multitude  this 
would  make  one  more  in  the  catalogue  of  sins  for 
which  Punch  himself  was  doomed. 

C.  B.  MOUNT. 

xii.  408,  502).— There  is  a  portrait  at  Castle  Ashby 
of  John  Talbot,  first  Earl  of  Shrewsbury,  which  is 
copied  in  outline  and  forms  a  frontispiece  to  a 
paper  on  Talbot's  tomb  in  part  iii.  vol.  viii.  of  the 
Transactions  of  the  Shropshire  Archaeological 
Society,  June,  1885,  by  the  Eev.  W.  H.  Egerton, 
Eector  of  Whitchurch.  This  paper  contains  an 
account  of  the  finding  of  the  earl's  bones  and  their 
reverent  inhumation  for  the  last  time  on  Friday, 
April  10,  1874.  There  is  not  sufficient  informa- 
tion given  in  this  account  to  determine  the  stature 
of  the  hero.  "  The  bones  generally  were  remark- 
ably well  developed,  and  had  evidently  belonged 

7th  s.  I.  JAN.  2,  '86.] 



to  a  muscular  man.  Bath  the  femurs  were  per- 
fectly sound";  and  then  in  a  foot-note  it  is  added 
"  The  figure  when  erect  must  have  been  of  an  average 
size ;  not  that  of  a  giant,  and  certainly  not  that  of  a 
diminutive  man,  aa  the  sneering  remarks  of  the  Countess 
of  Auvergne  would  lead  us  to  suppose—'  1  Hen.  VI., 
II.  iii." 

The  twenty-six  pages  which  Mr.  Egerton's  paper 
occupies  seem  to  contain  much  interesting  infor- 
mation respecting  the  life,  death,  and  burial  of 
this  remarkable  general.  There  is,  besides  the 
outline  portrait,  a  sketch  of  his  tomb  and  another 
of  his  skull  and  jawbone,  in  the  former  of  which 
may  be  seen  the  fatal  fracture  which  caused  his 
death.  BOILEAU. 

Ten  or  twelve  years  ago  the  bones  of  John 
Talbot  were  discovered.  They  were  remarkably 
well  developed,  and  were  such  as  had  belonged  to 
a  muscular  man.  Probably  a  search  among  the 
newspapers  about  that  time  would  give  further 
details.  C. 

Westminster,  S.W. 

SEAL  OF  GRAND  INQUISITOR  (6th  S.  xii.  387, 
438,  472). — MR.  WOODWARD  is  right  in  supposing 
that  Eoman  Catholic  prelates  arrange  their  armo- 
rial devices  according  to  their  individual  tastes. 
A  friend  informs  me  that  prior  to  the  Reformation 
diocesan  sees  had  coats  armorial  assigned  to  them 
in  England  as  now,  but  this  was  not  the  case  in 
Scotland.  When  Episcopacy  held  its  brief  sway 
an  attempt  was  made  to  imitate  the  English 
custom  in  this  respect,  hence  a  few  post-Reforma- 
tion coats  to  which  MR.  WOODWARD  alludes. 

But  who  is,  or  was,  "  Bishop  Herbert,  of  the 
Roman  Catholic  See  of  Plymouth  "  ?  Since  this 
see  was  created  by  Pius  IX.,  in  1851,  there  have 
been  two  bishops,  Dr.  Errington  and  Dr.  Vaughan  ; 
and  from  1585  to  1850 1  can  find  no  Roman  Catholic 
prelate  named  Herbert  in  England. 

The  Presbytery,  St.  Andrews.  N.B. 

On  the  subject  of  the  impalement  of  arms  of 
sees  by  bishops,  mooted  by  MR.  ANGUS,  there  are 
numerous  references,  s. v.  "Bishops,  impalement 
of  their  Arms,"  in  the  General  Index,  5th  S.  of 
1  N.  &  Q.'  The  places  named  are  iv.  327,  352, 
378,  391,  437;  v.  74.  There  may  be  earlier  as 
well  as  later  references,  for  which  I  have  not 
looked,  as  the  above  list  shows  the  discussion  to 
have  been  considerable.  NOMAD. 

SCOCHYNS  :  SCOCHYN  MONEY  (6th  S.  xii.  148, 
191). — I  fear  my  query  on  these  terms  was  not 
clearly  expressed.  I  have  referred  to  Prof.  Skeat's 
'  Etymological  Dictionary,'  but  that  only  tells  me 
what  I  knew  before — that  Scochyn,  or  scutcheon, 
means  escutcheon.  Why  should  a  small  parish 
like  St.  Dunstan's,  with,  perhaps,  five  hundred 
inhabitants,  possess  over  nine  hundred  escutcheons, 

which  were  "  all  paid  for  "  ?     And  what  was  "  es- 
cutcheon money,"  and  why  was  it  so  called  ? 

J.  M.  COWPER. 

THE  ACT  OF  UNION  (6th  S.  xii.  468).— The  four 
royal  fortresses  which,  by  the  articles  of  the  Union 
between  Scotland  and  England,  are  to  be  kept 
constantly  garrisoned  are  Edinburgh,  Blackness, 
Stirling,  and  Dumbarton.  Blackness  Castle  is  on 
the  south  bank  of  the  Forth,  a  few  miles  west  of 
Queensferry.  ROBERT  TAYLOR,  Jun. 

I  believe  the  fourth  castle  named  in  the  Act  of 
Union  between  England  and  Scotland  to  be  pre- 
served by  the  Government  is  Blackness  Castle, 
on  the  Firth  of  Forth,  about  five  miles  above 
Queensferry.  It  was  formerly  used  as  a  State 
prison,  and  at  present  is  doing  duty  as  a  powder 
magazine.  A.  W.  B. 

CRONEBANE  HALFPENNY  (6th  S.  xii.  469).— 
With  regard  to  the  above  token,  mentioned  by 
your  correspondent  R.  B.,  may  I  be  allowed  to 
inform  him  of  three  varieties  (there  may,  of  course, 
be  more)  of  this  coin?  (1)  That  which  he  men- 
tions. (2)  Similar  :  the  bishop  has  no  crosier. 
(3)  One  (with  crosier)  bearing  the  inscription 
u  Associated  Irish  Mine  Company/'  I  have  never 
heard  of  a  place  called  Cronebane,  but  (3)  has  round 
its  edge  the  following,  "  Payable  at  Cronebane  Lodge 
or  in  Dublin,"  while  (2)  has  "  Payable  at  Birming- 
ham, London,  or  Bristol."  Each  token  bears  the 
date  1789.  Could  the  name  "  Cronebane"  refer 
to  the  bishop  ?  I  shall  be  happy  to  lend  the  coins 
to  R.  B.  if  they  will  be  of  service. 


This  is  a  token  issued  by  a  mining  company,  and 
was  (as  it  should  bear  on  the  rim)  "  payable  at 
Dublin,  Cork,  or  Belfast."  Cronebane  is  in  co. 
Wicklow,  and  the  head  is  that  of  St.  Patrick. 

C.  E. 

The  Cronebane  and  Ballymurtagh  Mines  are  in 
the  slate  district  of  Wicklow,  in  the  Vale  of  Avoca, 
six  miles  above  Arklow.  These  mines  were  largely 
worked  and  yielded  much  copper,  from  which 
tokens  were  made.  Conder  describes  nineteen 
varieties,  of  which  I  possess  examples  of  the 
greater  number.  The  mitred  head  is  a  fanciful 
representation  of  St.  Patrick.  In  addition  to  the 
cross  reference  to  Conder's  '  Tokens,'  an  accessible 
work,  I  would  refer  your  correspondent  to  any 
*ood  map  for  Cronebaue. 

W.  FRAZER,  F.R.C.S.I. 

Cronebane  is  a  mountain  in  the  county  of  Wick- 
ow,  noted  for  its  copper-mines  (Rees's  '  Cyclo- 
paedia ').  Conder, '  Provincial  Coins/  1798,  p.  196, 
;hus  describes  the  halfpenny  about  which  R.  B.  asks 
?or  information  : — "  0.  A  bishop's  head  in  profile, 
and  crosier;  'Cronbane  halfpenny.'  R.  Arms; 



I.  JAN.  2,  '86. 

crest,  a  crank ;  date  on  the  sides,  1789;  '  Associated 
Irish  Mine  Company.'  E.  Payable  at  Cronebane 
Lodge  or  in  Dublin."  There  are  twenty-six 
varieties  of  the  Cronebane  halfpenny,  on  one  of 
which  is  a  whole-length  figure  of  Bishop  Blaize. 
The  profiles  on  the  other  examples  are  probably  of 
the  same  bishop.  W.  D.  PARISH. 


[G.  F.  R.  B.  says  descriptions  of  this  coin  are  given 
in  James  Gender's  '  Arrangement  of  Provincial  Coins  ' 
(1798),  vol.  ii. ;  and  ALPHA  supplies  a  portion  of  the  in- 
formation anticipated  above.  ] 

JURY  LIST  (6th  S.  xii.  513).— The  list  of  so- 
called  Puritan  names  given  by  DR.  BRUSHFIELD 
has  long  been  consigned  to  the  limbo  of  hoaxes. 
It  was  either  invented  by  Brome,  or  accepted  by 
him  without  investigation.  Hume  quotes  it  in  his 
'  History  of  England,'  in  a  note  under  "Common- 
wealth,'' anno  1653.  The  absurdity  of  it  was 
pointed  out  long  ago  in  '  N.  &  Q.'  (4th  S.  vii.  430), 
by  MR.  PEACOCK,  than  whom  few  are  more  inti- 
mately acquainted  with  all  that  relates  to  the 
Puritan  period  of  our  history.  I  followed  up  MR. 
PEACOCK'S  reply  (4th  S.  viii.  72),  and  other  replies 
appeared,  proving  that  during  the  time  of  Charles  I. 
and  the  Commonwealth  Puritans  bore  the  ordinary 
names  of  Englishmen  (4th  S.  vii.  430,  526 ;  viii.  72, 
134,  381,  467;  ix.  287;  xi.  533).  Of  course  it 
would  have  been  illegal  for  a  man  to  change  his 
baptismal  name.  No  doubt  Scriptural  terms  were 
sometimes  given  as  Christian  names  during  the 
reigns  of  Elizabeth  and  James  L,  and  these  would 
appear  among  adults  during  the  succeeding  reigns ; 
but  eighteen  consecutive  names  of  that  kind,  such 
as  Hume  quotes,  could  never  have  been  found 
grouped  together  in  the  same  jury  list. 


The  amusing  jury  list  reprinted  by  DR.  BRUSH- 
FIELD  cannot  possibly  be  anything  more  than  a 
satire.  Those  who  are  acquainted  with  the 
manners  of  the  Puritans  know  that  absurd  names 
like  those  which  occur  therein  were  at  all  times 
very  uncommon.  EDWARD  PEACOCK. 

ARMS  OP  HALIFAX  (6th  S.  xii.  426,  526).— 
Your  correspondent  F.S.A.Scot.  says,  "  A  repre- 
sentation of  Our  Lord  might  be  crowned,  the 
other  [i.e.,  St.  John  Baptist]  certainly  not." 

A  most  distinguished  art  critic  was  once  kindly 
showing  me  some  of  the  leaves  of  a  much-treasured 
illuminated  Bible,  and  directing  my  attention  to 
the  manner  in  which  the  face  had  been  treated  of 
one  of  the  figures  limned  upon  the  margin.  It 
was  of  a  man,  seated  and  crowned,  with  two  dogs 
at  his  feet.  We  were  not  observing  the  text,  as  it 
was  a  passing  glance,  but  I  suggested  that  it  was 
a  figure  of  Lazarus.  "  No,"  he  replied  ;  "  it  is  o 
a  king ;  he  is  crowned."  To  this  I  remarked  that 
the  figure  was  in  proper  tinctures,  whilst  the  crown 
was  in  burnished  gold.  The  crown  did  not  form  a 

>art  of  the  historical  painting,  but  was  symbolical 
)f  his  beatification.  He  thanked  me  for  the  expla- 
nation, which  he  acknowledged  was  new  to  him. 
So  also  it  appears  to  be  to  your  correspondent. 
The  title  to  the  crown  is  concurrent  with  that  to 
he  prefix  of  "  Saint "  to  the  name. 


The  borough  of  Halifax  has  no  arms,  and  the 
device  adopted  by  the  Corporation  for  their  seal  is 
modern,  having  been  designed  by  a  gentleman 
now  living  (to  whose  ingenuity  the  Dewsbury 
Corporation  are  indebted  for  their  seal).  No  argu- 
ment, therefore,  can  be  based  upon  the  authority  of 
the  seal.  G.  W.  TOMLINSON. 


BARTOLOZZI  :  VESTRIS  :  MATHEWS  (6th  S.  xii. 
495).  —  The  celebrated  actress  Madame  Vestria 
was  the  granddaughter  of  the  eminent  engraver 
Francesco  Bartolozzi  and  the  daughter  of  his 
eldest  son,  Gaetano  Stefano  Bartolozzi,  by  his 
wife  Miss  Jansen,  daughter  of  a  dancing  master 
at  Aix-la-Chapelle.  The  mistakes  in  contem- 
porary memoirs  probably  arose  from  the  fact  of 
the  son  having  also  taken  to  engraving  for  a 
short  time ;  and  his  father,  in  order  to  encourage 
him,  allowed  him  to  publish  under  his  name 
many  of  his  own  works. 

Gaetano  Bartolozzi  had  one  other  child,  Joseph- 
ine, who  married  Mr.  Anderson,  a  singer.  See 
Mr.  Tuer's  'Bartolozzi.' 

With  regard  to  the  date  of  F.  Bartolozzi's  birth, 
there  can  be,  as  Mr.  Tuer  says,  no  doubt  that  it 
was  1727,  as  the  engraver  in  many  instances 
added  his  age  when  he  signed  his  engravings  ;  on 
a  ticket  is  engraved,  "  F.  Bartolozzi  inv.  &  sculpt. 
1797,  setatis  suse  69";  on  a  portrait  of  Pope 
Pius  VII.,  engraved  in  1809,  his  age  appears 
as  eighty-two ;  and  on  that  of  Lord  Wellington, 
engraved  in  1810,  as  eighty-three ;  the  latest 
example  seen  by  Mr.  Tuer  being  "  engraved  by 
F.  Bartolozzi  when  87  years  of  age,  in  Lisbon,  in 
1814."  See  Tuer.  CONSTANCE  RUSSELL. 

Swallowfield  Park,  Reading. 

Had  NEMO  taken  the  trouble  to  ask  Mudie  or 
Smith  for  a  copy  of  the  second  (revised)  edition 
of  'Bartolozzi  and  his  Works'  (noticed  in  your 
columns  a  week  or  two  ago),  wherein  every  one  of 
his  questions  is  answered  and  his  generally  in- 
correct assumptions  are  disposed  of,  the  space 
occupied  in  the  congested  columns  of  *  N.  &  Q.' 
would  have  been  usefully  available.  I  do  not 
care  to  repeat  information  so  easily  accessible. 


The  Leadenhall  Press,  E.G. 

On  consulting  Tuer's  '  Bartolozzi  and  his  Works ' 
I  find  that  Madame  Vestris  was  the  granddaughter 
of  the  celebrated  engraver  Francesco  Bartolozzi, 
whose  eldest  son,  Gaetano  Stefano,  married,  in 

7""  S.  I.  JAN.  2,  '86.] 


1795,  Miss  T.  Jansen,  the  daughter  of  a  dancing 
master  of  Aix-la-Chapelle.  Of  the  two  children 
(daughters)  from  this  marriage,  the  elder,  Lucy 
Elizabeth,  born  in  January,  1797,  became  the  wife 
of  Armand  Vestris  in  1813.  On  the  decease  of  her 
husband,  Madame  Vestris  married,  in  1838,  the 
celebrated  comedian  Charles  Mathews  the  younger. 
She  died  at  Gore  Lodge  (Holcrofts),  Fulham,  in 
1856.  H.  0.  MILLARD. 

Madame  Vestris  was  the  daughter  of  Gaetano 
Stefano  Bartolozzi,  the  son  of  Francesco  Barto- 
lozzi.  See  *  Dictionary  of  National  Biography/ 
vol.  iii.  G.  F.  K.  B. 

Madame  Vestris  was  the  granddaughter  of  Bar- 
tolozzi, the  celebrated  engraver. 


f  A  reply  from  MR.  JULIAN  SHARMAN  received  too  late 
for  insertion.] 

La,  Franqaise  du  Siecle:  Modes,  Mceurs,  Usages,    Par 

Octave  Uzanne.  (Paris,  Quantin.) 
WITH  this  wonderfully  sumptuous  volume  M.  Octave 
Uzanne  completes  the  series  of  richly  illustrated  studies 
be  has  written  on  the  physiology  and  frippery  of  the 
female  sex.  Though  works  of  erudition  aa  well  aa  of 
fancy,  the  four  volumes  respectively  headed  '  L'Eventail,' 
'  L'Ornbrelle,  le  Gant,  le  Manchon,'  'Son  Altesse  la 
Femme,'  and  '  La  Franyaise  du  Siecle  '  are  in  concep- 
tion and  in  execution  as  un-English  as  they  can  well  be. 
The  blending  with  archaeology  of  the  imaginative  and  the 
sensuous  in  art  is  essentially  Parisian,  and  is  carried  in 
these  productions  to  the  highest  point.  No  more  bril- 
liant series  of  illustrated  works  has  seen  the  light.  With 
the  first  three  volumes,  all  of  which,  though  recently  pub- 
lished, are  already  classed  as  rarities,  the  art  and  litera- 
ture loving  public  is  probably  familiar.  In  the  fourth 
volume,  which  is  on  the  same  lines  as  the  third,  advan- 
tage has  been  taken  of  the  experience  obtained;  and  the 
designs  in  colour  and  the  illustrations,  especially  the 
coloured  vignettes  at  the  head  of  each  chapter,  are  the 
most  delicate  in  workmanship  and  the  most  successful 
in  result  that  have  yet  been  obtained.  In  treating  of 
female  caprice  M.  Uzanne  brings  to  light  much  emi- 
nently curious  matter.  Very  striking  are  the  excesses 
committed  by  the  pleasure-loving  Parisians  after  the 
removal  of  the  horrible  yoke  of  the  "  Terror."  Among  the 
fashionable  balls  described  is  a  bal  des  victimes,  held  at 
the  Hotel  Richelieu.  On  entering  each  visitor  bent  his 
neck  in  salutation,  in  the  manner  in  which  in  the  hands 
of  the  executioner  the  man  about  to  be  beheaded  had  to 
bend  it  to  its  place  in  the  fatal  groove.  The  hair  was 
shaven  close  at  the  back,  as  though  to  make  preparation 
for  the  knife.  To  complete  the  costume  the  daughters 
of  those  who  had  been  guillotined  wore  a  red  "  schall  " 
(ehdle),  similar  to  those  which  the  executioner  had 
thrown  over  the  shoulders  of  Charlotte  Corday  and  "  les 
dames  Sainte-Amarante  "  before  they  mounted  to  the 
scaffold.  Those  whom  these  and  other  painful  and 
hideous  proceedings  repel  will  do  well  to  recall  that  the 
extravagances  of  English  loyalty  after  the  Restoration 
were  nowise  more  seemly.  The  literary  execution  of  the 
volume  is  worthy  of  M.  Uzanne's  graceful  and  polished 
pen,  while  in  all  bibliographical  respects  the  volume  is 
the  most  beautiful  yet  published  by  the  spirited  and 
enterprising  house  to  which  it  is  due. 

Supplementary  Annals  of  the  Church  and  Parish  of 
Almondbur'y.  By  Charles  Augustus  Hulbert.  (Long- 
mans &  Co.) 

THE  notice  we  gave  of  Mr.  Hulbert's  Annals  in  our 
issue  of  June  30th,  1883,  would,  if  reprinted  verbatim, 
answer  almost  exactly  as  a  criticism  of  the  supplemen- 
tary volume  before  us.  The  representation  of  the  old 
hall  at  Longley  is  one  of  the  rudest  things  of  the  kind 
we  remember  to  have  seen.  The  engravings  which  used 
to  adorn  the  broadsides  issued  in  the  neighbourhood  of 
the  Seven  Dials  are  interesting  works  of  art  compared 
with  this  rude  sketch.  The  book  is,  however,  useful,  as 
it  preserves  in  a  permanent  form  some  biographical 
sketches  of  persons  whose  names  have  not  found  a  place 
in  popular  books  of  reference.  The  account  of  Prof. 
Cocker,  of  Ann  Harbour,  in  the  State  of  Michigan,  who 
was  born  at  Almondbury  in  3821,  is  worthy  of  notice. 
We  trust  that  if  ever  Mr.  Hulbert  should  be  called  upon 
to  revise  his  labours,  he  will  modify  the  statement  he 
has  made  with  regard  to  the  Puritans  in  his  memoir  of 
Cornet  Blackburn.  We  can  assure  him  that  at  no 
period  during  the  great  Civil  War  which  desolated  our 
country  in  the  seventeenth  century  was  there  ever  a 
determination  on  the  part  of  the  Puritan  leaders  "  to  put 
to  death  every  Royalist  officer  whom  they  took  prisoner." 
We  have  no  doubt  Mr.  Hulbert  can  find  some  partisan 
authority  for  the  statement ;  but  we  are  none  the  less 
sure  that  it  is  absolutely  untrue. 

A  Dictionary  of  Music  and  Musicians.    A.D.  1450-1885. 

Edited    by  Sir  George   Grove,   D.C.L.     Part  XXI. 

(Macmillan  &  Co.) 

THIS  excellent  work  approaches  completion.  Part  xxi. 
carries  the  alphabet  from  "  Verse  "  to  "  Water-music,"  a 
short  distance  it  might  be  thought  were  it  not  borne  in 
mind  that  the  letters  V  and  W  are  more  important,  pro- 
bably, in  music  than  in  any  science  or  art.  In  the  pre- 
sent instalment  there  are  included,  for  example, "  Violin  " 
and  "Violin  Playing,"  which,  in  the  excellent  articles  of 
Mr.  E.  J.  Payne  and  Herr  Paul  David,  occupy  thirty- 
two  pages,  and  "  Wagner,"  whose  life  by  Mr.  Dannreuther 
is  scarcely  inferior.  Viola,  violoncello,  voice,  Vogler 
Volkslied,  and  virginal  are  a  few  only  of  the  remaining 
subjects.  Contrary  to  the  wont  of  similar  publications, 
the  work  expands  aa  it  progresses.  Vol.  i.  thus  includes 
A  to  "  Impromptu,"  and  vol.  iv.  will  only  embrace  from 
"  Summer  "  to  the  end  of  the  alphabet. 

Book-Lore.     Vol.  II.    (Stock.) 

THE  second  volume  of  Book-Lore  is  likely  to  commend 
it  further  to  bibliographers  and  antiquaries.  It  contains 
a  variety  of  interesting  and  valuable  contents.  Con- 
spicuous among  these  are  the  papers  on '  Sham  Almanacks 
arid  Prognostications/  by  the  late  Cornelius  Walford,  of 
which  many  successive  instalments  are  given  ;  *  Shake- 
spearean Rarities,'  by  Mr.  J.  O.  Halliwell-Phillipps ; '  The 
First  Teetotal  Tract,'  by  W.  E.  A.  A.;  and  contribu- 
tions concerning  libraries  by  Mr.  W.  Roberts  and  Mr. 
Carl  A.  Thimm. 

The  East  Anglian.     Part  XII.     (Ipswich,  Pawsey  & 

Ha>es;  London,  Redway.) 

THE  latest  number  of  the  East  Anglian,  which,  under 
the  management  of  the  Rev.  C.  H.  Evelyn  White,  F.R.S., 
occupies  a  deservedly  prominent  place  among  local  Notes 
and  Queries,  has  au  excellent  article  on  the  '  Boy 
Bishop  '  in  East  Anglia,  and  some  highly  interesting 
extracts  from  the  earliest  book  of  churchwardens'  ac- 
counts, &c.,  St.  Stephen's,  Ipswich. 

IN  an  excellent  number  of  the  Nineteenth  Century,  Mr. 
Swinburne's  powerfully  written,  keen,  and  judicioua 
essay  on  Middleton  first  arrests  attention.  Mr.  Lang'a 



[7th  S.  I.  JAN.  2,  '80. 

characteristic  paper  on  *  Myths  and  My  thologists '  is 
another  assault  in  his  brilliantly  conducted  war  on  Prof. 
Max  Miiller.  Dr.  Augustus  Jessopp  writes  thoughtfully 
on  '  The  Little  Ones  and  the  Land,'  and  Mr.  Frederic 
Harrison  wisely  on  « A  Pedantic  Nuisance/  otherwise 
an  affected  method  of  spelling  proper  names. — In  Temple 
Bar  is  a  brilliant  review  of  '  The  Greville  Memoirs,'  in 
which  an  experienced  hand  turns  the  memoirs  inside 
out,  shows  all  that  is  best  in  them,  and  supplies  illustra- 
tions indicating  a  wide  range  of  curious  political  and 
social  knowledge. — '  Charles  Lamb  in  Hertfordshire,'  by 
the  Key.  A.  Ainger,  which  appears  in  the  January  number 
of  the  English  Illustrated  Magazine,  is  unusually  readable, 
and  is  ably  and  profusely  illustrated.  Like  praise  may 
be  accorded  Mr.  H.  D.  Train's  •  A  Month  in  Sicily,'  of 
which  the  first  part  only  appears.  A  good  engraving  of 
Sir  John  Millais's  picture  of  Sir  Henry  Thompson  also 
appears  in  the  number. — To  the  Gentleman's  Mr.  Percy 
Fitzgerald  contributes  an  account  of  Sheridan  and  his 
wives,  and  Mr.  H.  Schiitz  Wilson  an  interesting  study  of 
Goethe  as  an  actor.  Mrs.  E.  Lynn  Linton  has  also  '  A 
Protest  and  a  Plea.' — In  Longman's  Mr.  Lang  commences 
some  pages  of  gossip  on  new  books  and  things,  to  be  con- 
tinued under  the  title  of  '  At  the  Sign  of  the  Ship ' ; 
Mr.  Charles  Hervey  describes  the  actors  in  the  Reign  of 
Terror. — The  Cornkill  contains  two  or  three  eminently 
readable  papers.  One  is  '  A  Novelist's  Favourite  Theme,' 
which  casts  a  clear  light  of  illustration  upon  the  method 
of  workmanship  of  Scott  and  Dickens  ;  a  second,  '  Sama- 
nala  and  its  Shadow,'  a  curious  record  of  travel ;  and  the 
third,  '  In  the  Rekka  Hb'hle/  a  description  of  adventure 
which  we  fancy  and  hope  is  imaginary. — Mr.  George 
Saintsbury  contributes  to  Macnultari's  an  excellent 
paper  on  George  Borrow,  Mr.  Mowbray  writes  on  '  The 
•'  Eumenides  "  at  Cambridge,'  and  Cavendish  defends  the 
'  American  Leads  at  Whist.'— Dr.  JBrinsley  Nicholson 
concludes  in  Watford's  Antiquarian  his  papers  on  '  How 
our  Elizabethan  Dramatists  have  been  Edited,'  and  lays 
the  whip  hard  across  shoulders  already  well  used  to 
castigation ;  Mr.  Solly  writes  on  '  Francis  Hoffmann, 
1711 ' ;  Mr.  Greenstreet  on  «  The  Ordinary  from  Mr. 
Thomas  Jenyns's  "  Booke  of  Armes  '";  Mrs.  Boger  con- 
tinues her  '  King  Inain  Somerset ';  and  the  Editor  '  Our 
Old  Country  Towns.' — Red  Dragon  remains  of  interest 
to  others  besides  Welshmen,  and  '  The  Oscotian '  gives 
interesting  information  on  the  family  of  Ferrers. — The 
articles  in  the  Fortnightly,  which  reaches  us  at  the 
moment  of  going  to  press,  are  chiefly  political.  Mr. 
Courtney's  excellent  paper  on  '  Mr.  Irving's  "  Faust "  ' 
is  an  exception. 

MR.  WALTER  HAMILTON  begins  a  new  volume  of 
Parodies — the  third — with  parodies  of  Oliver  Goldsmith 
and  Thomas  Campbell,  notably  *  The  Deserted  Village.' 
'The  Vicar  of  Wakefield,'  'Lord  Ullin's  Daughter/ 
*  Hohenlinden/  and  '  The  Soldier's  Dream.' 

THE  last  livraison  of  Le  Lime  did  not  reach  us  till 
close  upon  the  New  Year.  It  was  largely  occupied  with 
gift-books  of  the  season,  but  has  a  curious  pedigree  of 
La  Dame  aux  Camelias,  otherwise  Alphonsine  Plessis, 
and  '  Le  Journaliste  Lebois  et  1'Ami  du  Peuple/  which 
furnishes  some  striking  revelations  of  life  in  revolu- 
tionary times. 

WE  are  desired  by  URBAN  to  convey  his  thanks  to  MR. 
J.  W.  M.  GIBBS  and  MR.  J.  SHARMAN  for  useful  infor- 
mation supplied  him  with  regard  to  the  brotherslBrough. 

WITH  the  New  Year  Mr.  Walford  promises  tpj  add 
to  the  attractions  of  his  Antiquarian  a  series  of 
biographical  essays  on  our  leading  old  English  anti- 
quaries. The  series  will  commence  with  Elias  Ashmole, 

and  will  embrace  Dugdale,  Speed,  Strype,  Nichols,  Sir 
Egerton  Brydges,  &c. 

THE  Rev.  Canon  Charles  Page  Eden,  Vicar  of  Aber- 
ford,  near  Leeds,  a  valued  but  occasional  correspondent 
of  '  N.  &  Q./  died  on  the  14th  of  the  past  month. 
The  Oxford  Herald  of  December  26  has  a  friendly 
obituary  notice  of  some  length,  to  which  we  beg  to  refer 
our  readers. 

£otfre£  to  Correspondent*. 

We  must  call  special  attention  to  the  following  notices  : 

ON  all  communications  must  be  written  the  name  and 
address  of  the  sender,  not  necessarily  for  publication,  but 
as  a  guarantee  of  good  faith. 

WE  cannot  undertake  to  answer  queries  privately. 

To  secure  insertion  of  communications  correspondents 
must  observe  the  following  rule.  Let  each  note,  query, 
or  reply  be  written  on  a  separate  slip  of  paper,  with  the 
signature  of  the  writer  and  such  address  as  he  wishes  to 
appear.  Correspondents  who  repeat  queries  are  requested 
to  head  the  second  communication  "  Duplicate." 

A.  C.  B.,  Glasgow  ("Munchausen").— The  authorship 
of  '  The  Singular  Travels,  Campaigns,  Voyages,  and 
Adventures  of  Munchausen/  written  as  a  satire  on  the 
memoirs  of  Baron  de  Tott,  is  unknown.  In  '  Fifty 
Years'  Recollections  of  an  old  Bookseller/  by  West,  it 
is  attributed  to  Mr.  St.  John,  of  Oxford  ;  by  Sir  Charles 
Lyell,  « Principles  of  Geology/  1850,  p.  44,  to  Rudolph 
Eric  Raspe,  the  editor  of  Leibnitz.  The  edition  cited 
by  Lowndes,  the  third,  was  published  in  London,  1786. 
The  English  translation  of  De  Tott's  memoirs  was 
issued  in  1785.  The  first  edition  of  Munchausen,  the 
date  of  which  our  correspondent  seeks,  appears  to  have 
been  Oxford,  1786.  Consult  «  N .  &  Q./  1"  S.  passim,  and 
Gent.  Mag,  for  January,  1837,  p.  2. 

J.  M.— ("  Short  Account  of  the  Life  of  Jules  Simon.") 
A  book  exactly  such  as  you  want  was  published  by 
M.  A.  Quantin  in  1883,  as  a  number  of  the  series  known 
as  "  Celebrites  Contemporaines,"  price,  with  portrait 
and  facsimile  of  letter,  seventy-five  centimes.  It  can  be 
got  through  any  foreign  bookseller. — ("  Chouan.")  This 
was  a  name  given  to  the  bands  who,  in  the  west  of 
France,  fought  against  the  Revolution.  The  name  is 
supposed  to  be  a  contraction  of  chat-huant,  pronounced 
cha-u-an,  a  species  of  owl,  the  cry  of  which  the  insur- 
gents imitated  in  signalling  to  each  other. — ("  Blancs  et 
Bleus.")  The  first  name  was  given  in  France  to  the 
partisans  of  the  ancient  monarchy  of  the  Bourbons, 
whose  emblem  was  the  drapeau  Uanc;  the  second  to 
the  Republican  soldiers,  whose  uniform  was  blue. 


I  see  a  hand  thou  canst  not  see, 
That  beckons  me  away, 

is  from  '  Colin  and  Lucy,'  by  Tickell.  "  He  heard  but 
listened  not,  he  saw  but  needed  not.  His  eyes,"  &c.,  is  a 
misquotation  of  the  famous  verse  on  the  gladiator  in 
Byron's  '  Childe  Harold/ 

M.  D.  ("  Lillibullero  "), — The  words  of  this  song  have 
already  appeared  in  'N.&Q./  2nd  S.  i.  89.  They  are 
to  be  found  in  Percy's  '  Reliques.' 


Editorial  Communications  should  be  addressed  to  "  The 
Editor  of  '  Notes  and  Queries  '  " — Advertisements  and 
Business  Letters  to  "  The  Publisher  "—at  the  Office,  22, 
Took's  Court,  Cursitor  Street,  Chancery  Lane,  E.G. 

We  beg  leave  to  state  that  we  decline  to  return  com- 
munications which,  for  any  reason,  we  do  not  print  j  and 
to  this  rule  we  can  make  no  exception. 

7lil  S.  I.  JAN.  9,  '86.] 




CONTENTS.— N°  2. 

NOTES :— History  of  the  Thames,  21— Shakspeariana,  22— 
J.  Horrox,  24— Pronunciation  of  Wind—'  Dictionary  of  Na- 
tional Biography' — Devil's  Causeway,  25 — Reading  Cover, 

QUEEIES  :— Mazers -Commonplace  Book,  26— Penny  Family 
—  Old  St.  Pancras  Churchyard  —  Conquer  —  Homer,  27  — 
Ashton  Werden  —  Heraldic — General  Armstrong  —  Dumb 
Barge— Bamboo— Devil-names— Author  of  Verses— Admiral 
Sir  C.  Knowles— T.  Pringle,  28— Ludgate— Minor  Works  of 
Scott — Sir  F.  Gorges — Churchwardens — Illustrations  to  'Don 
Quixote ' — Surname  of  Bunch — "  Preces  Paulinse  " — Woldiche 
— Rotherham  Church — Garter  Brasses — Mugwump — New- 
port, 29— Authors  Wanted,  30. 

REPLIES  :-Bed-staff,  30 -Rev.  E.  Neale,  31-Smoking  in 
Church,  32— Basilisk— Catalogue  of  Almanacs— Nuts  at  Feasts 
— Bartolozzi— Dout— Mislested,  33— Pope's  '  Iliad  '—Napier's 
Bones— Esquire,  34— O'Donovan's  '  Merv  '—Wedding  Cus- 
tom—Medicean  Escutcheon,  35 — '  Memoirs  of  Grimaldi ' — 
Simulation  in  Art— Scottish  Fast  Days-Bloody  Hand,  36— 
Jane  Clermont— Baxter's  Connexions— Colchester  Castle- 
Christmas  as  a  Surname— Sedan  Chairs— Pyewipe — "  Sepelivit 
nuptam,"  37— "  He  knows  how  many  beans"—  'Lothair'— 
Trinity  Monday— Godchildren  of  Queen  Elizabeth— Molinos 
—Dumps,  38. 

NOTES  ON  BOOKS:- 'The  New  English  Dictionary'  — 
'Dictionary  of  National  Biography"  —  Crane's  'Italian 
Popular  Tales  '— Sieveking's  '  Praise  of  Gardens.' 

Notices  to  Correspondents,  &c. 




The  real  antiquity  of  the  chipped  flint  weapon 
found  opposite  Black  Mary's  was  not  so  much  as 
surmised — indeed,  could  not  have  been  surmised 
— in  the  days  of  its  discovery.  Mr.  Bagford,  as 
we  have  seen,  dismisses  with  contempt  the  notion 
of  its  being  as  old  as  the  days  before  the  Flood, 
and  suggests  what  he  doubtless  considered  a  far 
more  plausible  theory — that  it  was  the  identical 
weapon  with  which  a  large-hearted  Londoner  of 
the  period  attacked  and  slew  an  elephant  imported, 
regardless  of  expense,  by  the  Emperor  Claudius. 
To  do  Mr.  Bagford  justice,  however,  he  did  not 
evolve  that  elephant  out  of  the  depths  of  his  own 
moral  consciousness.  He  found  him  ready  sheathed 
in  scale  armour  and  with  a  howdah  on  his  back  in 
the  pages  of  Polypous,  and  caught  a  further  fleet- 
ing glimpse  of  him  in  the  narrative  of  Dion  Cassius. 
I  do  not  believe  even  that  Polysenus,  imaginative 
Macedonian  as  he  was,  really  invented  the  animal. 
He  only  inferred  it.  "  In  a  brick-field  near  London," 
writes  Mr.  Tylor  in  1871,  "  there  had  been  found 
a  number  of  fossil  elephant  bones,  and  soon  after- 
wards a  story  was  in  circulation  in  the  neighbourhood 
somewhat  in  this  shape :  '  A  few  years  ago  one  of 
Wombwell's  caravans  was  here  ;  an  elephant  died 

and  they  buried  him  in  the  field,  and  now  the 
scientific  gentlemen  have  found  his  bones  and 
think  they  have  got  hold  of  a  pre-Adamite  ele- 
phant."' At  Oxford  also  the  late  Mr.  Frank 
Buckland  "  found  the  story  of  the  Wombwell's 
caravan  and  the  dead  elephant  current  to  explain 
a  similar  find  of  fossil  bones.  Such  explanations 
of  the  finding  of  fossils  are  easily  devised,  and  used 
to  be  freely  made,  as  when  fossil  bones  found  in 
the  Alps  were  set  down  to  Hannibal's  elephants."* 
In  exactly  the  same  way,  I  fancy,  it  was  some 
story  of  big  bones  found  near  the  Thames  which 
formed  the  nucleus  of  Polyaenus's  myth,  and  it 
was  certainly  the  finding  of  such  bones  which 
inspired  Mr.  Bagford's  conjecture. 

With  this  elephantine  flight  of  fancy  ends  the 
first  chapter  in  the  history  of  the  find  opposite 
Black  Mary's.  Palaeolithic  discovery  went  to  sleep 
for  a  hundred  years, 

To  wake  on  knowledge  grown  to  more, 
though  even  then  only  able  very  partially  and 
inadequately  to  interpret  the  phenomena  set  before 
it.  On  June  22,  1797,  a  letter  was  read  before  the 
Society  of  Antiquaries  from  Mr.  John  Frere,  F.R.S., 
F.S.  A. ,t  giving  an  account  of  a  number  of  flint 
implements  then  lately  found  in  a  brick-pit  at 
Hoxne,  in  Suffolk.  So  far  as  he  or  any  other  then 
living  antiquary  was  aware,  they  were  the  first  of 
the  kind  ever  brought  to  light,  and  he  regarded 
them  as  "  evidently  weapons  of  war,  fabricated 
and  used  by  a  people  who  had  not  the  use  of 
metals."  What  struck  Mr.  Frere  most  strongly, 
however,  was  that  they  were  found  twelve  feet 
deep  in  a  bank  of  undisturbed  and  stratified  soil 
abruptly  abutting  on  a  tract  of  lower  ground. 
The  things,  he  knew,  were  neither  rich  nor  rare: 
He  wondered  how  the  devil  they  got  there. 

And  well  he  might.  The  pit,  so  far  as  subsequent 
diggings  allow  its  exact  situation  to  be  determined, 
lay  just  a  mile  due  south  of  the  Ked  Bridge  over 
the  Gold-brook,  a  tributary  of  the  Waveney,  a 
bridge  with  a  history.  If  the  tale  be  true  which 
is  said  to  have  been  told  by  St.  Dunstan,  who  is 
said  to  have  heard  it  from  the  king's  own  sword- 
bearer,  St.  Edmund,  king  of  both  Norfolk  and 
Suffolk,  suffered  the  same  martyrdom  as  St. 
Sebastian  at  the  hands  of  a  son  of  Eagnar  Lodbrok 
and  his  Danish  archers.  If  local  tradition,  more- 
over, is  to  be  trusted,  the  Ked  Bridge  received  its 
name  as  being  the  spot  where  this  tragedy  was 
enacted  in  or  about  A.D.  870.  Now  obviously  a 
mythic  element  enters  largely  into  the  details 
given  with  regard  to  the  martyrdom  of  his  majesty 
of  East  Anglia  by  Yngvar,  son  of  Ragnar  Hairy- 
breeks ;  but  equally  obvious  is  the  fact  that  during 

*  Tylor,  '  Primitive  Culture,'  i.  334.  A  later  example 
of  the  ease  with  which  such  explanations  are  made  is  to 
be  found  in  a  leading  article  in  the  Daily  Telegraph  of 
Nov.  21, 1885. 

f  Artluxologia,  xiii.  204, 



S,  I.  JAN.  9,  '86. 

the  thousand  years  which  have  elapsed  since  the 
event  no  considerable  change  has  taken  place  in  the 
general  conformation  of  the  country  round.  Hill  and 
dale  have  remained  unaltered,  and  the  Gold-brook 
then,  as  now,  flowed  along  its  valley  in  the  lower 
ground  overlooked  by  the  bank  in  which  the  im- 
plements were  found.  Mr.  Frere  probably  knew 
the  local  tradition  of  the  Red  Bridge  ;  but  whether 
he  did  or  not,  he  saw  distinctly,  first,  that  the 
weapons  had  been  deposited  where  they  were  found 
by  the  action  of  water,  and,  second,  that  it  was 
absolutely  impossible  for  them  to  have  been  so 
deposited  had  not  the  general  contour  of  the 
country  round  been  widely  different  at  the  time. 
The  inference  he  drew  from  what  he  saw  was 
strictly  scientific.  "The  situation,"  he  writes, 
"  in  which  these  weapons  were  found  may  tempt 
us  to  refer  them  to  a  very  remote  period  indeed, 
even  beyond  that  of  the  present  world."  The 
surmise  has  since  been  proved  to  be  as  accurate  as 
it  was  sagacious ;  but  if  it  commended  itself  to  any 
archaeologists  of  the  day  they  were  too  wise  to  say 


On  the  whole,  it  was  well  for  Mr.  Frere's  peace 
of  mind  that  his  paper  attracted  no  public  atten- 
tion at  the  time.  That  gentle  religionist  William 
Cowper  had  some  years  before  (1782)  launched  his 
little  thunderbolt  against  those  who 

Drill  and  bore 

The  solid  earth,  and  from  the  strata  there 
Extract  a  register,  by  which  we  learn 
That  He  who  made  it  and  revealed  its  date 
To  Moses  was  mistaken  in  its  age. 

But  in  1797  scientific  controversy  itself  had  adopted 
the  barbaric  weapons  of  political  and  theological 
warfare,  and  the  Armageddon  of  geology  was  being 
fought  out  to  the  bitter  end  by  the  rival  hosts  of 
the  Neptunian  Werner  and  the  Plutonic  Hutton. 
The  waters  of  the  great  deep  had  burst  into  the 
crater  of  a  volcano,  and  the  earth  was  reeling  under 
a  sky  black  with  vapour.  Orthodoxy  espoused  the 
cause  of  Werner  and  water,  apparently  taking  it 
for  granted  that  the  Saxon  philosopher's  specula- 
tions about  the  "chaotic  fluid"  somehow  supported 
the  "  sublime  tradition  "  of  the  Deluge.  Hetero- 
doxy sided  with  Hutton  and  fire,  and  comforted 
itself  with  the  evidence  afforded  by  the  granite 
veins  of  Glen  Tilt  in  favour  of  the  general  con- 
flagration. Hutton  himself  died  in  this  very  year, 
but  the  warfare  was  carried  on  as  bitterly  as 
before.  How,  indeed,  was  scientific  equanimity 
possible  with  a  mutiny  at  Spithead  and  the  Nore, 
cash  payments  suspended,  Consols  at  47,  and  a 
Lepaux  announcing  to  the  Directory  that  "the 
Army  of  England  "  under  Bonaparte  was  about  to 
dictate  peace  in  London  ? 

Clearly,  it  was  not  a  time  when  speculations 
like  Mr.  Frere's  were  likely  to  meet  with  welcome 
or  appreciation.  They  fell  on  evil  days,  and  if  not 
on  evil  tongues,  it  is  probably  only  because  the 

discovery  on  which  they  were  founded  told  as 
much  on  one  side  of  the  controversy  as  the  other. 
The  Wernerian  might  have  rejoiced  over  the  new 
confirmation  of  the  Mosaic  account  of  the  Flood, 
but  the  Huttonian  would  at  once  have  retorted 
that  the  weapons  were  part  of  the  ruins  of  an  older 
world,  which  his  master  taught  were  visible  in 
the  present  structure  of  our  planet.  As  it  was, 
neither  faction  cared  to  patronize  Mr.  Frere,  who 
consequently  passed  quietly  into  oblivion  without 
being  denounced  as  an  atheist  or  even  as  a  jacobin. 
But  even  then  the  better  day  had  dawned. 
William  Smith  had  been  for  years  already  busy 
with  his  geological  map  of  England,  though  the 
work  was  not  to  be  complete  till  the  year  of 
Waterloo.  Cuvier,  too,  had  by  this  time  begun 
those  researches  in  the  neighbourhood  of  Paris,  the 
publication  of  which  during  the  early  years  of  the 
present  century  dates  a  revelation  at  once  and  a 
revolution  in  natural  science.  When  Frere  wrote, 
few  geologists  knew  of  the  former  existence  of  any 
extinct  animals,  and  fewer  were  aware  that  more 
than  two  or  three  species  of  mammals  were  ex- 
tinct, and  for  many  years  later  none  ventured  to 
suggest  that  man  was  a  contemporary  of  any  but 
the  now  existing  fauna.  Pallas,  indeed,  had  lately 
announced  his  discovery  of  the  celebrated  Wiljui 
rhinoceros,  with  its  skin  and  flesh  still  preserved 
entire,  embedded  in  Siberian  ice;  but  what  sensible 
Briton  in  1797  would  for  a  moment  believe  Pallas  ? 
John  Bull  stoutly  denounced  Bruce's  Abyssinian 
marvels  as  a  pack  of  lies — was  it  likely  he  was 
going  to  be  taken  in  by  a  Frenchman  ?  So  palaeo- 
lithic discovery  dozed  drowsily  off  again,  not, 
however,  this  time  for  a  hundred  years,  but  barely 
for  a  generation.  It  was  a  fitful  and  troublous 
slumber,  moreover,  much  broken  towards  the 
close  by  the  whinny  of  careering  nightmares  and 
the  clatter  of  rival  hobby-horses  rampant  in  pur- 
(To  be  continued.) 


/ V.  i.  16  :  "  BUT  IMOGEN  is  YOUR 
OWN"  (6th  S.  xii.  342).— At  this  reference  MR. 
W.  WATKISS  LLOYD  assigns  to  Pisanio  a  soliloquy 
which  is  in  all  editions  given  to  Posthumus,  to 
whom  only  can  it  belong.  He  further  asserts  that 
"  the  phrase  *  But  Imogen  is  your  own,'  if  not  non- 
sense, at  least  will  bear  no  interpretation  which 
blends  happily  with  the  tenor  of  Pisanio' s  reflec- 
tions." On  the  contrary,  I  maintain  that  the 
phrase  is  right  in  itself  and  in  its  surrounding!?, 
and — what  is  most  important — forms  an  integral 
part  of  Posthumus's  argument.  But  the  intrusion 
[in  no  bad  sense)  of  the  four  lines  in  which  Post- 
humus  attempts  to  explain  to  himself  the  apparent 
anomaly  of  Imogen  having  been  appropriated  by 
the  gods,  and  his  own  life  having  been  spared, 

7th  8.  I.  JAN.  9,  '86.] 


perplexes  the  argument  and  obscures  the  sense ; 
besides  which,  that  explanation  is  itself  so  obscure 
that  no  commentator  has  hitherto  satisfactorily 
explained  or  amended  it.  To  show  this  concisely, 
let  us  suppose  the  text  had  stood  thus  : — 

Gods,  if  you 

Should  have  ta'en  vengeance  on  my  faults,  I  never 
Had  lived  to  put  on  this  :  so  had  you  saved 
The  noble  Imogen  to  repent,  and  struck 
Me,  wretch,  not  worth  your  vengeance.    But  alack  ! 
Imogen  is  your  own  :  do  your  best  wills, 
And  make  me  blest  to  obey. 

Had  this  been  the  text  of  the  folio,  I  ask.  Would 
it  have  entered  the  head  of  any  rational  being  that 
the  phrase  "  Imogen  is  your  own"  did  not  "  blend 
happily  with  the  tenor  of  Posthumus's  reflections"  ? 
Would  it  not  have  been  self-evident  that  it  an- 
swered to  the  foregoing  clause,  "So  had  you  saved 
the  noble  Imogen  to  repent,"  and  meant  just  this, 
that  the  gods  had  taken  her  to  themselves  and  left 
Posthumus  to  expiate  his  crime  in  this  life? 
Nevertheless,  I  think  MR.  LLOYD'S  conjecture  of 
"  Judgment "  for  Imogen  not  only  exceedingly 
clever,  but  sustained  by  a  clearsighted  argument. 
All  I  contend  for  is,  that  in  the  text,  with  the 
omission  of  the  four  extraordinary  lines,  "You 
snatch  some  hence,"  &c.,  down  to  "  thrift,"  the 
suspicion  of  a  corruption  would  have  no  locus 
standi ;  and  I  fail  to  see  that  the  insertion  of 
those  lines  ought  to  shake  our  confidence  in  the 
passage  which  is  the  subject  of  MR.  LLOYD'S  sug- 
gested alteration.  C.  M.  INGLEBY. 
Athenaeum  Club. 

DRAWING  BLOOD  FROM  A  WITCH  (6th  S.  xii. 
425). — I  think  that  I  have  met  with  the  practice 
earlier,  but  in  George  Giffard's  *  Dialogue  concern- 
ing Witches/  &o.,  first  published  in  1593,  and 
reprinted  by  the  Percy  Society  from  the  edition  of 
1603,  we  find,  at  p.  11  of  the  reprint  :— "  Some 
wish  me  to  beate  and  claw  the  witch,  untill  I  fetch 
bloud  on  her,  and  to  threaten  her  that  I  will  have 
her  hanged.  If  I  knew  which  were  the  best,  I 
would  do  it."  See  also  pp.  13,  32.  So  at  p.  46  a 
story  is  narrated  how  "  the  man  made  no  more 
ado,  but  even  laid  his  clowches  upon  her  [the  old 
woman]  and  clawed  her  until  the  blood  ran  downe 
her  cheek?,  and  the  child  was  well  within  two  days 
after."  There  is  a  similar  story  on  p.  47.  I  note 
more  than  one  instance  to  show  how  the  supersti- 
tion was  generally  believed  in,  and  for  this  pur- 
pose also  would  refer  to  a  very  curious  belief  and 
statement  made  on  p.  64.  Dr.  J.  Gotta,  1616, 
Bays,  pp.  113-4,  "  Concerning  the  other  imagined 
trials  of  witches,  as  by  beating,  scratching,  draw- 
ing bloud I  think  it  vaine  and  needlesse 

to  confute."  BR.  NICHOLSON. 

This  doctrine  is  fully  investigated  in  Hatha- 
way'd  trial,  published  in  the  'State  Trials.'  The 
following  passage  is  in  *  Arise  Evan's  Echo  to  the 

Voice  from  Heaven '  (1652),  p.  34  :— "  I  had  heard 
some  say  that  when  a  witch  had  power  over  one 
to  afflict  him,  if  he  could  but  draw  one  drop  of 
the  witch's  blood,  the  witch  would  never  after  do 
him  hurt."  In  Glanville's  '  Account  of  the  Demon 
of  Tedworth,'  speaking  of  a  boy  that  was  bewitched, 
he  says  :— "  The  boy  drew  towards  Jane  Brooks, 
the  woman  who  had  bewitched  him,  and  put  his 
hand  upon  her,  which  his  father  perceiving  imme- 
diately scratched  her  face  and  drew  blood  from 
her.  The  youth  then  cried  out  that  he  was  well " 
(Blow  at  'Modern  Sadducism,'  12mo.,  1668, 
p.  148).  In  Butler's  '  Hudibras  ':— 

Till  drawing  blood  o'  the  dames  like  witches, 
They  're  forthwith  cur'd  of  their  capriches. 

Part  ii.  canto  i.  page  9. 

In  Cleveland's  'Rebel  Scot':— 

Scots  are  like  witches ;  do  but  whet  your  pen, 

Scratch  till  the  blood  come,  they  '11  not  hurt  you  then; 

and    Shakespeare    alludes     to     this     belief     in 
'Henry  VI.'     Talbot,  upon  Pucelle's  appearing, 
is  made  to  speak  as  follows : — 
Here,  here  she  comes  ;— I  '11  have  a  bout  with  thee ; 
Devil  or  devil's  dam,  I  '11  conjure  thee  : 
Blood  will  1  draw  on  thee.  thou  art  a  witch, 
And  straightway  give  thy  soul  to  him  thou  serv'st. 
Swallowfield  Park,  Reading. 


'  OTHELLO,'  I.  i.  (6th  S.  xii.  202).— Is  not  the  cor- 
rect reading  "life"?  Shakspeare  knew  almost 
everything,  and  surely  was  not  unacquainted  with 
the  denunciation  in  the  Gospel,  "  Woe  unto  you 
when  all  men  shall  speak  well  of  you  !"  Theobald 
sets  up  an  ingenious  theory  that  the  passage  is 
wrongly  pointed,  and  that  lago,  who  rambled  some- 
what, really  spoke  as  follows : — 

"  Certes,"  says  he, 
"  I  have  already  chose  ray  Officer." 
And  what  was  he  1 
Forsooth  a  great  Arithmetician, — 
One  Michael  Cassio ;  ("the  Florentine, 
A  Fellow  almost  damned  in  a  fair  Wife  "); 

and  argues  that  Othello  was  then  a  bachelor,  and 
objected  to  having  a  married  man  placed  in  autho- 
rity about  him.  There  is  something  to  be  said  for 
this  theory,  inasmuch  as  lago  was  certainly  a 
Florentine^  not  Cassio.  J.  STANDISH  HALT. 

The  use  of  wife  meaning  woman  simply  is  not 
infrequent  in  English  literature.  See  Chaucer, 
'  Wif  of  Bath's  Tale,'  142  ;  Morrice,  '  Outlines  of 
English  Accidence,'  p.  86  ;  and  lago  calls  Bianca, 
who  is  evidently  unmarried, 

A  housewife,  that  by  selling  her  desires 
Buys  herself  bread  and  clothes. — IV.  i. 

Taking  the  word  in  this  sense,  therefore,  it  does 
not  seem  improbable  that  lago  alludes  to  Cassio's 
intrigue,  or  rather  entanglement,  with  Bianca,  when 
he  describes  him  as 


[7<b  S.  I.  JAN.  9,  ;86. 

A  fellow  almost  damn'd  in  a  fair  wife, 
meaning    that    his     miserable    passion    for    thi 
courtezan    is  so  despotic  as    almost    to    ensure 
damnation.     A  like  explanation  of  the  passage  i 
given  in  Knight's  edition  of  *  Othello.' 


'HAMLET'  (6th  S.  xii.  423).— MR.  WILMSHURST 
states,  in  reference  to  the  proverb,  "  The  mills  o 
the  gods  grind  to  powder,"  that  "  it  has  probably 
come  down  from  antiquity."  The  limitation  "  pro 
bably  "  may  be  displaced  by  "  certainly  "  on  refer- 
ring to  Gaisford's  '  Parremiogr.  Grsee.,'  Ox.,  1836 
p.  134,  where  there  is  : — 30^e  $eaiv  aAeovo-t  /xvAot 
dXeovcri  Se  ACTTTO.  :  JE7T6  TWV  o^iatrara  /cat  /3pa- 
Sews  Trapexovrtav  SiKrjv,  wv  ijrXrjfJifj^X^cr 
('  Prov.  e  Cod.  Coislan,'  396).  ED.  MARSHALL. 

PLAYS. — In  looking  over  some  old  play-bills  I  was 
forcibly  struck  by  the  following  remarkable  bit  of 
moralizing  upon  *  The  Merchant  of  Venice,'  an- 
nounced to  be  performed  at  the  Blackburn  New 
Theatre : — 

"  Monday  evening,  June  the  llth,  1787,  |  will  be  pre- 
ented  Shakespeares  Celebrated  Comedy  of  |  '  The  Mer- 
chant of  Venice,  |  or  the  Cruel  Jew.' 

"  This  inimitable  play  is  founded  on  a  fact  and  recorded 
in  an  Italian  Novel,  among  many  beautiful,  interesting 
and  amusing  incidents.  We  are  gladly  led  to  the  trial, 
of  the  Merchant  Antonio,  by  the  Jew,  Shylock,  who  de- 
mands the  forfeiture  of  his  bond  which  carries  with  it, 
the  penalty  of  a  pound  of  the  Merchant's  flesh,  with  a 
force  and  conduct  of  dramatic  action  which  so  strongly 
marks  the  genius  of  Shakespeare.  The  Audience  feels 
united,  the  various  distinct  passions  of  pity,  horror, 
detestation  and  joy.  In  the  Catastrophe  of  this  singular 
scene,  even  the  merciless,  obdurate,  and  bloodthirsty 
jew,  meets  with  commiseration.  As  every  play  must  be 
justly  deemed  useless  that  leaves  us  no  lesson  for  our 
moral  conduct,  Shakespeare  (as  in  every  play  he  has  left 
us  an  useful  moral)  has  here  pointed  out,  the  danger  of 
suffering  severe  passions  to  become  habitual,  as  by  in- 
dulging resentment,  we  naturally  imbibe  revenge,  and 
decline,  stage  by  stage,  to  a  pitch  of  savage  cruelty  that 
must  end  in  scenes  of  misery,  shocking  to  humanity,  and 
fatal  to  ourselves. 

Shylock        Mr.  Caulfield." 

Without  entering  further  into  the  cast,  it  is 
amusing  to  read  that  at  the  end  of  the  first  act  a 
song  is  announced  to  be  sung  called  '  Ye  Cheerful 
Virgins,'  followed  with  songs  between  the  succeed- 
ing acts.  This  is  the  only  example  of  the  kind 
of  comment  I  have  seen.  J.  W.  JARVIS. 

Avon  House,  Manor  Road,  N. 

DREAM  ').— As  it  is  to  be  presumed  that  Shake- 
speare selected  this  curious  name  with  some  reason, 
it  may  be  worth  noting  that  the  term  bottom 
was  then — and  is,  I  believe,  still — applied  by 
weavers  to  a  ball  of  thread.  The  fusil,  apart  from 
its  ordinary  lozenge  shape,  is  variously  represented 
in  old  arms,  and  is  sometimes  blazoned  as  a 

"spindle."  It  is  also  called  a  bottom  in  the 
quaint  blazon  of  the  coat  of  Badland  (formerly 
quartered  by  Hoby,  but  now  used  as  their  paternal 
coat),  i.e.,  "  Argent,  three  bottoms  in  fess  gu., 
the  thread  or  "  (Clark's  '  Heraldry '). 

74,  King  Edward  Road,  Hackney. 

Any  notices  of  this  person  are  worth  recording. 
He  was  one  of  the  very  few  in  England  who, 
November  24, 1639,  eagerly  scanned  the  heavens  to 
observe  the  passage  of  Venus  across  the  sun.     He 
was  brother  of  the  accomplished  astronomer,  the 
Eev.  Jeremiah  Horrox,  then  a  young  clergyman 
at  Hoole,  Lancashire,  who  there  succesfully  ob- 
served  that    striking    phenomenon,    and    whose 
memory  in  connexion  with  it  has  been  perpetuated 
by  an  inscription  in  Westminster  Abbey  from  the 
pen  of  the  late  Dean  Stanley.      I  have,  in  the 
Palatine  Note-book   for  December,  1882,  given 
reasons  for  supposing  that  these  young  men  were  the 
sons  of  William  Horrocks,  of  Toxteth  Park,  near 
Liverpool.     This  branch  of  the  family  was   con- 
nected with  the  well-known  Puritan  John  Cotton, 
minister  of  Boston,  co.   Lincoln.      According  to 
Cotton  Mather    ('  Magnalia   Christi   Americana,' 
ed.  1702,  bk.  iii.  p.  17),  as  soon  as  John  Cotton 
bad  settled    at   Boston,  about  1613,    "his    dear 
friend,  holy  Mr.  Bayne,  recommended  unto  him  a 
pious  gentlewoman,  one  Mrs.  Elizabeth  Horrocks, 
:he   sister  of    Mr.   James    Horrocks,    a    famous 
minister  in  Lancashire,  to  become  his  consort  in 
a  married  estate."      This   Mr.  Horrocks,  who  is 
not    (as    I  once    supposed)  the  Rev.  Alexander 
Eorrocks,  minister  of  Dean,  near  Bolton-le-Moors, 
s  also  as  precisely  and  distinctly  noticed  by  Oliver 
Heywood  as  "  that  auncient  and  eminent  servant 
of  God,"  well  known  to  his  mother   before  her 
marriage  in  1615,  viz.,  in  the  neighboorhood  of 
Bolton.     Other  members  of  the  Horrocks  family 
lad  the  acquaintance  of  Mr.  Cotton,  particularly 
one  who  was,  perhaps,  a  pupil,  viz.,  Thomas  Hor- 
rocks, M.A.,  of  St.  John's  College,  Camb.,  1631, 
fter wards  the  ejected  minister  of  Maiden,  Essex. 
3e  belonged,  says  Calamy,  to  the  Horrockses  of 
Elorrocks  Hall,  in  Bolton-le-Moors,  being  the  only 
son   of  Mr.  Christopher  Horrocks  of  that  place, 
who  for  greater  religious  liberty  went   with  his 
'amily  (excepting    Thomas)    into    New  England 
with  Mr.  Cotton.     The  latter  was  so  important  an 
mmigrant  that  in  his  honour  the  name  of  the  town 
f  Trimontain  was  changed  to  that  of  Boston.    He 
was  the  ancestor  of  some  remarkable  men. 

Connected  with   these  clues  a  trace  of  Jonas 

lorrox  has  turned  up  in  an  unexpected  quarter. 

~ome  friend  in  America  has  been  good  enough  to 

end  me  a  most  excellent  compilation,   entitled 

Genealogical  Gleanings  in  England,'  by  Henry  F, 

7'h  S.  I.  JAN.  9,  '86.] 


Waters,  A.B.,  for  which  please  allow  me  here  to 
express  my  best  thanks.  This  work  contains  an 
abstract  of  the  will  of  Frances  Hanham,  of  Boston, 
co.  Lincoln,  widow,  dated  April  4,  and  proved  June 
13,  1631.  After  making  bequests  to  her  relatives, 
she  gives  "  to  Jonas  Horrax,  nephew  to  Mr.  Cotton, 
10s.,  to  be  presently  paid  after  my  decease." 
This  entry  seems  to  show  that  Elizabeth  Horrocks 
and  the  Rev.  James  Horrocks  were  sister  and 
brother  of  William  Horrocks,  of  Toxteth,  father 
to  the  astronomer. 

Jonas  was  residing  in  Liverpool  at  the  time  of 
the  transit  of  Venus  ;  and  his  brother,  having 
supplied  him  with  data  and  instructions,  earnestly 
requested  him  to  view  closely  what  came  into  his 
ken.  There  is  the  following  allusion  to  the  request 
in  Horrox's  famous  treatise  *  Venus  in  Sole  Visa,' 
who  directs  a  by-blow  against  those  who  in  that 
favourable  month  were  following  the  pleasures  of 
the  chase  in  a  favourite  hunting  country,  the  Lanca- 
shire Fylde  :— 

"  De  hac  conjunctione  admonui  &  fratrem  natu 
minorem,  qui  turn  Liverpoliae  degebat,  ut  ille  pro  suis 
viribus  aliquid  praestaret,  quod  quidem  conatus  est :  sed 
incassum  •  die  enim  24,  nubibus  interclusus,  observare  non 
potuit,  et  si  diligenter  attenderit,  sequent!  autem  sere- 
niori  die,  eaepe  intromissa  solis  specie  per  telescopiura, 
nihil  vidit,  scilicet  quia  Venus  jam  solem  peragrasset. 
Alios  quod  non  admonuerim,  veniam  mereor;  paucos 
enim  novi  hujusmodi  nugas  non  derisuros,  utpote  canibus 
suis  &  avibus,  ne  graviora  dicam,  post  habitas  :  et  quam- 
vis  habeat  Anglia  nostra  Syderum  etiara  venatores,  & 
mihi  notos ;  invitare  tainen  ad  hujus  spectaculi  jucundi- 
tatem  non  potui,  quippe  sero  nimis  4  me  ipso  animad- 
Tersi."— Ed.  folio,  Hevelius,  p.  118. 

The  name  of  Jonas  Horrox  appears  upon  the 
list  of  those  who  took  the  national  Protestation 
in  Liverpool  in  February,  1641-2,  along  with  his 
relatives  James  and  William.  He  seems  to  have 
had  some  occupation  in  Ireland,  or  a  family  tie 
with  that  country.  One  of  his  relatives,  James 
Horrocks,  of  Toxteth  Park,  was  a  watchmaker  in 
1631  ;  and  Jonas  himself  must  have  developed 
the  mechanical  instinct  of  the  family,  for  he  prac- 
tised as  a  land-surveyor.  In  some  proceedings 
relating  to  leases  of  the  common  lands  of  Liverpool, 
or  "  The  Common,"  then  being  enclosed,  there  was 
an  order,  November  2, 1653,  that  James  Chorleton 
and  Jonas  Horrox  should  have  payment  and  satis- 
faction for  their  pains  for  surveying  the  new  en- 
closures upon  the  town's  common,  at  the  discretion 
of  the  mayor  (Sir  J.  A.  Picton's  *  Municipal  Re- 
cords,' p.  173).  Horrox  seems  to  have  died  in 
Ireland  ('Opera  Posthuma  Horroccii,'  4to.,  1672, 
P'  *)•  JOHN  E.  BAILEY. 

Stretford,  Manchester. 

PRONUNCIATION  OF  WIND.— All  who  have  felt 
the  inconvenince  of  the  substantive  wind  being 
pronounced  long  for  the  special  purpose  of  rhyme 
will  rejoice  to  notice  that  the  Poet  Laureate  has 
had  sufficient  courage  in  his  recently  published 

volume  of  poems  ("  The  Wreck,"  st.  vii.  1.  3)  to 
make  the  word  rhyme  with  "  sinn'd."  I  believe 
this  is  the  first  time  that  Tennyson  has  assimilated 
the  poetic  use  of  the  word  with  social  custom  ;  at 
least  I  find  fourteen  cases  in  his  earlier  poems  in 
which  it  is  made  to  rhyme  with  "  mind,"  "  blind," 
&c.  ;  thus  following  the  example  of  Shakespere, 
Swift,  Pope,  and  Dryden,  and,  so  far  as  I  know, 
all  poets  of  eminence.  Poole's  '  English  Parnas- 
sus '  (1637)  also  thus  tabulates  the  word.  This 
pronunciation  by  the  Laureate  in  mature  years 
may  probably  prove  an  epoch  in  the  word,  espe- 
cially as  it  is  contrary  to  his  own  previous  usage. 
The  authorities  have  for  some  years  anticipated 
this  result,  for  although  Walker,  Sheridan,  Scott, 
Knowles,  and  Cooley  give  the  long  as  alternative, 
Webster,  Ken  rick,  Barclay,  Perry,  Smart,  Wor- 
cester, and  Cull  allow  only  the  short  pronuncia- 
tion. Perry,  however,  admits  the  long  in  dramatic 
scenes,  and  Nares  in  poetry;  while  Cooley  declares 
its  use  on  other  occasions  as  pedantry.  It  may  be 
observed  that,  with  the  doubtful  exception  of  wind- 
pipe, all  its  compounds  (such  as  windmill,  wind- 
fall,  windbound,  and  windy)  are  short  ;  but  the 
effect  of  this  similarity  is  weakened  by  the  pre- 
vailing rule  that  the  long  vowel  of  the  simple  is 
usually  changed  into  a  short  one  of  the  compound. 
Although  Smith  describes  the  short  pronunciation 
as  against  analogy,  and  Walker  the  long  one  as  the 
true  sound,  surely  its  Saxon  origin  is  more  de- 
finitely displayed  by  present  usage. 



P.  58,  col.  2, 1. 16,  for  "1547  "  read  1597. 

P.  83,  col.  1, 1.  6  from  end,  for  "Al  Ravni"  read  Al 

P.  120,  col.  1, 1. 17.  for  «  1732  "  read  1632. 

P.  190,  col.  1, 1.  9,  for  "  Sept."  read  Aug. 

P.  245,  col.  1, 1.  26,  for  "  polyclinic  "  read  policlinic. 

P.  245,  col.  1, 1.  3  from  end,  for  "Institute  "  read  insti- 

P.  245,  col.  2, 1.  34,  for  "  at  the  Institute  "  read  of  the 

P.  278,  col.  2, 1.  3,  for  «  genus  "  read  genius. 

P.  279,  col.  2, 1. 17,  for  •'  Wolesely  "  read  Wolsely. 

P.  340,  col.  1, 1. 1,  for  "probably  a  Norman  castle  had 
been  built  at  Berkeley ;  for  Henry  spent  Easter  there," 
read,  A  small  castle  built  at  Berkeley  by  William  Fitz- 
osbern  ('  Domesday,'  163)  had  probably  given  place  to 
one  of  greater  size,  when  Henry  spent 

P.  363,  col.  1, 1.  28,  for  "  earl "  read  baron. 

P.  408,  col.  1, 1.  12,  and  p.  409,  col.  1,  1.  26,  for  "lord 
high  admiral "  read  admiral  of  the  shipmoney  fleet. 

P.  409,  col.  2, 1. 15,  for  "  Hanover  "  read  Honor. 


occasion  to  consult  the  useful  map  at  the  end  of 
Dr.  Collingwood  Bruce's  new  edition  of  'The 
Roman  Wall,'  I  was  struck  by  the  mention  of 
the  Devil's  Causeway  at  the  point  where  it 
branches  off  from  Watling  Street.  I  recollect 



[7"'  S.  I.  JAN.  9,  '86. 

that  near  Conisborough,  close  to  Strafford  sands 
(Strata-ford),  where  the  Dearne  and  Don  form  a 
junction,  the  point  is  called  Devil's  Elbow  ;  and 
also  at  Newmarket  a  double  ditch  called  Devil's 
Dike.  Why  these  names  wherever  there  is  a 
twofold  or  double  ditch  or  road  or  junction  of 
two  rivers?  Newmarket  mi^ht  lay  claim  to  the 
patronage  of  bis  satanic  majesty;  but  why  Wat- 
ling  Street  and  the  two  Yorkshire  rivers  ?  So  I 
turned  to  Bosworth's  '  Anglo-Saxon  Dictionary,' 
and  there  found,  "  Twyfeald,  twofold,  double ; 
Twyford,  Tvdford,  the  name  of  places  near  a 
river  where  two  branches  had  to  be  forded." 
Note  also  the  word  causeway  or  causey,  as  it  is 
generally  pronounced.  Stukeley  mentions  in  speak- 
ing of  the  military  way  through  the  township  of 
Hedley,  in  Northumberland,  "It  comes  next  to 
Causey,  a  village  which  owes  its  name  to  it" 
(vol.  ii.  p.  140,  Surtees  Society).  See  Ash's  an- 
cient dictionary,  "  Causey,  s.,  from  Fr.  chausste,  a 
way  pitched  with  stones,  a  way  raised  above  the 
rest  of  the  ground."  S.  F.  S. 

HEADING  COVER  FOR  *  N.  &  Q.' — I  have  found 
Slade's  patent  self-binder,  "The  Eclipse,"  the 
most  useful  reading  cover  for  the  half-yearly 
volume  of  •'  N.  &  Q.'  There  are  twenty-six  thin 
steel  bands  on  which  to  receive  the  weekly  issue, 
these  are  tightened  by  means  of  a  buckle.  There 
is  no  mutilation  of  the  papers,  and  they  are  kept 
clean  and  sound  for  the  binder  at  the  end  of  the 
half  year,  I  certainly  advise  a  trial  of  this  very 
useful  self-binder.  It  can  be  obtained  of  Messrs. 
Slade  Brothers,  169,  Great  Portland  Street,  W. 

Thornton,  Horncastle. 

We  must  request  correspondents  desiring  information 
on  family  matters  of  only  private  interest,  to  affix  their 
names  and  addresses  to  their  queries,  in  order  that  the 
answers  may  be  addressed  to  them  direct. 

MAZERS. — At  the  ordinary  meeting  of  the  Society 
of  Antiquaries  on  January  21  it  is  intended  to  bring 
together  all  the  known  examples  of  the  mediaeval 
silver-mounted  maple  bowls  known  as  mazers.  I 
shall  be  much  obliged  if  any  one  knowing  of  the 
existence  of  any  such,  either  in  private  possession 
or  in  use  in  churches,  will  communicate  with  me 
as  soon  as  possible. 

W.  H.  ST.  JOHN  HOPE,  M.A. 

Burlington  House,  London,  W. 

COMMONPLACE  BOOK. — It  is  proposed  to  print 
extracts  from  a  commonplace  book  kept  by  a 
citizen  of  Aberdeen  about  the  middle  of  the  seven- 
teenth century  which  has  lately  come  into  my 
hands.  A  considerable  portion  of  the  contents  are 
in  verse.  Can  any  of  your  readers  inform  me 
whether  the  following  pieces  have  appeared  before 

in  print ;  and,  if  so,  where  ?  I  quote  the  first  few 
lines  in  each  case,  sufficient  for  identification  if  they 
have  been  printed  : — 

The  breuitie  of  Mang  lyff. 
Lyke  to  the  Damask  Rose  you  sie, 
Or  lyk  the  blossome  on  the  tree, 
Or  lyk  the  dainty  flower  of  May, 
Or  lyk  the  morning  to  the  day, 
Or  lyk  the  sone  or  lyk  the  pchade, 
Or  lyk  the  gourd  wbiche  Jonah  hade, 
Even  such  is  man  whois  threid  is  spun,  &c. 
There  are  other  four  verses  of  similar  doggerel. 

A  Ridell. 

The  moir  I  seik  the  less  I  find, 
The  less  I  find  the  moir  I  get. 
The  less  I  get  the  moir  behind, 
The  moir  behind  the  grytter  det,  &c. 
Other  eight  lines. 

Ane  a  b  c. 

The  starkest  fooll  give  he  marke, 
This  skool  of  skill  provis  greatest  clarke, 
Their  foir  come  ye  that  wyse  wold  Be 
And  learne  of  new  This  a  b  c. 


A  god  begin  omnipotent 
In  everie  place  he  is  present,  &c. 
This  is  a  very  long  piece,  and  goes  through  the 
whole  alphabet. 

The  Morning  Muse, 
To  be  thought  upone  in  the  morning. 
My  bed  itself  is  like  the  graue, 

My  echeitts  the  winding  scheit, 
My  clothes  to  muilles*  that  I  must  have 

To  cover  me  most  meit. 
The  hungrie  flais  that  friskes  so  fast 

To  wormes  I  mon  compair, 
Who  greidilye  will  gnaw  my  flesche 

And  leave  my  bones  full  bair. 
There  are  other  two  verses  of  the  above. 

Ane  godlie  Instructione  for  old  and  young. 
On  yeir  begines  one  other  endis, 
Thus  Tyme  doeth  come  and  goe  ; 
All  thus  to  yor  Instructione  tends, 
Give  we  could  tak  it  BO. 
The  sommeria  heat,  ye  winters  cold, 
Whois  seasonis  lets  us  sie, 
Quhen  youth  is  gone  and  we  wax  old, 
Lyk  flouris  we  fade  and  die. 
There  are  other  seven  verses. 

Of  ye  birth  of  Chryst. 
Jurie  came  to  Jerusalem, 
All  ye  world  was  taxit  then, 
Blessed  Marie  brought  to  Bethlem 
Moir  than  all  the  warld  againe. 
A  gift  so  blist, 
So  goode,  ye  best 

That  ever  was  sein,  was  hard,  or  done; 
A  King,  A  Chyrst, 
Prophet,  A  Preiat— 
A  Jesus — God,  a  man,  a  sone. 

There  are  four  more  verses  of  the  first  part,  and 
then  comes 

The  second  pairt,  The  Passione. 
Turne  yor  eyes  which  ar  affixed 
On  this  worlds  deceiving  things, 

*  Otherwise  mools  or  muldit^fhe  earth  of  the  grave. 

7*  S.  I.  JAN.  9,  '86.) 



And  with  joy  and  sorrow  mixed  , 

Look  upone  the  King  of  Kings, 
Who  left  his  throne 
With  joys  unknown,  &c. 
There  are  five  other  verses  of  the  second  part. 

Off  ane  Contented  mind. 
My  mynd  to  me  a  Kingdom  is, 
Such  porfyt  joyis  therein  I  find  ; 
It  doth  excell  each  other  bliss 
As  warld  affords  or  grows  by  kynd. 
Thoh  much  I  want  that  most  men  halve, 
Yitt  mor  my  mynd  forbiddes  to  craive,  &c. 

Seven  similar  verses  follow.  BON  ACCORD. 

["My  mind  to  me  a  Kingdom  is  "  is  slightly  altered 
from  a  poem  in  Byrd's  '  Psalms,  Sonnets,'  &c.,  ]588,  re- 
printed in  Percy's  '  Reliques.'  "  Lyke  to  the  Damask 
Rose  you  see  "  ia  also  familiar,  and  is  given,  if  we  re- 
collect rightly,  as  an  illustration,  in  Pickering's  edition 
of  the  '  Poems  '  of  H.  King,  to  the  poem  beginning  "  Like 
the  i'alling  of  a  star."  Most  of  these  verses  are,  we  fancy, 
traceable ;  some  may  be  found  ia  '  N.  &  Q.1] 

PENNY  FAMILY. — I  am  anxious  to  discover  the 
ancestry  of  the  Rev.  John  Penny,  who  was  on 
Sept.  4,  1662,  instituted  to  the  Rectory  of  Bratton 
St.  Maur,  co.  Somerset,  but  resided  at  the  neigh- 
bouring town  of  Bruton.  In  his  will  (dated 
March  2,  1680,  33  Charles  II.)  he  mentions  his 
daughter  Margaret,  the  wife  of  Gabriel  Fellen, 
his  sons  Edward  and  James  Penny,  and  his 
cousins  Ann  Hayden  and  Edward  Churchill. 
Edward  and  James  Penny,  his  two  sons,  were 
both  of  Christ  Church  Coll.,  Oxford.  James 
became  chaplain  to  the  celebrated  Earl  of  War- 
rington  at  Dunham  Massey,and  subsequently  held 
the  college  living  of  Great  Budworth  in  Cheshire. 
By  the  parish  registers  of  Bruton  it  appears  that 
Robert  Penny  and  Rebecca  Capper,  both  of  that 
parish,  were  married  June  9,  1656.  A  Gyles 
Penny  married,  circa  1650,  Silvestra  Capper,  widow 
of  George  Luttrell,  Esq.,  of  Dunster,  and  of  Sir 
Edmund  Story.  This  Gyles  was  probably  a 
member  of  the  family  of  Penny,  or  Penne,  of  East 
Coker,  co.  Somerset,  and  Toller  Welme,  co.  Dorset, 
whose  pedigree  is  given  in  the  third  edition  of 
Hutchin&'s  '  Dorset,' for  Gyles  was  a  common  name 
in  that  family.  The  descendants  of  the  above- 
mentioned  James  Penny,  vicar  of  Great  Budworth, 
were  long  settled  at  Knutsford,  in  Cheshire,  and 
frequently  spelt  the  name  Pennee,  as  appears  from 
the  parish  registers  of  that  town.  In  the  *  Man- 
chester Grammar  School  Register,'  published  by  the 
Chetham  Society  (vol.  i.  p.  118),  it  is  stated  that 
the  Pennys  of  Knutsford  were  descended  from  a 
Protestant  minister  said  to  have  come  over  from 
France  at  the  time  of  the  Revocation  of  the  Edict 
of  Nantes,  and  that  the  name  was  originally 
Penned.  But  the  fact  that  their  undoubted 
ancestor,  the  Rev.  John  Penny,  was  instituted  to 
the  living  of  Bratton  so  early  as  the  year  1662 
is  sufficient  to  prove  that  some  mistake  has  here 
been  made.  Penny  was,  and  is  still,  a  common 

name  in  the  West  of  England,  and  in  the  seven- 
teenth century  was  undoubtedly  often  spelt  Penne. 
The  present  vicar  of  Bruton,  who  has  most  kindly 
and  courteously  given  me  his  aid  in  this  matter, 
assures  me  that  there  were  numerous  persons  of 
the  name  settled  in  that  town  as  early  as  the  year 
1554,  when  the  registers  commence.  On  the  other 
hand,  a  Solomon  Penny  was  a  director  of  the 
French  Protestant  Hospital  in  1718,  and  in  the 
*  Lists  of  Foreign  Protestants  and  Aliens  resident 
in  England  1618-1688,'  edited  for  the  Camden 
Society  by  Mr.  Durrant  Cooper,  there  appears 
(p.  55)  the  name  of  John  de  Penna,  a  form  of 
spelling  which  to  the  English  officials  of  the  time 
would  represent  the  sound  of  De  Penne'e.  If  any 
reader  of  "  N.  &  Q."  can  suggest  to  me  the  best 
mode  of  tracing  the  pedigree  of  the  Rev.  John 
Penny  I  shall  be  greatly  obliged. 

12,  Onslow  Gardens,  S.W. 

OLD  ST.  PANCRAS  CHURCHYARD.— Why  was  this 
(which  the  Midland  Railway  branches  now  cut  into 
three)  the  only  parochial  churchyard  I  know  con- 
taining Roman-catholic  tombs  ?  (I  object,  by  the 
way, to  dividing  that  compound  word  into  two,  with 
two  capitals.)  The  name  Le  Maire  (p.  449)  struck 
me  as  like  that  of  a  French  noble  there  buried, 
beside  two  cardinals  ;  but  his  stone  (which  was 
newer  and  far  more  legible  than  either  of  theirs) 
has  vanished  since  the  summer,  and  as  the  adjacent 
cardinal's  is  La  Marche,  I  probably  confusedly  re- 
membered that.  Hardly  a  word  but  this  name  is 
decipherable  ;  and  on  the  other  cardinal's  stone, 
which  has  a  very  Italian-like  escutcheon,  supported 
by  two  angels,  not  a  trace  of  either  arms  or  inscrip- 
tion remains.  E.  L.  G. 

CONQUER.  —  How  should  it  be  pronounced  ? 
I  wonder  how  many  clergyman  —  or  laymen  — 
reading  the  second  lesson  on  the  fourth  Sunday 
in  Advent,  said  "  He  went  forth  conquering  and  to 
conquer"  (Rev.  vi.  2)  as  conjuring  and  to 
conker"  or  "  conkwering  and  to  conkwer."  Many 
years  ago,  when  I  was  a  grammar-school  boy,  I 
was  taught  by  the  head  master  (afterwards  examin- 
ing chaplain  to  a  bishop)  to  pronounce  conquer  as 
conkwer,  and  ever  since  I  have  adhered  to  the  rule. 
But,  although  I  sometimes  hear  others  pronounce 
the  word  and  its  cognates  in  the  same  way,  yet 
I  think  quite  as  often  I  hear  the  harsher  pronun- 
ciation conker,  and  recently  I  heard  Mrs.  Langtry 
so  pronounce  the  word  in  '  She  Stoops  to  Conquer.' 


HORNEK. — The  panorama  of  London  was,  says 
Cunningham,  sketched  by  Mr.  Homer,  a  land 
surveyor,  and  finished  by  Mr.  E.  T.  Parris.  The 
panorama  of  "  London  by  Day  and  Night "  was, 
Mr.  Walford  says  (ii.  227),  painted  by  Danson, 
and  Gliddon,  the  singer  and  clever  com  poser  of  the 


[7th  8. 1.  JAN.  9,  '86. 

*  Literary  Dustman/  used  to  paint  with  him  all 
day  and  sing  his  songs  at  the  Eagle,  City  Road, 
at  night.  Are  there  two  panoramas  by  different 
hands;  and,  if  not,  is  Cunningham  right  or  Mr. 
Walford  ?  C.  A.  WARD. 

Haverstock  Hill. 

ASHTON  WERDEN,  curate  of  Lytham,  in  Lanca- 
shire, in  1741,  afterwards  curate  of  Btspham,  in 
the  same  county,  where  he  died  in  1767.  His 
name  does  not  appear  in  the  Oxford  or  Cambridge 
lists  of  graduates.  Information  about  him  is 
wanted.  H.  FISHWICK,  F.S.A. 

The  Heights,  Rochdale. 

HERALDIC. — Quarterly,  1  and  4,  a  chevron  be- 
tween three  escallops  ;  2  and  3,  a  sword.  These 
arms  on  a  lozenge  appear  on  some  silver,  dated 
1691,  in  the  possession  of  Sir  Thomas  White,  Bart., 
of  Wallingwells,  Notts.  I  am  unable  to  discover 
to  whom  they  belong,  and  shall  be  glad  of  assist- 
ance. M.  H.  WHITE. 

17,  Clarendon  Crescent,  Edinburgh. 

GENERAL  ARMSTRONG,  DIED  1742. — Information 
as  to  following  will  oblige.  1.  There  is  a  painting 
by  Kneller,  at  Blenheim,  of  General  Armstrong 
showing  a  plan  of  Bouchain  to  the  Duke  of  Marl- 
borough.  Is  it  a  full-length  or  three-quarters  ? 
2.  Are  there  in  any  London  church  mural  tablets 
to  the  memory  of  General  Armstrong  and  his 
daughters  Mary  and  Priscilla?  M.  H.  WHITE. 

17,  Clarendon  Crescent,  Edinburgh. 

A  DUMB  BARGE.— In  the  Times  of  December  3, 
1885,  p.  3,  col.  4,  there  is  a  report  of  an  action 
brought  by  the  owners  of  the  dumb  barge  Kate 
against  the  owners  of  the  steamship  Odiel,  in 
respect  of  a  collision  in  the  lower  pool  of  the 
Thames.  What  is  a  dumb  barge  ;  and  why  is  it  so 
called?  "W.  E.  BUCKLEY. 

[A  dumb  barge  used  to  signify  a  barge  used  as  a  pier, 
and  not  for  the  conveyance  of  merchandise.] 

BAMBOO.-— Can  any  of  your  readers  tell  me  who 
is  the  author  of  a  poem  in  pidgin  English  on  the 
bamboo  tree?     Each  verse  ends  with  the  word 
"  Bamboo."    The  last  verse  is  as  follows  :— 
And  now,  man  man,  my  talkee  done, 
And  so  my  say  chin  chin  to  you, 
My  hope  you  think  this  number  one — 

W.  M.  M. 

DEVIL-NAMES.— In  'The  Toilers  of  the  Sea' 
Victor  Hugo,  mentioning  Satanic  ambassadors,  says 
Belphegor  was  sent  to  France,  Hutgin  to  Italy, 
Belial  to  Turkey,  Tharung  to  Spain,  and  Martinet 
to  Switzerland.  He  adds  that  Satan's  grand 
almoner  is  Dagon  ;  Succor  Benoth,  the  chief  of  the 
eunuchs ;  Asmodeus,  gambling  banker ;  Kobal, 
theatrical  manager;  Verdelet,  master  of  cere- 
monies; and  Nybbas,  court-fool.  Is  it  to  be 

believed  that  these  names  are  Hugo's  invention  ? 
If  they  are  older  than  his  time,  where  did  he  find 
them  ?  What  do  the  words  mean  1  In  what  work 
can  I  read  the  best  account  of  the  diabolical  hier- 
archy ?  Bayle  (vol.  v.  p.  511)  alludes  to  such  an 
infernal  nobility  as  existent,  and  mentions  the 
names  of  eleven  devils  who  possessed  the  nuns  of 
Loudun  in  1632,  none  of  which  corresponds  with 
the  list  in  Victor  Hugo.  JAMES  D.  BUTLER. 
Madison,  Wis.,  U.S. 

[Belphegor  is,  of  course,  mentioned  by  Machiavelli. 
Dagon  and  Belial  are  classed  among  the  supporters  of 
Satan  in  '  Paradise  Lost.'  Asmodeus  is  the  name,  taken 
from  Tobit,  assigned  a  fiend  by  Lesage.  Many  of  these 
names  are  from  the  Bible,  the  Apocrypha,  and  the 

AUTHOR  OP  VERSES. — The  verses  a  specimen 
of  which  I  subjoin  seem  to  have  been  commonly 
repeated  about  forty  years  ago.  I  should  be  glad 
to  know  who  was  the  author  of  them,  and  where  I 
can  find  the  piece  entire.  It  begins  in  the 
character  of  one  Lady  Doubtful  issuing  her  orders  to 
the  footman  thus  : — 

If  Ensign  Charles  Sinclair  should  come, 

Remember,  John,  I  'm  not  at  home  ; 

For  though  first  cousin  to  a  lord, 

He  does  not  yet  befit  our  board. 

In  course  of  time  "despised  Sinclair  became  a 
lord  "  and  a  "  lion  "  of  fashion.  He  is  asked  to 
Lady  Doubtful's  to  dine  ;  but  though  the  dinner- 
hour  is  long  past,  still  "  no  Earl  Clare"  makes  his 
appearance.  "  John  "  is  summoned,  and  assures  his 
mistress  that  no  lord  has  been  to  the  house,  only 
"Mister  Sinclair,  that  ensign  chap,"  had  the 
audacity  to  present  himself,  but  had  been  sum- 
marily ejected,  according  to  her  ladyship's  orders  : 

He'll  never  come  no  more  to  tease  you. 

I  hope,  my  lady,  now  I  've  pleased  you  ! 

I  do  not  know  whether  the  piece  has  been 
published  in  any  collection  of  poems ;  it  may 
possibly  have  appeared  in  same  magazine  or  annual, 
and  not  have  been  reprinted  separately. 

C.  S.  JERRAM. 

Farnborough,  Hants. 

RUSSIA. — Has  this  officer — who  was  appointed  by 
the  Empress  Catharine  II.  of  Russia  Chief  Presi- 
dent of  Her  Imperial  Majesty's  Admiralty,  with  a 
seat  in  the  Russian  Council,  a  post  which  he  filled 
for  some  years — left  any  memoirs  concerning  his 
residence  at  the  Imperial  Court  of  Russia;  and, 
if  so,  have  such  documents  ever  been  published  ? 


THOMAS  PRINGLE. — Mr.  Ruskin,  in  part  v.  of 
his  '  Prseterita,'  refers  to  this  man  as  editor  of 
'  Friendship's  Offering,'  in  which  his  early  poetical 
essays  appeared.  He  gives  a  few  details  about 
him,  but  doubtless  more  is  known  concerning  his 
history.  Can  any  correspondent  give  a  further 

I.  JAN.  9,  '86.] 



account  of  his    birthplace,  writings,  and    other 
matters?  T.  CANN-HUGHES,  B.A. 


LUDGATE. — The  statues  of  King  Lud  and  his 
two  sons,  when  the  gates  were  taken  down  in  1761-2, 
were  given  by  the  City  to  Sir  Francis  Gosling,  to 
set  up  at  the  east  end  of  St.  Dunstan's  Church  ; 
but  this  never  got  done,  and  the  stones  were 
deposited  in  the  parish  bone-house.  Where  are 
they  now;  at  Guildhall,  or  lost  1  C.  A.  WARD. 

Haverstock  Hill. 

have  a  copy  of  the  Keepsake  for  1829.  It  con- 
tains, inter  alia,  two  stories,  both  professing  to 
be  "by  the  author  of  'Waverley.'"  Are  they 
generally  printed  among  the  acknowledged  mis- 
cellaneous works  of  Sir  Walter  Scott  ? 


2,  Hyde  Park  Mansions,  N.W. 

SIR  FERDINANDO  GORGES.— Can  any  reader  of 
'N.  &  Q.'  inform  me  if  any  letters  of  or  docu- 
ments relating  to  Sir  Fredinando  Gorges  not  printed 
or  mentioned  in  the  reports  of  the  Royal  Manu- 
scripts Commissioners  are  in  existence  ?  Is  any 
portrait  of  him  known  ?  JAMES  P.  BAXTER. 

CHURCHWARDENS. — Both  churchwardens  for  the 
parish  of  Ealing  are  chosen  by  the  vestry.  Many 
years  ago  the  then  vicar  attempted  to  establish 
his  right  to  choose  one  of  them  before  a  court  of 
law,  and  lost  his  suit.  Is  not  this  a  very  uncom- 
mon state  of  things;  and  does  it  obtain  in  any 
other  parish  ?  H.  DELEVINGNE. 


notice  on  Mr.  John  Ormsby's  translation  of  '  Don 
Quixote '  in  the  Times  of  Dec.  25,  we  read  :  "  The 
most  effective  illustrations  of  'Don  Quixote7  we 
ever  saw  were  designed  by  a  Spanish  artist  on  a  set 
of  Sevres  china."  What  is  the  name  of  the  artist 
in  question  ?  Have  these  designs  ever  been  en- 
graved and  reproduced  on  paper?  Is  the  set  of 
Sevres  china  to  be  seen  in  England  ?  If  not,  is  it 
preserved  in  the  museum  of  the  factory  at  Sevres  ? 
I  was  there  some  months  ago,  but  did  not  notice  it. 

H.  S.  A. 

SURNAME  OF  BUNCH. — Can  any  of  your  readers 
give  information  regarding  the  origin,  derivation, 
and  localization  of  the  above  surname  ?  I  cannot 
find  it  mentioned  in  '  Debrett,'  Walford's  «  County 
Families,'  Foster's  *  Peerage,'  &c.,  or  '  Clergy  List.' 
What  are  the  crest  and  arms  ? 


33,  Upper  Bedford  Place,  W.C. 

"  PRECES  PAULINA.  "—If  any  reader  of  '  N.  &  Q.' 
is  aware  of  the  existence  of  a  copy,  of  earlier 
date  than  1705,  of  the  little  book  entitled  'Preces, 

Catechismus  et  Hymni,  in  usum  antiquse  et  Celebris 
Scholse  juxta  Divi  Pauli  Templum  apud  Londi- 
nates/  I  should  be  much  obliged  by  a  communi- 
cation from  him.  The  copy  of  an  edition  of 
1655,  referred  to  in  the  'Sacra  Academica'  of 
the  Rev.  J.  W.  Hewett  (see  '  N.  &  Q.,'  5th  S.  ix. 
228),  cannot  now  be  found.  J.  H.  LUPTON. 
St.  Paul's  School,  West  Kensington,  W. 

WOLDICHE. — Ricardus  Shakspere  is  mentioned 
as  dwelling  at  Woldiche,  a  place  no  doubt  either  in 
or  near  Warwickshire,  in  or  about  A.D.  1460.  This 
fact  is  gathered  from  the  Knolle  register,  now  at 
Birmingham;  but  where  was  Woldiche?  It  is 
not  mentioned  by  Dugdale  nor  in  any  of  my 
numerous  Warwickshire  books. 


ROTHERHAM  CHURCH.— I  have  seen  in  '  N.  &  Q.' 
(though  not  at  a  very  recent  date)  a  reference  to 
Rotherham  Church.  Can  the  writer  or  any  of  your 
readers  state  what  has  become  of  the  old  canopy  or 
cover  for  the  font  ? — which  I  believe  has  been  re- 
placed with  modern  work.  I  have  a  sketch  of  the 
ancient  font  and  cover,  a  beautiful  and  elaborate 
piece  of  carving,  black  with  age.  The  pulpit,  which 
was  doubtless  of  the  same  age,  black  as  ebony,  has 
been  scraped  or  modernized,  so  that  on  visiting 
the  church  a  year  ago  I  could  not  recognize  it.  The 
galleries,  likewise  black  oak,  which  are  now  done 
away  with,  were  sufficient  to  repew  the  entire 
church.  I  have  a  special  interest  in  this  fine  old 
structure.  A.  G.  DANVERS  TAYLOR. 


[We  know  of  no  reference  to  Kotherham  Church.  The 
chapel  on  Rotherham  Bridge  is  discussed  6th  S.  xi.  325, 

GARTER  BRASSES. — I  have  seen  it  stated  that 
the  celebrated  memorial  (A.D.  1413)  in  Felbrigge 
Church,  Norfolk,  of  Sir  Symon  Felbrigge,  K.G., 
standard-bearer  to  King  Richard  II.,  is  one  of  the 
five  Garter  brasses  in  England.  Will  any  of  your 
correspondents  kindly  say  where  are  to  be  found 
the  other  four  ?  JOHN  ALT  PORTER. 


MUGWUMP. — In  the  Daily  News,  November  27, 
a  mugwump  is  defined  as  a  "  superior  person,  who 
commonly  holds  aloof  from  politics."  The  Pall 
Mall  Gazette  of  the  same  date  stigmatizes  this 
definition  as  egregiously  mistaken,  and  says,  "  The 
truth  is  exactly  the  opposite.  The  mugwump 
is  a  person  who  presumes  to  introduce  into  politics 
considerations  higher  than  mere  party  success."  I 
should  like  to  know  (a)  the  true  meaning  of  mug- 
wump ;  (b)  whence  derived  ;  (c)  when,  where,  and 
under  what  circumstances  it  originated. 


24,  Victoria  Grove,  Chelsea,  S.W. 

NEWPORT,  ISLE  OF  WIGHT. — Where  can  I  see 
any  representation  of  the  Bugle  Inn  and  of  the 


[7tn  S.  I.  JAN.  9,  't6. 

George  Inn,  both  in  the  High  Street  of  this  town, 
as  they  were  in  the  time  of  Charles  L,  during  his 
imprisonment  in  the  island— 1647-8? 

C.  A.  J.  M. 

"  Like  the  madman  in  Le  Sage,  some  libellers  scatter 
their  firebrands  in  sport."  EDWARD  MALAN. 

To  catch  the  eel  of  science  by  the  tail. 
I  find  the  verse  quoted  in  an  article  in  the  A  rchceo- 
logical  Journal,  rol.  iv.  p.  165, 1847.  Is  it  known  whence 
the  poet  took  the  expression,  and  if  he  attached  a  par- 
ticular meaning  to  it  1  Of  course  it  calls  to  my  mind  the 
"  salmon  of  knowledge  "  of  Irish  legends.  H.  GAIDOZ. 

(6th  S.  xii.  496.) 

My  query  on  this  having  been  written  and 
ready  to  post,  I  may  be  allowed  a  word  or  two. 
Most  certainly  the  bed-staves  quoted  by  Nares 
from  Armyn's  will  were  bed-rungs,  or  bed-laths. 
Their  number,  six  to  each  bedstead,  proves  this. 
But  the  reverse  reason  as  certainly  proves  that 
Bobadill's  bedstaff  ('Every  Man  in  his  Humour/ 
I.  iv.)  was  not  a  bed-rung,  for  his  bed  had  but 
one,  and  he  was  obliged  to  call  to  his  hostess  to 
bring  another  before  he  could  show  his  fencing 
feat.  This  intention  also  shows  that  the  John- 
son-Nares  bed-staff,  if  it  ever  existed,  was  not 
his  bed-staff,  for  he  could  not  show  an  opponent  a 
fencing  feat  when  both  had  clumsily  stout  poles, 
each  six  feet,  or  at  the  least  over  five  feet  and  a  half 
long  ;  broom  handles  would  have  been  far  more 
easily  managed  and  as  easily  obtainable.  Besides, 
our  ancestors  must  have  known  the  easy  process  of 
"tucking  in,"  and  neither  Bobadill  nor  Cob,  his 
landlord,  was  likely  to  go  in  for  luxuries.  Hence 
Miss  Emma  Phipson's  suggestion  seems  most  pro- 
bable, that  Bobadill's  bed-staff  was  a  stick,  used  when 
in  bed  to-summon  attendance,  instead  of  the  modern 
bell.  Invalids  still  use  such  a  staff,  and  I,  though 
no  invalid,  have  so  used  a  poker  or  hearth-brush 
handle.  A  passage  in  Reg.  Scot's  'Witchcraft,' 
p.  79,  seems  to  me  to  confirm  this.  A  pretty 
wench,  wishing  to  get  rid  of  her  incubus-devil, 
went  to  St.  Bernard,  "  who  took  hir  his  staffe,  and 
bad  hir  laie  it  in  the  bed  beside  hir.  And  indeed 
the  divell,  fearing  the  bed-staffe  or  that  S.  Bernard 
laie  there  himselfe,  durst  not  approch."  Here  a 
walking  or  pastoral  staff,  by  mere  position  and  by 
laying  in  the  bed  (not  under  it  like  a  bed-rung), 
became  a  bed-staff.  It  has  been  suggested  to  me 
that  Scot  here  used  bed-staff  by  way  of  joke. 
Doubtless  he  jocularly  named  it  a  bed-staff,  either 
from  its  being  able  to  summon  assistance  or  be- 
cause there  may  have  been  an  undercurrent  refer- 
ence to  its  being  used  as  a  cudgel,  as  a  bed-staff, 
that  could  be  used  in  fencing,  very  likely  was  at  fit  or 

unfit  times ;  yet  the  word  staff,  if  the  word  had  not 
the  meaning  I  would  assign  it,  would  have  been 
sufficient  ;  and  it  is,  I  think,  an  insult  to  Scot,  and 
wholly  at  variance  with  his  excellent  manner  and 
style,  to  suppose  that  he  could  have  made  so  miser- 
able, so  senseless  a  joke — one  that  cannot  even  be 
dignified  with  that  name — as  to  liken  a  pastoral 
staff  to  a  flat  four-foot  or  three-foot  bed-rung. 
Again,  in  *  Albumazar,'  II.  iii.,  Trincalo  says — 
Now  do  I  feel  the  calf  of  my  right  leg 
Twingle  and  dwindle  to  th'  smallness  of  a  bed-staff. 

It  is  not  his  leg,  but  the  calf  of  his  leg ;  and  surely 
a  broad  bed-stave  is  not  a  telling  or  appropriate 
simile,  though  a  stick  for  knocking  on  the  floor 
would  be  humorously  exaggerative,  appropriate, 
and  likely  to  tell.  So  in  *  A  Match  at  Midnight,' 
II.  i.,  old  Ear-lack  is  described  as  "  the  old  man  ;  :i 
foot  like  a  bear,  a  leg  like  a  bed-staff,  a  hand  like  a, 
hatchet,  an  eye  like  a  pig,  and  a  face  like  a  winter 
pigmie."  And  here  I  would  remark,  notwithstand- 
ing the  next  quotations,  that,  in  accordance  with 
Bobadill's  one  bed-staff,  the  sentences  are  so  framed 
in  the  last  two  quotations  as  to  allow  of  the  sin- 
gular, bed-staff — a  leg,  not  two  legs,  being  spoken  of. 
Lastly,  in  Middleton's  '  A  Trick  to  Catch  the  Old 
One,"  IV.  v.,  we  have  Dampit  the  usurer  in  bed, 
of  whom  Lamprey  and  Spichcock  thus  speak  imme- 
diately on  their  entry — 

"  Lam.  Look  you  :  did  I  not  tell  you  he  lay  like  the 
devil  in  chains,  when  he  was  bound  for  a  thousand 

" Spi.  But  I  think  the  devil  had  no  steel  bed-staffs; 
he  goes  beyond  him  for  that," 

And  afterwards  Gulf  says — 
"  What,  hung  alive  in  chains  ?  0  spectacle  !  Bed-staffs 

of  steel  ?     0  monstrum  [&c.] here  's  a  just  judgment 

shown  upon  usury,  extortion,  and  trampling  villany  !  " 

What  caused  Dampit  to  be  in  chains  and  steel 
bed-staffs,  and  how  they  were  affixed  to  him  is  be- 
yond me ;  but  this  at  least  is  evident, — that  the  bed 
and  bedding  did  not  conceal  these  bed-staffs,  as  they 
must  have  done  had  they  been  bed-rungs,  bed- 
laths,  or  bed-staves. 

I  have  since  been  told  that  a  gentleman  has 
published  his  belief — though  I  know  not  on  what 
authority — that  the  bed-staff  was  a  staff  for  beat- 
ing up  the  bed.  BR.  NICHOLSON. 

This  word  seems  to  have  two  meanings.  There 
cannot  be  a  doubt,  I  think,  that  sometimes  it  sig- 
nifies the  pieces  of  wood — commonly,  though  not 
always,  I  understand,  flat — which  support  a  bed, 
and  which  fit  into  holes  prepared  for  them  in  the 
bed- frame,  or  "  bed-stocks"  as  we  call  them  here. 
The  more  common  meaning  of  the  word  was  a 
stick,  like  a  long  walking-stick,  used  by  servants  in 
making  beds.  They  used  to  be  very  common,  and 
are,  I  believe,  still  in  use.  Their  modern  name  is 
bed-stick.  They  are  needed  more  especially  when 
one  side  of  a  bed  is  close  to  a  wall,  or  when  the 
bed  stands  in  a  recess.  EDWARD  PEACOCK. 

7">S.  I.  JAN.  9/86. j 



My  reply  to  this  query  is  offered  with  some  diffi- 
dence— not  because! doubt  its  accuracy, but  because 
I  am  not  able  to  give  authority  for  it.  When  the 
bedstead  was  a  mere  box  filled  with  straw,  this 
straw  required  to  be  turned  over  and  worked  about 
every  day;  and  the  use  of  the  bed-staff  was  to  rake 
up  aod  turn  the  straw.  The  bed-staff,  therefore, 
was  an  article  in  constant  use,  and  had  to  be 
always  at  hand  :  hence  its  convenience  as  an  offen- 
sive or  defensive  weapon.  HERMENTRUDB. 

As  to  the  precise  manner  in  which  the  bed- 
staves  were  "  stuck  "  I  cannot  say,  but  Dr.  John- 
son's description  of  them  seems  to  be  correct. 
To  judge  from  the  following  passages,  the  bed- 
staff  can  scarcely  have  been  "  a  weapon  of 
mickle  might,"  with  which  (vide  'Ingoldsby 
Legends')  Lady  Rohesia  punished  her  faithless 
husband.  In  Halliwell  and  Wright's  edition  of 
Nares's  '  Glossary  '  the  following  quotation  is  made 
from  <  Alleyn's  Will,'  1626  :— "  All  the  furniture 
in  the  twelve  poor  schollars  chamber,  that  is  to  say, 
six  bed-steads,  six  matts,  sixe  mattresses,  six  feather 
beds,  six  feather  bolsters three  dozen  of  bed- 
staves,  &c."  Apparently  there  were  six  bed-staves 
for  each  bed,  three  for  each  side.  In  Ben  Jonson's 
1  Staple  of  News,'  V.  i.,  Pennyboy,  the  uncle,  is 
represented  as  almost  having  killed  his  maid  by 
"  throwing  bed-staves  at  her."  In  '  Albumazar,' 
1615,  Trincalo  says  : — 

Now  do  I  feel  the  calf  of  my  right  leg 

Twingle  and  dwindle  to  th'  smallness  of  a  bed-staff." 

'0.  Bug.  Plays  '  (ed.  Hazlitt),  vol.  xi.  p.  337. 
Of.  also,  "But  I  say,  Master  Ear-lack,  the  old 
man  !  a  foot  like  a  bear,  a  leg  like  a  bed-staff."— 
4  A  Match  at  Midnight,'  1633,  ibid.,  vol.  xiii.  p.  35. 

F.    C.    BlRKBECK    TiSRKY. 

Frequently  the  ancient  bedstead  was  provided 
with  a  bed-staff,  which  was  a  round  wooden  pin  in- 
serted in  the  sides  of  bedsteads  to  keep  the 
clothes  from  slipping  out  ;  but  whether  it  was 
placed  horizontally  or  upright  does  not  appear.  If 
horizontally,  ic  must  have  been  about  six  feet  long. 
It  seems  to  have  been  used  as  a  weapon  sometimes, 
for  Chaucer  tells  us  that  the  "scolere  Johan," 
although  a  stranger  in  the  bedroom,  tried  to  find  a 
staff  by  moonlight,  and  the  miller's  wife,  finding 
one,  unwittingly  knocked  her  husband  down  with 

This  Johan  stert  up  as  fast  as  ever  he  might, 

And  grasped  by  the  walles  to  and  fro, 

To  find  a  staf ;  and  scbe  sturt  up  also, 

And  knewe  the  estres  bet  them  than  dede  you, 

And  by  the  wal  ache  took  a  staf  anon. 
In  the  reign  of  Edward  I.  (1272-1307)  Sir  John 
Chichester,  as  he  was  playing  with  his  man-ser- 
vant, killed  him  in  the  following  way:  Sir  John 
made  a  pass  at  him  with  a  sword  in  the  scabbard, 
and  the  servant  parried  it  with  a  bed-staff,  but  in 
so  doing  struck  off  the  chape  of  the  scabbard, 
whereby  the  end  of  the  sword  came  out  of  the 

scabbard,  and  the  thrust  not  being  effectually 
broken,  the  servant  was  killed  by  the  point  of  the 
sword.  The  frontispiece  of  a  work  entitled 
1  luniper  Lecture,  with  the  description  of  all  sorts 
of  Women,  good  and  bad,'  published  in  1639,  re- 
presents a  woman  entering  a  bedroom  to  punish 
her  husband,  who  is  in  bed,  and  who  grasps  the 
bed-staff  as  a  foil  to  protect  himself.  In  a  wood- 
cut in  Wright's  'Domestic  Manners,  &c.,  in  the 
Middle  Ages,7  we  see  a  chambermaid  of  the  seven- 
teenth century  using  a  bed-staff  to  beat  up  the  bed- 
ding in  the  process  of  making  the  bed.  The  staff 
must  have  been  a  light  and  portable  article,  for  we 
find  its  rapid  movements  passing  into  a  proverb, 
"  the  twinkling  of  a  bed -staff,"  or  bed-post.  Shad- 
well,  in  his  *  Virtuoso,'  1676,  makes  Sir  Samuel 
Hearty  to  say,  "  Gad,  I  '11  do  it  instantly,  in  the 
twinkling  of  a  bed-staff."  Rabelais  also  says,  "  He 
would  have  cut  him  down  in  the  twinkling  of  a 
bed-staff."  Colruan  puts  similar  words  into  the 
mouth  of  Lord  DuberJy  in  the  *  Heir-at-Law.'  And 
Bobadill,  in  '  Every  Man  in  his  Humour,'  uses  the 
same  phrase  to  illustrate  his  skill  with  the  rapier. 
('Concerning  Beds  and  Bedsteads,'  St.  James s 
Magazine,  1866.)  EVERARD  HOME  COLEMAN. 

(6th  S.  xii.  465).— As  I  have  some  interest  in  the 
late  Mr.  Neale  and  his  writings,  I  aoi  glad  to  be 
able  to  mention  the  following  particulars,  partly  in 
the  hope  that  the  obscurities  therein  may  be  cleared 

On  Aug.  10,  1824,  the  Rev.  Erskine  Neale, 
described  as  of  Magdalen  College,  Cambridge, 
married  at  Sculcoates,  Hull,  Mary,  only  daughter 
of  George  Fielding,  M.D.,  surgeon,  Hull  (Gent. 
Mag.,  1824,  ii.  272,  464).  In  February,  1828,  the 
late  George  Hunsley  Fielding,  M.D.,  F.R.S.,  of 
Tonbridge,  son  of  Mr.  George  Fielding  just  men- 
tioned, dedicated  his  '  Observations  on  the  Human 
Structure,'  Hull,  1828,  to  his  "friend,"  'The 
Reverend  Erskine  Neale,  B.A."  Now  'The 
Living  and  the  Dead,7  published  in  1827,  but 
dated  June  10,  1825,  which  the  Editor  of  '  N.  &  Q.7 
(3rd  S.  v.  106)  and  Olphar  Hamst  in  his  *  Handbook,' 
p.  178,  unhesitatingly  assign  to  the  Rev.  Ersktne 
Neale,  Vicar  of  Exning,  and  author  of  other  known 
and  acknowledged  books,  contains  passages  which 
imply  that  the  writer  knew  and  lived  in  the 
neighbourhood  of  Hull.  York  is  mentioned,  p.  11; 
Wilmington,  p.  22,  possibly  stands  for  Sculcoates; 
the  Rev.  John  Scott,  of  St.  Mary's,  Hull,  p.  211  ; 
Hull  and  Gainsborough,  the  Hull  Imfirmary  (of 
which  Mr.  George  Fielding  was  the  senior  surgeon), 
&c.,  pp.  226-9.  Moreover  my  own  copy  of  the 
book  is  inscribed  *'  To  Miss  La  Marche  With  the 
cordial  remembrances  &  best  wishes  of  the  Author, 
March  7th,  1827."  She  was  the  daughter  of  Mr. 
John  Bernhard  La  Marche,  a  well-known 
Hull  merchant,  whose  old-fashioned  clerk  and 



[7"»  S.  I.  JAJN.  9,  ' 

counting-house,  the  last  of  their  kind  in  Hull, 
remained  in  High  Street  there  until  a  few  years 

But  in  Crockford's  '  Clerical  Directory ;  it  is 
recorded,  presumably  by  Mr.  Neale  himself,  that 
he,  the  Vicar  of  Exning,  was  of  Emmanuel  College, 
Cambridge,  B.A.  1828,  M.A.  1832,  and  that  he  was 
ordained  deacon  in  1829,  and  priest  in  1830. 
Were  there  two  Erskine  Neales  ;  or  had  the  deacon 
of  1829  been  a  minister  in  some  other  body  before 
entering  the  Church  of  England  ?  If  this  latter 
supposition  be  true,  how  came  he  to  write  his 
experiences  as  "  A  Country  Curate  "  early  in  1827, 
two  whole  years  before  he  was  in  orders  ?  The 
use  of  such  a  title,  as  of  "  A  Coroner's  Clerk  "  and 
"A  Gaol  Chaplain,"  and  others  which  Mr.  Neale 
adopted,  might  be  a  mere  ordinary  literary 
expedient  under  which  an  author  who  was  really 
none  of  these  might  record  so-called  experiences 
that  were  purely  imaginary.  However  that  may 
be,  the  person  of  whom  I  write  was  indisputably 
called  "Reverend"  in  1824  and  1828.  Men  so 
often  changed  their  colleges  that  a  migration  from 
Magdalen  to  Emmanuel  is  not  impossible  ;  but 
MR.  PICKFORD  removes  him  to  St.  John's. 

Before  he  was  Rector  of  Kirton,  Suffolk,  Mr. 
Neale  was  Vicar  of  Adlingfleet,  near  Howden, 
Yorkshire.  Olphar  Hamst  (p.  208)  says  he  was  born 
in  1805  (?),  and  refers  to  '  Men  of  the  Time/  He 
died  at  the  vicarage,  Exning,  of  which  place  he  had 
been  vicar  twenty-nine  years,  on  Nov.  23.  1883. 

The  following  is  a  list  of  some  of  his  books 
not  mentioned  by  MR.  PICKFORD.  Some  of  the 
titles  are  taken  from  Olphar  Hamst's  'Handbook  for 
Fictitious  Names,'  1868,  pp.  4,  6,  139,  178,  188  ; 
those  marked  (*)  are  acknowledged  in  Crockford's 
'  Clerical  Directory,'  1870,  1879,  together  with 
*  The  Life  of  the  Duke  of  Kent/  *  The  Life-Book 
of  a  Labourer/  and '  The  Old  Minor  Canon,'  already 
mentioned  : — 

The  Living  and  the  Dead.  By  A  Country  Curate. 
London  (Windsor),  Charles  Knight,  1827.  8vo.  4  leaves, 
+pp.  379.  Ded.  to  Dr.  Pearson,  Dean  of  Sarum.  Second 
series,  1829. 

The  Subaltern. 

The  Country  Curate.  By  the  Author  of '  The  Subaltern.' 
2vols.  8vo.  1830.  In  1  vol.  8vo.,  Colburn's  "  Standard 
Novels,"  1834. 

*Sermons  on  the  Dangers  and  Duties  of  a  Christian. 
8vo.  1830. 

The  Village  Poor-house,  an  attempt  to  illustrate  the 
state  of  feeling  amidst  the  rural  Pauper  Population. 
By  A  Country  Curate.  12mo.  1832. 

*The  Bishop's  Daughter. 

*The  Closing  Scene;  or,  Christianity  and  Infidelity 
contrasted  in  the  last  hours  of  remarkable  persons.  By 
the  Author  of  The  Bishop's  Daughter.'  London,  1848 ; 
12mo.  1849  ;  two  series,  2  vols.  12mo.,  1850-3. 

*The  Earthly  Resting  Places  ot  the  Just.    8vo.     1851. 

The  Summer  and  Winter  of  the  Soul  (Sterling,  Irving, 
&c.).  12mo.  1852. 

The  Riches  that  bring  no  Sorrow.    8vo.    1852. 

Self  Sacrifice  ;  or,  the  Chancellor's  Chaplain.  12mo. 

Sunsets  and  Sunshine;  or,  varied  Aspects  of  Life 
(Lola  Montes,  Neild,  Sterne,  Hone,  Cobbett,  &c.).  8vo. 

The  Blank  Book  of  a  Small  Colleger. 
The  Note-book  of  a  Coroner's  Clerk.     Reprinted  from 
Bentlei/s  Miscellany. 

*  Reasons  for  supporting  the  S.P.G. 
*The  Landlord's  Duty  to  the  Labourer. 

Many  articles  in  magazines.  W.  C.  B. 

SMOKING  IN  CHURCH  (6th  S.  xii.  385, 415,  470). 
— I  must  say  I  feel  a  great  deal  of  sympathy  with 
A.  J.  M.  in  regard  to  the  refreshment  and  relief 
which  one  side  of  one's  nature  feels  in  the  interior 
of  a  Dutch  church.  All  is  calm  and  restful,  and 
one  has  no  apprehension  of  any  "  restoration " 
impending.  The  only  place  I  know  in  England 
where  one  has  the  same  feeling  is  the  chapel  of  the 
Foundling  Hospital.  If  A.  J.  M.  does  not  know 
it,  I  should  advise  him  to  go  and  see  it  some  week- 
day when  next  in  town.  Last  autumn  I  spent  a 
few  hours  at  Edam,  one  of  the  so  called  "  Dead 
Cities  of  the  Zuyder  Zee,"  though,  as  it  seemed  to 
me,  a  quietly  active  and  bustling  little  place,  and  a 
great  centre  of  the  Dutch  cheese  trade.  My  friend 
the  burgomaster,  being  engaged  on  some  municipal 
business  when  I  arrived,  put  me  in  charge  of  the 
minister  for  half  an  hour  or  so,  and  we  went  to  the 
church.  The  good  man  kept  his  hat  on  all  the 
time  that  he  was  showing  and  explaining  to  me 
various  matters  of  interest  about  the  interior, 
having  on  entering  lighted  a  cigar  and  offered  me 
one.  From  what  I  saw  of  him,  I  should  think  that 
he  was  the  very  last  person  to  mean  any  irreverence. 
I  have  never  seen  any  smoking  during  service, 
though  hats  are  freely  worn,  as  they  used  to  be  in 
Holland  during  banquets,  if  the  fine  pictures  by 
Frans  Hals  and  others  represent  matter  of  fact. 

J.  T.  F. 

Bp.  Hatfield's  Hall,  Durham. 

I  send  you  a  copy  of  a  note  which  I  made  nearly 
thirty  years  ago,  of  my  own  experience  on  this 
subject.  It  refers  to  the  frontispiece  of  a  little 
book,  '  Forms  of  Prayers  used  by  K.  William  III. 
at  the  Sacrament/ 1704  :— 

"  The  countrymen  of  King  William,  at  the  present  day, 
not  only  walk  through  their  churches  wearing  their  hats, 
but  a  clergyman  was  lately  seen  smoking  a  cigar  in  one  of 
the  principal  churches.  The  congregations  in  that  country 
generally  wear  their  hats  throughout  the  preformance  of 
Divine  Service,  and  it  has  been  asserted  that  K-.  William 
persisted  in  this  formulary  when  he  attended  at  churches 
in  England  ;  but  this  must  have  been  a  Jacobite  slander, 
for  in  the  frontispiece  of  this  little  book  he  has  nothing 
on  his  head  but  an  ample  flowing  wig,  and  the  crown 
[called  in  Bowbellia  "  the  King's  best  hat "]  and  sceptre 
are  reverently  laid  upon  a  cushion  before  him." 

The  distinguished  Baptist  minister,  the  Eev. 
Kobert  Hall,  was  said  to  be  another  English 
example  of  profuse  smoking  in  the  intervals  of 
public  worship  and  preaching. 

I  saw  the  smoking  chair  of  Dr.  Sam.  Parr,  in 

7*8. 1.  JAN.  9, '86.] 


which  he  has  been  engraved  engaged  in  insensing, 
also  his  wig  and  gambadoes,  at  Hatton  Rectory, 
after  the  death  of  his  son-in-law  and  successor,  the 
Rev.  Mr.  Lym,  about  1845. 


I  remember  three  instances  of  smoking  in  church 
in  Lima,  Peru.  (1)  In  the  church  of  La  Merced  I  saw 
a  layman  surreptitiously  enjoying  his  cigar  while 
service  was  going  on.  (2)  In  the  vestry  of  the  same 
church  I  saw  a  full-robed  bishop  smoking  before 
going  into  the  pulpit  to  preach.  In  his  case  a 
friendly  layman  put  a  handkerchief  under  the 
episcopal  chin,  to  keep  the  ashes  from  falling 
on  the  smoker's  robes.  (3)  In  the  cathedral 
vestry  I  saw  the  "  Master  of  the  Ceremonies " 
(an  Englishman)  smoking  a  cigar.  A  spittoon  is 
placed  in  the  stall  of  each  cathedral  dignitary. 
Are  these  a  "  survival"  of  a  time  when  smoking  in 
church  was  not  uncommon  ?  J.  M.  COTVTER. 


THE  BASILISK  (6th  S.  xii.  225).— In  Bishop 
Lowth's  *  Translation  of  Isaiah/  published  in  1778, 
the  expression  ^1^5 V  is  translated  "  basilisk": — 

And  the  suckling  shall  play  upon  the  hole  of  the  aspic ; 
And  upon  the  den  of  the  basilisk  shall  the  new-weaned 
child  lay  his  hand.— Chap.  xi.  8. 

This  is  instead  of  "  cockatrice,"  as  in  the  A.V., 
and  one  creature  is  quite  as  fabulous  as  the  other. 
The  cockatrice,  according  to  heralds,  possesses  the 
head  of  the  cock  with  the  body  and  tail  of  the 
dragon,  whilst  the  basilisk  is  supposed  to  be  an 
animal  like  a  lizard,  whose  very  look  was  fatal  to 
life.  The  meaning,  of  course,  of  the  text  and  con- 
text in  the  chapter  is  quite  clear,  and  the  passage 
is  an  instance  of  Oriental  metaphor.  In  '  Zadig  ; 
or,  the  Book  of  Fate,'  by  Voltaire,  some  Eastern 
maidens  are  represented  as  in  quest  of  the  basilisk. 

Newbourne  Rectory,  Woodbridge. 

CENTURY  (6th  S.  xi.  221,  262,  301,  382;  xii. 
203,  397). — In  the  above,  referring  to  Anthony 
Askham's  *  Almanac,'  printed  in  the  year  1555, 
I  gave  it  as  my  opinion  that  Thomas  Marshe  was 
the  printer.  From  some  interesting  titles  sent  me 
by  your  correspondent  P.  P.,  I  find  that  it  was 
printed  by  William  Powell,  and  I  shall  be  glad  if 
you  will  insert  this  correction. 

I  take  this  opportunity  to  thank  P.  P.  for  the 
trouble  he  has  taken,  and  to  assure  him  I  shall  be 
very  pleased  if  we  can  mutually  assist  one  another 
in  the  same  way  at  some  future  time. 

H.  R.  PLOMER. 

9,  Torbay  Road,  Willesden  Lane,  N.W. 

NUTS  AT  FEASTS  AND  IN  GAMES  (6th  S.  xii.  513). 
— The  Hebrew  is  not  quite  correct  in  the  reference 
quoted  by  W.  C.  B.  In  the  Talmud  Pesachini  (Pass- 

over) the  custom  of  giving  the  children  nuts  is  re- 
ferred to  more  than  once.  It  was  then  not  so  much 
on  the  feast  itself  as  on  the  day  preceding  that  the 
nuts  were  used.  The  children  had  to  be  kept  awake 
for  the  service  which  is  performed  in  every  Jewish 
home  on  the  Passover  Eve  (the  Holy  Communion 
is  derived  therefrom),  and  the  nuts  were  given 
for  the  purpose  of  keeping  the  children  occupied. 
The  nuts,  I  should  say,  were  eaten  rather  than 
played  with.  I.  ABRAHAMS. 

BARTOLOZZI  AND  HIS  WORKS  (6th  S.  xii.  439, 
466).— Probably  the  finest  collection  in  the  world 
of  Bartolozzi's  prints  is  that  in  the  library  of  the 
Vienna  Albertina,  The  collection  was  made  during 
the  early  part  of  the  century  by  Bartolozzi  himself, 
and  in  forty-four  folio  volumes  contains,  in  addi- 
tion to  his  first  essays,  specimens  in  various  states 
of  all  his  works  engraved  while  living  in  London. 
Bartolozzi  disposed  of  this  magnificent  collection  to 
M.  Vonder  Null,  of  Vienna,  and  by  him  it  was  re- 
sold to  the  Archduke  Albrecht,  who  added  it  to  the 
Albertina  collection  of  prints.  There  is  an  account 
of  this  collection,  described  as  the  property  of 
M.  Vonder  Null,  in  Ackermann's  '  Repository  of 
Arts  '  for  1815,  vol.  xiii.  pp.  364-5.  It  was  only 
quite  recently  that  I  discovered  what  had  become 
of  it.  ANDREW  W.  TUER. 

The  Leadenhall  Press,  B.C. 

DOUT  (6th  S.  xii.  494).— I  believe  that  I  also 
have  heard  this  word  in  Dorset,  and  I  well  re- 
member hearing  it.  many  years  ago,  in  Shropshire. 
So  the  range  of  its  habitat  must  be  fairly  extensive. 
Douse  is  perhaps  a  commoner  form.  C.  B.  M. 

To  dout  the  fire  or  the  candle  is  an  expression  in 
common  use  among  the  lower  classes  in  my  native 
county,  Devonshire.  I.  E.  C. 

Dout  is  commonly  used  in  Devonshire. 


[In  addition  to  the  foregoing  M.A.Oxon  knows  the 
word  dout,  in  the  sense  of  do  out  fire  or  candle,  as  a 
provincialism  in  Gloucestershire  and  Radnorshire ;  MB. 
GANTILLON  heard  it  used  by  a  housemaid  from  Coleford, 
in  the  Forest  of  Dean  ;  ESTE  says  it  is  used  by  elderly 
unlettered  people  in  Warwickshire  and  Staffordshire; 
W.  C.  B.  heard  recently  "  one  of  the  youngest  of  the 
pensioners  in  a  well-known  Gloucestershire  workhouse 
sa,j  ' hQ  douted  the  gas'";  in  Lancashire  he  has  heard 
don  used  by  working  people  MR.  BRIERLY  quotes  from 
Edwards,  '  Damon  and  Pythias,'  "  The  porters  are  drunk, 
will  they  not  dup  the  gate  to-day]"  P.  J.  has  heard 
dout  in  Worcestershire.  M.  D.  knows  it,  and  unked= 
lonely,  sad,  in  Oxfordshire.  MR.  F.  C.  BIRKBECK  TERRY 
says  dout  is  used  in  Lincolnshire,  Leicestershire,  North- 
amptonshire, and  the  West  of  England,  and  is  heard  in 
Cardiff.  ALPHA  gives  extracts,  in  which  dout  occurs, 
from  Henryson,  '  A  Lytell  Geste  of  Robyn  Hood,'  and 
from  '  Henry  V.,'  IV.  ii.,  and  says  Bailey,  Eng.  Diet., 
1775,  has  douter  for  extinguisher,  but  not  dout.~\ 

MISLESTED  (6th  S.  xii.  514).— A  corresponding 
word  to  mislested  is  of  common  occurrence  in  our 



S.  I.  JAN.  9,  'c6. 

London  police  courts,  where  a  complainant  will  often 
say,  "  So-and-so  assulted  me,"  the  word  being  a 
confusion  between  assaulted  and  insulted,  and 
generally  used  of  threatening  abuse  when  no  blows 
are  struck.  A  less  happy  ''  logogamy "  was  per- 
petrated in  my  hearing  some  time  ago  by  a  man 
who  pointed  out  his  residence  with  the  words, 
"That's  my  house  on  the  hill,  envenomed  in 
trees  ! "  the  word  being  a  confusion  between  en- 
vironed and  embosomed.  It  is  a  very  common 
thing  in  our  courts  to  hear  a  policeman  say,  "I  saw 
he  was  the  worse  for  drink,  and  I  persuaded  him 
to  go  home,  but  he  refused  /"  J.  P. 

Mislesi  is  a  good  Lindsey  word  for  molest,  and 
as  such  occurs  in  my  '  Glossary  of  the  Dialect  of 
the  Wapentakes  of  Manley  and  Corringham.'  I 
hear  it  used  constantly,  and  am  far  from  sure 
that,  when  occasion  seems  to  call  for  it,  I  do  not 
use  it  myself.  A  person  said  to  me  not  long  ago, 

"You  must  see  that  sumtnut's  done  about  C- 's 

bull,  squire,  he  mislests  everything.  It  was  nobbut 
last  Setterda'  that  he  trod  doon  haaf  George 

T 's   wheat,  an'  to-da'  he's    scared  a  lot  o' 

bairns  so  as  they  dursn't  goa  doon  th'  laan  to  th' 
school."  EDWARD  PEACOCK. 

This  is  a  very  general  dialectal  word.  It  is  in- 
variably used  in  Cheshire,  and  on  reference  to  the 
glossaries  of  the  English  Dialect  Society  I  find  it 
is  also  in  use  in  Antrim  and  Down  (where  the  form 
is  mislist),  in  Cumberland,  Leicestershire,  Lincoln- 
shire, and  Yorkshire  (Mid- Yorkshire,  Holderness, 
Whitby).  A.  J.  M.  will  also  find  the  word  in  Halli- 
well  (var.  dial).  EGBERT  HOLLAND. 

Frodsham,  Cheshire. 

M-islest  and  misle&tedwere  common  words  in  the 
Midlands  sixty  and  seventy  years  ago,  and  were 
never  supposed  to  have  any  other  meaning  than 
molest  and  molested.  ELLCEE. 

"'But  you  have  done  wrong,  sailor,  in  mislesting 
him,'  says  one  of  the  bigwigs  "  (Bentley's  Miscel- 
lany, April,  1838).  The  above  is  taken  from 
1  Nights  at  Sea,'  where  some  curious  words  will  be 
found  for  Dr.  Murray's  Dictionary,  e.  g.,  4*  to  bain- 
boxter,"  "  flusticated,"  "  bamblustercated,"  if  they 
are  not  disqualified  as  slang.  K.  B. 

[Many  communications  have  been  received  subse- 
quently to  the  above.  MR.  THOMAS  RATCLIFFE  refers  to 
mislested  as  common  in  the  Midlands,  and  meslested  as 
occasionally  heard.  MR.  GEORGE  RAVEN  refers  to  the 
special  use  of  mislested  in  the  East  Riding  of  Yorks, 
ESTE  has  heard  it  and  ill-convenient  commonly  in  War 
wickshire.  MR.  P.  C.  BIRKBECK  TERRY  refers  to  such 
analogous  terms  as  indisgestion  and  digestion.  W.  M.  M 
hears  mislested  frequently  in  Worcestershire.  J.  T.  F 
is  familiar  with  it  in  Lincolnshire.  FATHER  FRANK  has 
heard  it  hundreds  of  times  in  the  Midlands.  MR.  ALFRED 
WALLIS  has  known  it  used  in  Derbyshire  for  forty  years/ 

xii.467, 503;  7th  S.i.  13).— I  thank  MR.  SOLLY  for 

its  reply.  It  may  interest  him  to  know  that  I  have 
jefore  me  a  copy  of  the  above  book  in  quarto  form, 
which  corresponds  with  his  description  of  the 
genuine  first  edition,  save  that  it  has  the  name  of 
ilichard  Buckby,  of  Lincoln's  Inn,  Esq.,  among 
hose  of  the  subscribers.  F.  D. 

NAPIER'S  BONES  (6th  S.  xii.  494).— In  '  The  Art 
>f  Numbering  by  Speaking- Rods,  vulgarly  termed 
Napier's  Bones,'  by  W.  L[ey bourn],  1732,  there  is  a 
ilate  giving  the  additional  piece  as  described  by  MR. 
&ABONE.  The  headings  C.  and  S.  are  on  this  plate 
'Cube"  and  "Square."  It  is  most  likely  de- 
scribed in  the  text.  Macmillan  &  Bowes,  of  this 
;own,  have  a  copy.  G.  J.  GRAY. 


ESQUIRE  (6th  S.  xii.  495).— The  following  is 
from  Edwards's  'Words,  Facts,  and  Phrases': — 

"  Esquire.— This  word,  in  the  primary  meaning,  Sa 

shield  bearer.'   In  the  early  Middle  Ages  this  was  called 

scutifer,  from  the  Latin  scutum,  a  shield,  and/m>,  1  bear. 

This,  in  the  old  French,  became  escuyer,  from  which  its 

transition  to  its  English  form  was  easy  and  natural. 

'Esquires  maybe  divided  into  five  classes;  he  who 
does  not  belong  to  them  may  or  may  not  be  a  gentleman, 
jut  is  no  esquire. 

1.  Younger  sons  of  peers,  and  their  eldest  sons. 

2.  Eldest  sons  of  knights,  and  their  eldest  sons. 

3.  Chiefs  of  ancient  families  (by  prescription). 

4.  Esquires  by  creation  or  office,  as  heralds  and  ser- 
jeants-at-arms, judges,  justices  of  the  peace,  the  higher 
naval  and  military  officers,  doctors  in  the  several  faculties, 
and  barristers. 

5.  Each  Knight  of  the  Bath  appoints  two  Esquires  to 
attend  upon  him  at  his  installation  and  at  coronations. 

No  estate,  however  large,  confers  this  rank  upon  its 
owner.'— Wharton." 


I  fear  that  your  correspondent  has  not  read  his 
Shakspeare  recently,  or  he  would  have  remembered 
that  "  Kobert  Shallow,  Esquire,  in  the  county  of 
Gloster,  was  Justice  of  the  Peace,  and  coram,  and 
wrote  himself  Armigero  in  any  Bill,  Warrant, 
Quittance  or  Obligation,  Armigero  !  "  This  was 
in  Elizabethan  times,  and  no  doubt  all  Shallow's 
"  Successors  gone  before  him"  did  it,  and  "  all  his 
Ancestors  that  come  after  him  may." 

None  are  esquires  de  facto  but  the  following : 
viz.,  all  in  her  Majesty's  Commission  of  the  Peace; 
all  members  of  and  appertaining  to  her  Majesty's 
Government ;  all  officers  in  the  navy  down  to  a 
lieutenant,  and  all  officers  in  the  army  down  to  a 
captain,  both  inclusive.  Barristers  are  also  esquires 
by  "ancient  usage,  and  also  by  office,"  having  taken 
the  oath  and  signed  the  roll  with  justices  and  all 
members  of  her  Majesty's  Government. 



Mr.  Hunter's  statement  rests  upon  no  less 
an  authority  than  Blackstone,  who  mentions 
(book  iv.): — "Esquires  by  virtue  of  their 
offices ;  as  justices  of  the  peace,  and  others  who 

7"  S.  I.  JAN.  9,  '86.] 



bear  any  office  of  trust  under  the  Crown,  and 
who  are  named  esquires  in  their  commission  or 
appointment."  The  leading  case  on  this  point 
is  Talbot  v.  Eagle,  1  Taunt.,  510. 

The  Library,  Claremont,  Hastings. 

A  justice  of  the  peace  is  legally  entitled  to 
the  rank  of  esquire.  "  In  the  fifth  and  last  place  be 
those  ranged  and  taken  for  Esquires,  whosoever  have 
any  superior  publicke  office  in  the  Commonweale  or 
serve  the  Prince  in  any  worshipfull  calling  "  (Cam- 
den,  *  Britain,'  ed.  1610,  p.  176).  Chamberlayne 
('  Present  State  of  England,'  twelfth  ed.,  1679,  pt.  i. 
p.  285)  speaks  of  justices  of  the  peace  as  "  reputed 
esquires  or  equal  to  esquires."  Blount  ('Law 
Dictionary,'  1717,  s.  v.  "  Esquire "),  commenting 
on  Camden,  I.e.,  says  that  "he  who  is  a  Justice  of 
the  Peace  has  the  title  of  Esquire,  during  the  Time 
he  is  in  Commission,  and  no  longer,  if  not  other- 
wise qualified  to  bear  it." 


The  following  seems  to  answer  the  first  part  of 
DR.  BR.  NICHOLSON'S  query.  Of  the  four  kinds 
of  esquires  enumerated  by  Camden,  the  fourth 
kind  is  : — "  Esquires  by  virtue  of  their  offices,  as 
justices  of  the  peace  and  any  who  bear  offices  of 
crust  under  the  Crown,  and  are  named  esquires  by 
the  Crown  in  their  commission  or  appointment." 
See  Stephen's  '  Commentaries/ vol.  ii.  p.  655,  1868 
edition.  HARRY  GREENSTED. 

O'DONOVAN'S  'MERV'  (6th  S.  xii.  516).— MR. 
BUTTLER  has  been  misinformed  as  to  the  late  Mr. 
O'Donovan's  '  Merv  Oasis.'  I  knew  Mr.  O'Dono- 
van well,  and  saw  the  manuscript  from  under  his 
hand.  It  was  entirely  original  matter.  Many 
times  have  I  seen  him  at  work  upon  it,  consulting 
tiny  little  books  containing  notes  made  by  him  in 
lead  pencil  when  on  his  travels.  Messrs.  Smith, 
Elder  &  Co.,  I  happen  to  know,  paid  a  very  large 
sum  for  the  copyright  of  the  book,  and  this  would 
hardly  have  been  the  case  had  it  been  simply 
"  made  up  "  from  letters  in  so  widely  circulated  a 
paper  as  the  Daily  News.  A  comparison  of  the 
letters  and  the  book,  however,  would  make  the 
matter  sufficiently  clear.  In  the  second  edition, 
in  one  volume,  Mr.  O'Donovan,  I  believe,  had  no 
hand,  but  this  was  simply  a  condensation  made 
after  his  departure  on  the  expedition  in  which  he 
lost  his  life.  F.  M.  THOMAS. 

71,  Torrington  Square,  W.C. 

Edmund  O'Donovan  was  not  the  man  to  do  things 
by  halves.  He  devoted  much  time  and  attention 
to  his  book.  While  writing  it  he  secluded  himself 
for  some  time  in  a  remote  Gloucestershire  village, 
and  for  the  remainder  in  a  quiet  little  town  in 
Brittany,  where  his  exuberant  spirits  secured  him 
the  wondering  attention  of  the  local  police,  who 
could  make  nothing  of  the  Irishman  who  amused 

himself  and  his  English  friend  and  helpmate — Mr. 
Carey  Taylor — by  appearing  in  public  in  the 
striking  costume  of  a  Mervian  prince. 

O'Donovan's  career  was  a  romance  from  begin- 
ning to  end.  Dangers  and  difficulties  were  a  joy 
to  him,  and  he  feared  nothing  so  much  as  the 
humdrum  life  of  cities.  I  knew  him  well  enough 
to  know  that  he  was  of  the  true  chivalric  breed. 


Oak  Cottage,  Streatham  Place,  S.W. 

492).— The  description  of  the  marriage  ceremony 
given  by  your  correspondent  can  hardly  be  re- 
garded as  unique.  Mr.  Chester  Waters,  in  his 
'  Parish  Registers  of  England,'  pp.  33-4,  ed.  1883, 
gives  the  following  entry  : — 

"  Chiltern  All  Saints,  Wilts,  1714.  '  John  Bridmore 
and  Anne  Selwood  were  married,  Oct.  17.  The  afore- 
said Anne  Selwood  was  married  in  her  smock,  without 
any  clothes  or  head-gier  on.'  " 

He  remarks  that  "  this  was  done  from  the  vulgar 
error  that  a  man  is  not  liable  for  his  wife's  debts 
if  he  makes  it  patent  to  all  the  world,  by  marrying 
her  with  nothing  on  except  her  shift,  that  she 
brings  no  personal  estate."  The  custom  is  thus 
commented  on  in  Chambers's  '  Book  of  Days,' 
vol.  i.  p.  259  :— 

"Some  of  the  most  remarkable  marriages  that  have 
ever  taken  place  are  those  in  which  the  brides  come  to 
the  altar  partly,  or  in  many  cases  entirely,  divested  of 
clothing.  It  was  formerly  a  common  notion  that  if  a 
man  married  a  woman  en  chemise  he  was  not  liable  for 
her  debts ;  and  in  Notes  and  Queries  (2nd  S.  iv.  489)  there 
is  an  account  by  a  clergyman  of  the  celebration  of  such 
a  marriage  some  few  years  ago.  He  tells  us  that  ag 
nothing  was  said  in  the  rubric  about  the  woman's  dress, 
he  did  not  think  it  right  to  refuse  to  perform  the  mar- 
riage service.  At  Whitehaven  a  wedding  was  celebrated 
under  the  same  circumstances,  and  there  are  several 
other  instances  on  record." 


Compare  Sir  Thomas  More's  '  Utopia,'  second 
book,  the  well-known  chapter  on  "Bondemen, 
sicke  persons,  wedlocke,  and  diuers  other  matters." 

W.  M.  S. 

THE  MEDICEAN  ESCUTCHEON  (6th  S.  xi.  488; 
xii.  75,  237,  313,  356,  470).— The  plate  charged 
with  a  plain  cross  gu.,  to  which  I  have  alluded  at 
the  last  reference  as  sometimes  appearing  among 
the  roundels  of  the  Medicean  escutcheon,  was  not 
(as  I  suggested  it  might  be)  derived  from  the 
city  arms  either  of  Padua  or  Genoa.  An  exami- 
nation of  some  of  my  Florentine  heraldic  notes 
makes  it  clear  that  this  roundel  was  temporarily 
assumed,  as  an  addition  to  their  arms,  by  several 
noble  families  of  Florence  as  an  indication  of  their 
sympathy  with  the  common  people,  or  of  their 
derivation  from  them.  "  Ella  comunemente  signi- 
fica  chi  la  porta  essere  fatti  di  popolo." 

In  no  place  were  political  sympathies  so  fre- 
quently marked  by  heraldic  assumptions  or  muta- 



.  I.  JAN.  9, ; 

tions  as  in  Florence,  and  I  may  hereafter  be  able 
to  supply  some  curious  notes  on  this  subject. 


'  MEMOIRS  OF  GRIMALDI  '  (6th  S.  xii.  427,  500). 
— G.  F.  R.  B.  states  at  the  last  reference  that  in 
the  edition  of  Grimaldi's  'Memoirs'  published  in 
1846  "  all  Cruikshank's  plates  are  reproduced,  but 

another  portrait  of  Grimaldi is  substituted  for 

the  one  which  appeared  in  the  original  edition." 
This  is  somewhat  misleading,  as  it  seems  to  imply 
that  the  portrait  which  embellished  the  edition  of 
1838  is  not  in  that  of  1846.  As  a  matter  of  fact 
the  new  portrait  (which  is  coloured,  and  represents 
Grimaldi  in  character)  faces  the  title  of  the  1846 
edition,  and  the  original  portrait  is  also  given ;  but 
instead  of  facing  the  title  of  vol.  i.,  as  in  the 
original  edition,  it  is  removed  to  p.  1  of  part  ii., 
and  the  plate  of  "Grimaldi's  Kindness  to  the 
Giants,"  which  in  the  first  edition  formed  the 
frontispiece  of  vol.  ii.,  is  in  the  1846  edition  trans- 
ferred to  face  p.  150  of  part  ii. 

As  I  am  on  the  subject  of  the  illustrations  to 
Grimaldi's  life,  I  would  like  to  put  a  query  through 
your  columns.  Mr.  Dexter,  in  his  'Hints  to 
Dickens  Collectors'  (p.  18),  says  that  the  gro- 
tesque border  which  in  some  copies  of  the  first 
edition  appears  round  the  plate  of  "The  Last 
Song"  is  not  by  Cruikshank.  What  authority 
exists  for  this  statement  ?  And  if  the  border  is 
not  by  Cruikshank.  who  is  the  designer  ? 

J.  M.  M. 

S.  xii.  441,  524). — In  the  private  chapel  at  Lart- 
ington  Hall,  Yorkshire,  on  the  banks  of  the  Tees, 
the  seat  of  the  Rev.  Thomas  Witharn,  the  last 
male  of  the  ancient  line  of  Witham  of  Cliffe,  is  a 
very  fine  representation  of  the  Saviour  on  the 
Cross.  It  is  in  imitation  of  sculpture,  and  was 
painted  by  Le  Brun.  The  illusion  is  so  perfect 
that  it  stands  out  apparently  from  the  wall  above 
the  altar.  Perhaps  it  may  be  worth  remarking 
that  much  scenery  on  the  stage  is  painted  in  a 
similar  manner.  Going  back  to  a  very  remote 
period,  the  practice  would  seem  to  be  of  great 
antiquity,  for  we  read  of  Zeuxis  deceiving  the 
birds  by  the  natural  manner  in  which  he  painted 
the  grapes,  and  he,  in  turn,  being  deceived  by 
Parrhasius,  who  painted  the  curtain  which  Zeuxis 
vainly  attempted  to  draw  aside. 


Newbourne  Rectory,  Woodbridge. 

I  have,  in  common,  I  dare  say,  with  many  reader- 
of  '  N.  &  Q.,'  read  with  much  interest  the  note 
with  this  heading.  Will  Miss  BUSK  refer  me  t( 
the  legend  of  the  "  Madonna  of  Toledo,"  to  whicl 
she  alludes  1  I  think  it  cannot  be  generally  known 
At  all  events  I,  for  one,  do  not  recognize  it. 

L,  R.  W, 

SCOTTISH  FAST  DAYS  (6th  S.  xii.  517).— The 
est  work  for  reference  is  '  Collections  and  Obser- 
ations,  Methodized,  concerning  the  Worship,  Dis- 
Ipline,  and  Government  of  the  Church  of  Scotland,' 
ublished,  Edinburgh,  1709,  by  Walter  Steuart. 
ee  p.  161,  "  On  Observing  Fast  and  Thanksgiving 
)ays."  Should  your  correspondent  wish  for  any 
pecial  information  I  shall  be  happy  to  supply 
;  in  case  he  is  unable  to  consult  this  book  ;  but 
he  subject  is  scarcely  suitable  for  '  N.  &  Q.' 

W.  FRAZER,  F.R.C.S.T. 

20,  Harcourt  Street,  Dublin. 

BLOODY  HAND  (6th  S.  xii.  514).— Living,  as  I 
lo,  far  away  from  a  great  library,  I  cannot  turn  to 
he  original  authorities,  but  I  am  pretty  sure  that 
here  is  no  trustworthy  evidence  that  when  Con- 
tantinople  fell  into  the  hands  of  the  children  of 
slam  the  mosque  of  St.  Sophia  was  defiled  with  a 
lideous  slaughter  such  as  Mr.  Robinson  describes. 

What  did  take  place  there  is  described  by  Gibbon 
vol.  viii.  p.  173,  ed.  1862).  It  is  horrible  enough, 

without  importing  fabulous  crimes  into  the  nar- 
ative.  It  may  be  useful  to  quote  a  few  lines 
rom  the  historian  of  'The  Decline  and  Fall' 
p.  175):- 

"  Amidst  the  vague  exclamations  of  bigotry  and  hatred, 
the  Turks  are  not  accused  of  a  wanton  or  immoderate 
effusion  of  Christian  blood  ;  but  according  to  tbeir 
maxims  (the  maxims  of  antiquity),  the  lives  of  the  van- 
quished were  forfeited ;  and  the  legitimate  reward  of 
the  conqueror  was  derived  from  the  service,  the  sale,  or 
the  ransom  of  his  captives  of  both  sexes." 

Long  centuries  of  hate  have  so  embittered  Chris- 
tians against  the  Moslem  that  it  is  never  safe  to 
receive  evidence  against  the  followers  of  the  great 
prophet  of  Arabia  which  falls  short  of  proof.  From 
the  earliest  wars  waged  by  the  prophet  himself 
down  to  the  days  of  the  "  Bulgarian  atrocities  "  a 
systematic  course  of  misrepresentation  has  been 
pursued,  for  which  it  would  not  be  easy  elsewhere 
to  find  a  parallel.  EDWARD  PEACOCK. 

I  have  lately  seen  the  mark  of  the  bloody  hand 
on  the  wall  of  St.  Sophia  at  Constantinople.  It  is 
not  a  painted  representation,  but  just  such  a  mark 
as  a  man's  hand  dipped  in  blood  would  make. 
As  to  blood  having  flowed  up  to  any  such  a  height, 
it  is,  of  course,  a  physical  impossibility.  For 
blood,  though  metaphorically  thicker  than  water, 
is  still  liquid ;  and  however  many  people  were 
killed  at  the  terrible  massacre,  their  blood  cer- 
tainly ran  out  through  the  doors  and  other  open- 
ings in  the  huge  building.  What  we  were  told 
was  that  the  conqueror  rode  on  horseback  over  the 
piled-up  heaps  of  the  slain,  and  dabbed  or  rested 
one  bloody  hand  on  the  wall  and  with  the  other 
made  a  frantic  blow  with  his  scimitar  at  the  por- 
phyry column  close  by,  knocking  off  a  great 
splinter  from  it.  This  story  is  quite  possible,  and 
fairly  probable.  J.  C.  J. 

7'h  S..  I.  JAN.  9,  '86.] 


JANE  CLERMONT  (6th  S.  xii.  468,  503).— If  MR. 
EDGCUMBE  will  refer  to  my  '  Greater  London,' 
vol.  i.  p.  134,  he  will  find  the  date  of  the  death  of 
"  Mary  Anne  Clermont  "  recorded,  and  it  is  quite 
possible  that  I  may  have  been  misled  as  to  her 
Christian  name.  But  whatever  her  Christian  name 
may  have  been,  I  have  no  doubt  that  the  sextoness 
at  Hampton,  if  still  alive,  would  tell  MR.  EDG- 
CDMBE,  as  she  told  me  when  I  was  writing  my 
account  of  the  parish  of  Hampton,  the  place  of 
that  lady's  death.  I  am  sorry  that  I  did  not 
"  make  a-  note  of  it "  at  the  time. 


2,  Hyde  Park  Mansions,  N.W. 

467). — Richard  Baxter  had  a  brother  living  at 
Llaniugan,  Shropshire,  whose  son  William  was 
born  there  1650.  This  nephew  was  educated  at 
Harrow,  and  in  after  years  became  a  master  of  the 
Mercers'  School.  He  married  late  in  life,  and  left 
two  sons  and  three  daughters.  He  died  May  31, 
1723,  and  was  buried  at  Islington.  William  Baxter 
was  a  man  of  considerable  learning.  In  1679  he 
published  a  Latin  grammar  ;  in  1695  an  edition  of 
*  Anacreon,'  with  notes  (this  is  the  one  Moore 
mentions  in  his  'Remarks  on  Anacreon,'  1804,  and 
not  the  reprint  in  1710,  with  improvements) ;  in 
1701  his  first  edition  of  Horace  appeared  ;  the 
second,  published  by  his  sou  John  after  his  death 
in  1725,  was  held  in  such  esteem  abroad  that 
Gesner  gave  a  new  edition  in  1752  at  Leipzig,  with 
additional  notes ;  and  it  has  been  again  printed  in 
the  same  place  in  1772  and  1778.  William  Baxter 
appears  to  have  kept  a  correspondence  with  most 
of  the  learned  societies  (see  'Glossarium  Antiquita- 
tuni  Romanorum'  and  the  Philosophical  Trans- 
actions, &c.).  Prefixed  to  his  *  Glossarium  Anti- 
quitatum  Britannicarum '  (1719,  8vo.)  is  a  fine 
head  of  him  by  Vertue,  from  a  picture  by  High- 
more  when  Baxter  was  in  his  sixty-ninth  year. 
He  wrote  his  own  life  (its  exact  title  I  cannot  give), 
which  may  have  some  genealogical  information. 
34,  St.  Petersburg  Place,  W. 

No  children  resulted  from  Baxter's  much-talked- 
of  marriage  with  Margaret  Charlton.  He  left  the 
bulk  of  his  property  to  his  nephew  William  Baxter, 
who  was  born  in  Shropshire  in  1650,  was  head 
master  of  the  Mercers'  Company's  School,  and  died 
1723.  EDWARD  H.  MARSHALL,  M.A. 


See  'Reliquiae  Baxterianae'  and  the  articles 
on  Richard  and  his  nephew  William  Baxter  in  the 
third  volume  of  the  'Dictionary  of  National  Bio- 
graphy.' G.  F.  R.  B. 

495).— I  should  read  it,  "  All  that  for  Roger 
Chamberleyn  -+-  and  for  his  wife,  God  give  them 

all  good  life  ! "  There  is  a  break  where  I  place 
the  cross;  it  would  mean  "pray"  or  invoke  a 
blessing.  I  suppose  in  Catholic  times  it  would  be 
done  by  each  person  making  the  sign  of  the  cross. 

A.  H. 

CHRISTMAS  AS  A  SURNAME  (6th  S.  xii.  489). — 
Bernard  Jansen  and  Gerard  Christmas  were  the 
architects  to  Hy.  Howard,  Earl  of  Northampton, 
who  built  the  central  stonework  in  the  facade  of 
Northumberland  House.  This  Christmas  was  a 
Dutchman,  I  suppose.  C.  A.  WARD. 

Haverstock  Hill. 

[The  name  Christinas  is  now  quite  common.] 

SEDAN  CHAIRS  (6th  S.  xii.  308,  332,  498).— I 
well  remember  how  the  Dowager  Lady  Boynton 
used  to  come  to  church  at  Winterton,  in  Lincoln- 
shire, about  1840,  borne  in  a  sedan  chair  by  two 
footmen.  The  "  chair"  was  black,  parcel-gilt,  and 
lined  with  silk.  Sunday  school  was  at  that  time 
kept  in  the  chancel,  and  the  good  old  lady,  who 
always  came  in  very  good  time,  would  sometimes 
stop  on  her  way  from  the  priest's  door  (by  which 
she  entered)  to  her  curtained  and  well-lined  square 
pew,  and  stand  by  the  stove  to  have  a  chat  with 
the  vicar  or  my  father  or  other  of  the  teachers, 
and  would  sometimes  say  a  kind  word  to  us  chil- 
dren, for  which  we  always  looked  out.  The  two 
Miss  Staniforths,  who  lived  with  Lady  Boynton, 
came  on  foot  from  the  hall,  not  five  minutes' 
walk.  "  In  dem  days,"  as  Uncle  Remus  would 
say,  the  Christmas  decorations  consisted  solely  of 
green  boughs  and  sprigs  stuck  about  the  church 
by  Tommy  Nassau,  the  old  clerk  (everybody  is 
"  Mr."  nowadays),  and  the  psalms  and  hymns, 
sung  "to  the  praise  and  glory  of  God,"  were 
accompanied  by  a  bassoon  played  by  Lady  Boyn- 
ton's  coachman,  a  "tramboon"  (as  it  was  called), 
a  clarionet  or  hautboy,  and  a  flute.  So  far  as  I 
remember— and  I  have  a  vivid  recollection  both 
of  the  music  and  of  the  smell  of  the  fresh  ever- 
greens on  a  Christmas  Day  morning — the  effect 
was  extremely  good.  J.  T.  F. 

Bishop  Hatfield's  Hall,  Durham. 

[An  overwhelming  correspondence  upon  sedan  chairs 
has  reached  us.  Further  investigation  into  the  subject 
seems,  however,  needless.] 

PYEWIPE  INN  (6th  S.  xii.  487).— CDTHBERT  BEDE 
does  not  explain  the  word;  so  I  ask,  Does  it  mean 
the  peewit  or  lapwing  ?  A.  H. 

"  SEPELIVIT  NUPTAM  ET  VIVESCIT  "  (6th  S.  xii. 
448,  504). — The  well-known  English  epitaph  seems 
apposite  : — 

Here  lies  my  wife,  and  Heaven  knows 
As  much  for  mine  as  her  repose. 


The  book  sought  for,  in  which  these  words 
occur,  is  '  The  Early  Registers  of  Halifax  Parish 
Church,'  by  Walter  James  Walker,  1885,  published 



[7th  S.  I.  JAN.  9,  '86. 

by  Messrs.   Whitley    &    Booth,    Crown    Street, 
Halifax.  THOS.  S.  PAYNE. 


(6th  S.  xii.  209,  313). — Writing  of  the  Stadhuis  at 
Kampen,  Henry  Havard  says  : — 

"  Among  the  archives  the  box  of  leans  of  the  ancient 
municipality  is  still  preserved.  This  hox  of  beans  is 
nothing  more  nor  lees  than  a  small  loribonniere  holding 
twenty-four  haricot  beans,  six  silver-gilt  and  eighteen 
polished  silver.  When  it  was  a  question  of  deciding 
which  of  the  members  of  the  council  should  be  chosen 
for  the  administration,  the  beans  were  put  in  a  hat  and 
each  drew  one  out  by  chance,  and  those  who  drew  forth  a 
silver-gilt  bean  immediately  entered  on  their  new  func- 
tions. This  custom  was  not  confined  especially  to 
Kampen,  aa  it  was  formerly  in  vogue  in  the  province  of 
Groningen  (Leclerc,  '  Histoiro  des  Provinces-Unies ')  ; 
but  these  antique  relics  ought  always  to  be  very  precious 
to  an  old  town."— 'The  Dead  Cities  of  the  Zuyder  Zee,' 
chap.  xxv. 

This  is  a  "  variant "  of  the  number. 

34,  St.  Petersburg  Place,  W. 

'  LOTHAIR  '  (7th  S.  i.  8).— The  following  key  to 
Lord  Beacon sfield's  *  Lothair '  appeared  in  one  of 
the  periodicals  some  few  years  ago  : — 
The  Oxford  Professor    ...     Prof.  Goldwin  Smith. 

Cardinals  Manning  and  Wise- 

Marquis  of  Bute. 
Monst-igneur  Capel. 
The  Duke  and  Duchess  of 


Bishop  Wilberforce. 
Either  of  the  Ladies  Hamil- 

21,  Endwell  Road,  Brockley,  S.E. 

TRINITY  MONDAY  (6th  S.  xii.  167,  234,  523).— 
The  fair  at  South  Cave,  in  East  Yorkshire,  is  held 
on  this  day,  which  is  so  called  in  Best's  *  Farming 
Book/  1641  (Surt.  Soc.),  p.  113  ;  in  Storr's  'Be 
marks,'  1711;    Yorksh.  Archceol.  Jour.,  vii.  53, 
and  in  White's  '  Directory,'  1840,  p.  182.    A  short 
title,  convenient  and  intelligible,  would  be  needed 
for  a  day  that  had  to  be  often  mentioned.    Thus 
the  Friday  after  Whit  Sunday   has  become  by 
custom  a  popular  festival  in  Lancashire.     People 
who  think  to  be  precise  sometimes  print  it  in  their 
excursion-bills  "  Friday  in  Whit  Week  ";  but  it  is 
commonly  known  by  no  other  name  than  Whi 
Friday,  although  the  Church  of  England  does  no 
go  beyond  Tuesday  in  Whitsun  Week. 

W.  C.  B. 

517),— Elizabeth,  the  daughter  of  Henry  Mor 
daunt,  was  baptized  at  Lowick,  Northants,  the 
parish  church  of  Drayton,  the  seat  of  the  Mor 
daunts.  "  Elizabth  Mordaunte  filia  Henr  Mor 
daunte  armig'  bap  erat  14°  Augustii  anno  dn 
1594"  (par,  reg.,  Lowick),  According  to  Hal 


Lothair     ... 


The  Duke  and  Duchess 

The  Bishop 
Corisande  ... 

lead's  *  Genealogies ' — which,  being  compiled  by 

he  Earl  of  Peterborough,  may  be  safely  presumed 

o  be  the  most  trustworthy  account  of  the  Mor- 

aunt  family — she  died  young  and    unmarried. 

Dollins's  '  Peerage,'  Sir  Egerton  Brydges's  edition, 

under  "Earl  of  Peterborough"  (vol.  Hi.  p.  217), 

makes  her  the  wife  of  Sir  Thomas  Nevill,  K.B., 

Idest  son  and  heir  of  Henry,  Lord  Bergavenny, 

who  died  in  his  father's  lifetime  and  was  buried 

at  Birling,  co.  Kent,  on  May  7,  1628,  and  this 

itatement  is  made  by  other  writers.     The  same 

Peerage,'  however,   under  "  Lord  Abergavenny  " 

vol.  v.  p.  169),  states  that  it  was  Frances  Mor- 

daunt,  her  sister,  who  married  Sir  Thomas  Nevill, 

nd  this,  which  is  confirmed  by  Edmondson  in  his 

Peerage,'  both  under  "Peterborough  "  and  "Aber- 

javenny,"  seems  to    be    the  correct    statement. 

There  is  no  entry  of  her  burial  in  the  Lowick 

registers,  neither  is  the  date  of  her  death  given  in 

my  of  the  Peerages  which  I  have  consulted,  nor 

n  Halstead's  '  Genealogies.'  G.  L.  G. 

In  the  register  of  Petwortb,  Sussex,  is  the  follow- 
ng  entry: — 

"1596. — Mem.  that  on  the  201'1  of  June  was  borne 
Henry  L.  Percie,  who  was  baptized  on  the  8""  day  of 
July  in  the  private  chappell  in  my  L.  his  house.  The 
witnesses  were  first  for  the  Queen's  Mat'6  the  Lady  Buck- 
tiurst,  then  the  Earl  of  Shrewsburie,  lastly  for  the  L. 
Treasurer  (Lord  Burleigh)  the  Earl  dela  Warr." 

Further  particulars  may  be  found  in  Sussex  Arch. 
Coll.,  xxvii.  230.     My  inquiry  as  to  any  other 
Sussex  godchild  of  the  queen  has  proved  fruitless. 
F.  H.  ARNOLD,  LL.B. 

MOLINOS  (6th  S.  xii.  496).— The  following  works 
on  Molinos  may  possibly  be  of  service  to  G.  L.  F. : 

Burnet  (Gilbert,  Bp.)  Three  Letters  concerning  the 
Present  [1687]  State  of  Italy.  N.p.,  1688. 

Benzenberg  (J.  F.)  Nachrichten  von  M.  de  Molinos. 
Dusseldorf,  1844. 

Bigelow  ( J.) .  Molinos  the  Quietist.     New  York,  1882. 

Golden  Thoughts  from  « The  Spiritual  Guide '  of 
Miguel  Molinos  the  Quietist,  with  Preface  by  J. 
Henry  Shorthouse.  Glasgow,  1883.  [This  latter  con- 
tains a  brief  life  of  Molinos,  pp.  7-25]. 

Hodgson  (W.).  Lives,  Sentiments,  and  Sufferings  of 
the  Reformers  and  Martyrs.  Philadelphia,  1867. 

Thornton,  Horncastle. 

Does  the  lady  on  whose  behalf  G.  L.  F.  is  in- 
quiring know  John  Bigelow's  '  Molinos  the 
Quietist'  (Charles  Scribner's  Sons,  New  York, 
1882,  8vo.)?  G.  F.  R.  B. 

DUMPS  (6th  S.  xii.  166,  273).— I  cannot  refer  to 
the  volume,  but  some  years  ago  I  gave  informa- 
tion upon  "ring  dollars  "  and  dumps,  which  came 
into  use  in  Sydney  about  the  years  1810  and  1812, 
the  dollar  then  passing  for  five  shillings  and  the 
dump  for  one  shilling  and  threepence,  while  the 
defacement  had  the  effect  of  keeping  the  coins  in 
Australia,  It  is  generally  believed  that  coins  of 

7">  S.I.  JAN.  9, '86.] 



this  character  were  first  used  in  the  West  Indies, 
of  course  not  taking  into  account  China  and  Japan, 
where  pierced  coins  have  been  known  for  centuries. 

J.  McO.  B. 


A  New  English  Dictionary,  on  Historical  Principles* 
Edited  by  Jamea  A.  H.  Murray,  LL.D.  Part  II., 
Ant—  Batten.  (Clarendon  Press.) 
THE  second  part  of  the  new  dictionary  gives  an  ap- 
proximate idea  of  the  nature  of  the  task  undertaken  by 
Dr.  Murray  and  his  assistants.  It  completes  the  letter 
A  and  extends  nearly  to  the  end  of  Ba.  Under  A,  then, 
it  appears  15,123  words  in  all  are  included.  Of  these 
12,183  are  main  words,  1,112  combinations  and  com- 
pounds,  1,828  subordinate  words  and  forms  with  syno- 
nyms. A  little  over  28  per  cent,  of  these  are  obsolete, 
and  about  4£  per  cent,  are  foreign  or  imperfectly 
naturalized.  Taking  A,  then,  as  representative  of  one- 
sixteenth  of  the  alphabet,  as  from  English  dictionaries 
generally  it  appears  to  be,  the  total  number  of  words  to 
be  dealt  with  in  the  dictionary  is  upwards  of  240,000,  of 
which  the  main  articles  are  195,000.  These  figures  are 
naturally  supplied  by  Dr.  Murray,  since  the  task  of 
computation  for  an  outsider  would  be  not  a  little  weari- 
some. The  editor  points  also  with  justifiable  pride  to 
articles  of  great  length  and  special  difficulty,  such  as 
"Ante"  and  its  compounds  (occupying  thirteen  columns), 
"Anti  "  (forty-two  columns),  "  Book  "  and  its  compounds 
(twenty-four  columns),  "  Arch,"  "As,"  "At,"  "Ark," 
"  Bail,"  "  Band,"  "  Bank,"  "  Bar."  A  glance  at  these 
shows,  indeed,  how  arduous  has  been  the  work,  and  how 
exemplary  the  patience  of  those  concerned  in  this  great 
undertaking.  Space  and  opportunity  to  go  through  the 
important  contribution  now  set  before  the  public  are 
alike  denied,  and  the  task  of  criticism  is  naturally  aban- 

We  have  tested  the  dictionary  by  means  of  a  collec- 
tion of  archaic  words  which  represents  the  labour  of 
half  a  lifetime,  and  have  found  nothing  omitted,  even 
when,  as  in  the  case  of  '•  argling  "  for  arguing,  no  other 
quotation  than  that  which  appears  in  both  collections  had 
been  seen  for  two  centuries  and  a  half;  or  when,  in  that 
of  "  aser,"  an  obsolete  form  of  Pr.  acier,  the  instance  of 
use  is  unique.  Faults,  since  human  work  is  imperfect, 
will  necessarily  be  found,  but  the  task  of  looking  for 
them  is  painful  and  unremunerative.  The  work  is,  in 
fact,  as  it  claims  to  be,  national,  and  will  long 
stand  as  the  highest  product  of  English  philology. 
Ample  acknowledgments  are  made  by  Dr.  Murray  to 
those  by  whom  he  haa  been  assisted,  and  his  indebted- 
ness to  many  valued  correspondents  of  '  N.  &  Q.'  is 
frankly  stated.  The  publication  of  the  work  will  now, 
it  is  hoped,  be  continued  at  the  rate  of  one  number  in 
each  six  months. 

Dictionary  of  National  Biography.  Edited  by  Leslie 
Stephen.  Vol.  V.,  Bicheno—  Bottisham.  (Smith, 
Elder  &  Co.) 

VEKY  few  names  of  the  first  or  the  second  magnitude  are 
included  in  the  newvolume  of  the  «  Dictionary  of  National 
Biography.'  Wm.  Blake,  to  which  many  will  naturally 
turn,  is  the  subject  of  a  biography  by  Mrs.  Gilchrist, 
which  is  well  written  and  adequate,  though  shorter  than 
might  have  been  expected.  Robert  Blake  is  treated  at 
greater  length,  and  is  the  subject  of  a  vigorously  written 
biography  by  Prof.  J.  K.  Laugh  ton,  who  also  supplies 
the  life  of  Edward  Boscawen.  James  Boswell  is  the  only 

biography  of  importance  taken  by  the  editor,  who  gives 
a  vivacious  history  of  his  career  arid  sums  up  his  cha- 
racter favourably,  asserting  that  "  Macaulay's  graphic 
description  of  his  absurdities,  and  Carlyle's  more  pene- 
trating appreciation  of  his  higher  qualities,  contain  all 
that  can  be  said."  Sir  William  Blacketone  is  the  subject 
of  an  appreciative  life  by  Mr.  G.  P.  Macdonell.  Among 
shorter  biographies  there  are  many  interesting  contribu- 
tions by  Mr.  A.  H.  Bullen,  Mr.  S.  L.  Lee,  and  other  well- 
known  and  efficient  writers.  Mr.  W.  E.  A.  Axon  supplies 
a  curious  life— that  of  Joseph  Boruwlawski  the  dwarf. 
Mr.  E.  Maunde  Thompson  writes  of  the  Bigods,  Earls  of 
Norfolk ;  Dr.  A.  B.  Grosart  supplies  lives  of  divines  ; 
and  many  interesting  articles  have  the  signatures  of  Mr. 
Thompson  Cooper  and  Mr.  Russell  Barker.  The  work 
maintains  its  high  claims  to  consideration,  and  remains 
the  best  of  its  class  that  has  seen  the  light. 

Italian  Popular  Tales.    By  Thomas  Frederick  Crane, 

A.M.    (Macmillan  &  Co.) 

IT  is  remarked  by  Sir  John  Malcolm  that  "  he  who  de- 
sires to  be  well  acquainted  with  a  people  will  not  reject 
their  popular  tales  and  local  superstitions."  The  work 
before  us  comprises,  not  the  literary  tales  of  Italy,  but 
stories  "  which,  with  few  exceptions,  are  presented  for 
the  first  time  in  English,  translated  from  recent  Italian 
collections,  and  given  exactly  as  they  were  taken  down 
from  the  mouths  of  the  people  "—hence  they  are  "  popu- 
lar" tales  in  the  strictest  sense  of  the  term.  As  the 
stories  are  unembellished  by  literary  art,  they  may  be 
considered  as  faithfully  reflecting  the  ideas,  fancies,  and 
superstitions  of  the  Italian  people.  The  author  possesses 
peculiar  qualifications  for  the  laborious  and  important 
task  which  he  has  successfully  executed.  Mr.  Crane  is 
Professor  of  the  Romance  Languages  in  Cornell  Univer- 
sity, Ithaca,  U.S.,  and  has  long  made  a  special  study 
of  the  folk-tales  of  Italy.  His  object  in  composing  this 
book  "  has  been  simply  to  present  to  the  reader  unac- 
quainted with  the  Italian  dialects  a  tolerably  complete 
collection  of  Italian  popular  tales.  With  theories  as  to 
the  origin  of  popular  tales  in  general,  or  of  Italian  tales 
in  particular,"  he  adds,  "  I  have  nothing  to  do  at  pre- 
sent." He  has  done  wisely  in  not  loading  his  book  with 
an  elaborate  dissertation  on  a  vexed  question;  and  a 
mere  introductory  essay,  in  which  some  general  features 
of  the  controversy  could  be  only  outlined,  would  be  worse 
than  useless,  inasmuch  as  it  might  mislead  readers  who 
are  ignorant  of  the  whole  question.  As  it  is  this  book 
is  precisely  what  is  wanted  by  English  students  of  com- 
parative folk-lore ;  and,  since  "  popular  tradition  is 
tough,"  the  stories  here  collected  may  be  supposed  to  re- 
present, more  or  less  accurately,  fictions  which  have  been 
the  heritage  of  the  people  of  Italy  time  out  of  mind. 

An  interesting  introduction  gives  an  account  of  the 
several  collections  which  have  been  made  of  Italian  tales 
as  they  are  preserved  by  oral  tradition.  Then  follow 
two  chapters  appropriated  to  fairy  tales ;  next  a  very 
important  chapter  of  stories  of  Oriental  origin,  and 
one  of  legends  and  ghost  stories;  next  comes  a  chap- 
ter of  nursery  tales ;  and  finally  one  of  stories  and  jests. 
The  collection  comprises  stories  from  Bologna,  Basilicata, 
Istria,  Mantua,  Milan,  Naples,  Otranto,  Tuscany,  the 
Tyrol,  Venice,  Vincenza,  Sicily,  &c.  (The  folk-lore  of 
Rome  has  already  been  presented  to  English  readers  by 
Miss  R.  H.  Busk.)  A  more  pleasing  and  at  the  same 
time  representative  selection  of  fairy  tales  could  not  be 
desired.  The  reader  familiar  with  the  folk-tales  of  other 
European  countries  will  recognize  among  them  many 
old  acquaintances,  more  especially  parallels  to  the 
charming  fairy  tales  of  Germany  and  Scandinavia.  Of 
stories  of  Eastern  origin  there  are  some  the  exis- 
tence of  which  among  the  common  people  of  Italy 



[7lh  S.  I.  JAN.  9,  '?0. 

will  probably  surprise  those  who  have  not  hitherto 
considered  the  close  connexion  there  was  between  that 
country  and  the  Levant  in  former  ages;  the  most  re- 
markable being  several  versions  of  the  frame-story  of 
the  Persian  '  TutfNama'  ('  Parrot-Book  ')  and  its  Indian 
prototype  the  '  Suka  Saptati,'  ('  Seventy  Tales  of  a  Parrot ') 
—the  only  instances  yet  discovered  in  Europe.  Regarding 
the  legends  and  ghost  stories,  in  the  former  ot  which 
the  Lord  and  St.  Peter  are  often  the  chief  characters, 
we  need  merely  say  that  they  present  interesting  ex- 
amples of  popular  superstition,  and  have  their  parallels 
in  the  folk-lore  of  Iceland,  Norway,  Russia,  and  Ger- 
many. In  the  selection  of  nursery  tales  we  find  equiva- 
lents to  our  own  "  accumulative  "  rhymes  and  stories, 
such  as  the  *  Old  Woman  and  the  Crooked  Sixpence  ; 
but  the  majority,  we  should  say,  are  altogether  unknown 
to  our  nurseries.  The  concluding  chapter  contains 
diverting  stories  of  foolish  people,  among  whom  Giufa, 
the  typical  noodle  of  Sicily,  is  pre-eminent.  In  the 
notes  copious  references  are  given  to  other  collections  of 
tales,  in  which  analogues  or  variants  of  the  stories  in 
the  text  are  to  be  found.  Altogether  Prof.  Crane's 
work  is  a  charming  story-book  as  well  as  a  scholarly 
production,  and  cannot  fail  to  prove  a  valuable  aid  to  all 
who  are  interested  in  tracing  the  genealogy  of  the 
popular  fictions  of  Europe. 

The  Praise  of  Gardens :  a  Prose  Cento.    Collected  and 

in  part  Englished  by  Albert  F.  Sieveking.  (Stock.) 
GARDENS  are  abundantly  treated  of  by  prose  writers  as 
well  as  by  poets,  and  a  selection  from  what  has  been  said 
in  their  praise  cannot  be  otherwise  than  interesting.  From 
writers  so  wide  apart  as  the  author  of  an  Egyptian  MS. 
of  the  nineteenth  dynasty,  B.C.  1300,  and  Mr.  Ruakin, 
Mr.  Sieveking  has  obtained  enough  praise  of  gardens  to 
fill  upwards  of  three  hundred  daintily  printed  pages. 
An  introduction,  or  "a  proem,"  by  E.  V.  B.,  affixed 
to  the  volume  is  too  ornate  in  style  even  for  the 
subject,  and  is  more  likely  to  frighten  the  reader  from 
the  book  than  to  attract  him  to  it.  '  The  Praise  of  Gar- 
dens '  is  well  suited  for  a  gift-book. 

A  DOUBLE  issue  of  Messrs.  Cassell's  publications  comes 
to  us  with  the  new  year.    In  it  are  comprised  the  follow 
ing  works  :  The  Encyclopaedic  Dictionary,  Parts  XXIII. 
and  XXIV.,  completing  vol.  ii.  and  carrying  the  alphabet 
as  far  as  "  Destructionist."      More  than  half  the  space 
is  taken  up  by  the  words  compounded  with  "  De-," 
such  as  "Deduce,"  "Degenerate,"  ''Denounce,"  "De 
ride,"  in  which  the  information  conveyed  is  principally 
historical.     In  the  scientific  terms  introduced  and  in 
such  words  as  "Decorate,"   "Dean,"  &c.,  the  encyclo- 
paedic character  of  the  work  is  shown.  A  second  volume 
of  Our  Own  Country  begins  with  Parts  XI.  and  XII., 
which  deal  with  Chester,  Charuwood  Forest,   Bedford 
and  John  Bunyan,  St.  Andrew  and  the  coast  of  Fife,  anc 
Durham.    A  steel  frontispiece,  giving  a  view  of  the 
beautiful  cathedral  of  Lichfield,  is  affixed  to  the  firsi 
number.     Other  illustrations  include  the  cathedrals  of 
Chester  and  Durham,  the  bridge  over  the  Ouse  at  Bed 
ford,  and  the  ruins  of  St.  Andrew's  Castle.   Parts  V.  and 
VI.  of  Mr.Walford's  Greater  London  conduct  the  reade 
to  Uxbridge  by  way  of  Harlington,   Harmondsworth 
West  Drayton,  &c.,  of  all  which  views  are  given.    The 
westernmost  point  being  now  apparently  reached,  the 
course,  keeping  to  the  north  and  quitting  the  Thames 
passes  by  Pinner  and  Harrow  (the  latter  fully  illus 
trated)  to  Kingsbury,  Stanmore,  and  so  on  to  Edgware 
and  Hendon.   Of  the  country  formerly  part  of  the  fores 
of  Middlesex,  but  now  rapidly  being  swallowed  up  in 
London,  Mr.  Walford  has  much  that  is  interesting  to  say 
The  reader  is  left  at  Canons.    Egypt,  Descriptive,  His 
torical,  and  Pictiwesque,  Parts  VIII.  and  IX.,  deals  wit" 

Jairo  and  the  Island  of  Roda.  The  illustrations  are 
umerous  and  elaborate.  Both  engravings  and  letter- 
ress  in  the  History  of  India,  Parts  III.  and  IV.,  are 
argely  occupied  with  battle-scenes,  in  which  may  be 
ncluded  the  duel  between  Francis  and  Warren  Hastings. 
elections  from  Popular  Authors,  Parts  IV.  and  V.,  in- 
lude  some  very  miscellaneous  extracts. 
THE  Kendal  Mercury  for  January  1  supplies  a  full 
ndex  to  the  local  notes  and  queries  which  appeared  in 
ts  columns  during  the  last  year. 

THE  next  volume  of  Mr.  Elliot  Stock's  "Popular 
Bounty  Histories  "  will  be  issued  early  in  the  year.  It 
will  be  The  History  of  Devonshire,  by  Mr.  R.  N.  Worth, 
.S.,  author  of  « The  Western  Garland.' 

ta  Correspondent*. 

We  must  call  special  attention  to  the  following  notices : 

ON  all  communications  must  be  written  the  name  and 
address  of  the  sender,  not  necessarily  for  publication,  but 

a  guarantee  of  good  faith. 

WE  cannot  undertake  to  answer  queries  privately. 

To  secure  insertion  of  communications  correspondents 
must  observe  the  following  rule.  Let  each  note,  query, 
or  reply  be  written  on  a  separate  slip  of  paper,  with  the 
"gnature  of  the  writer  and  such  address  as  he  wishes  to 
appear.  Correspondents  who  repeat  queries  are  requested 
to  head  the  second  communication  "  Duplicate." 

T.  A.  ("  Marks  on  China").— The  marks  you  describe 
are  those  of  Crown  Derby  porcelain.  It  would  not  be 
easy  to  ascertain  the  precise  year  to  which  your  speci- 
mens belong.  They  have  a  certain  value,  only  to  be 
estimated  by  an  expert. 

F.S.  A.Scot.  ("  Varangian  Guards"). — Fora  full  account 
of  these  guards,  principally  Danish  or  English  in  extrac- 
tion, who,  with  broad  double-edged  battle-axes  on  their 
shoulders,  attended  the  Byzantine  emperors  in  public  and 
watched  over  them  in  private,  see  Gibbon,  '  Decline  and 
Fall,'  chap.  Iv.  vol.  x.  pp.  221  et  seq.,  ed.  1811 :  '  The  Fall 
of  Constantinople,'  by  Edwin  Pears  (Longmans,  1885), 
pp.  149-55;  and  '  N.  &  Q.,'  4th  g.  xji.  and;5»h  S.  i.  and 
ix.  passim. 

J.  D.  ("  Works  on  Pronunciation  by  Ellis  and  Sweet 
referred  to  by  Prof.  Skeat"). — The  former  of  these  was 
published  by  Mr.  Henry  Frowde,  Clarendon  Press,  London 
and  Oxford.  Mr.  Ellis's  work  on  sound  appears  to  be 
privately  printed.  Some  correspondent  will  doubtless  in- 
form you  under  what  conditions. 

JAMES  HOOPER  ("  Aum  or  Aam  "). — The  word  aum  is 
the  wine  merchant's  equivalent  for  the  German  ohm,  a 
measure  of  about  thirty  gallons,  by  which  all  Rhenish 
wines  were  formerly  sold.  Since  the  introduction  into 
Germany,  some  ten  or  twelve  years  ago,  of  the  French 
system  of  weights  and  measures,  the  hectolitre,  a  measure 
of  one  hundred  litres,  is  the  only  one  which  can  be 
legally  used,  so  it  is  to  be  presumed  that  the  ohm  is  now, 
or  shortly  will  be,  obsolete. 

ERRATA.— 6th  g.  xii.  475,  coi.  it  jt  3  from  bottom,  for 
"1634"  read  1623;  col.  2,  1.15,  for  "jet."  read  May. 
7th  S.  i.  5,  col.  2, 1. 14  from  bottom,  for  "  R.  Greene's 
'  Menapton  '  "  read  R.  Greene's  '  Menaphon.' 


Editorial  Communications  should  be  addressed  to  "  The 
Editor  of  '  Notes  and  Queries '  " — Advertisements  and 
Business  Letters  to  "  The  Publisher  "—at  the  Oflice,  22, 
'look's  Court,  Cursitor  Street,  Chancery  LanCj  E.G. 

We  beg  leave  to  state  that  we  decline  to  return  com- 
munications which,  for  any  reason,  we  do  not  print;  and 
to  this  rule  we  can  make  no  exception. 

7"1  S.  I.  JAN.  16,  '86.J 




CONTENT  S .— NO  3. 
NOTES:— History  of  the  Thames,  41— Byron  Bibliography,  42 

—  Folifate  Family,  44— Easter  Day— Public  Men  of  1782,  45 

—  Knox's  Clock — "It's  all  very  well" — Meric  Casaubon's 
Haunted  Parish,  40. 

QUERIES  :— A  Missing  Mazer  —  Must  —  Westminster  and 
Music— Army  Lists— Armorial  Bearings  on  China— Trapp, 
47  —  Portrait  of  Rev.  J.  Livingston  —  Apostate  Nuns  — 
Rickards:  Maitland,  &c.— An  Allegory— Old  Terms  used  by 
Tanners— C.  Patch— Society  of  Hatters,  48— Prowse  Family 
Chained  Bibles— Pigeons  and  Sick  People— Knoxis  :  Wimes 
— Curran's  Historical  Fleas— Kelly— G.  Way— J.  Armetrid- 
ing,  49-' Ame  des  Betes,'  50. 

REPLIES:— De  Courcy  Privilege,  50— Highland  Kilt,  51— 
Earl  of  Angus— Imary— Cogers'  Hall,  52— Heraldic,  53— 
Waits  and  Mummers— Bell  of  the  Hop— Sign  of  the  Swan,  54 
—Eton  Montem— Mertona,  &c.— Scotch  Names  of  Fishes- 
Avenues  of  Trees  —  Nostoc,  55— Weathercocks— Ichabod— 
Exteme— Seal  of  Grand  Inquisitor— Tangier— Toot  Hill,  56 
—Crest -Wreaths  — Sign-Painting  Artists  — W.  Powell  — 
Tunisia— Carisbrook  Castle— Carew  Raleigh,  57— Inscriptions 
on  Wells— Holbein— '  Marmaduke  Multiply's  Merry  Method' 
— Molinos— Visitation  of  Londou— Origin  of  Saying— Hokey 
1'okey,  58— Suicide  of  Animals— Oxford  Catalogue— Minor 
Works  of  Scott,  69. 

NOTES  ON  BOOKS  :— Pears's  '  Fall  of  Constantinople  '— 
Cuthbert  Bede's  '  Fotheringay  and  Mary,  Queen  of  Sects'— 
Plenderleath's  'White  Horses  of  the  West '—' Antiquary,' 
Vol.  XII.— Rye's  '  Murder  of  Amy  Robsart.' 

Notices  to  Correspondents,  &c. 



In  the  first  decade  of  the  present  century 
British  geology  came  to  the  wise  conclusion  that 
the  time  was  not  yet  ripe  for  generalizations  on  the 
Titanic  scale  of  Werner  and  Hutton.  It  accord- 
ingly set  itself  patiently  to  work  to  accumulate 
facts,  to  observe,  study,  and  transcribe  the  record 
of  the  rocks,  leaving  its  interpretation  to  those 
who  should  come  after.  Caution  was  the  order  of 
the  day,  and  prompt  was  the  snubbing  inflicted  on 
all  unlicensed  hawkers  of  cosmogonies  and  theories 
of  the  universe,  whether  of  home  manufacture  or 
smuggled  from  abroad.  This  was  as  it  should  be, 
and,  as  one  of  the  unscientific,  I  reverently  take  off 
my  hat  to  those  wise  fathers  of  the  Geological 
Society  who,  believing  that  Nature  had  written 
her  gospel  in  a  living  language,  through  faith  for- 
bore to  attempt  to  read  it  until  sufficient  fragments 
of  the  text  had  been  recovered  to  justify  conjecture 
as  to  its  general  scope  and  meaning.  But  the 
authors  of  self-denying  ordinances  are  as  a  rule 
somewhat  tyrannical  legislators,  and  the  lapse  of  a 
single  generation  is  often  sufficient  to  fossilize 
sound,  conservatism  into  cold  obstruction  of  a  dis 
tinctly  dangerous  tendency.  Here  is  a  case  in 
point.  It  was  not  till  towards  the  end  of  1858 

that  any  British  geologist  with  a  scientific  cha- 
racter to  lose  could  be  induced  to  admit  the 
validity  of  the  evidence  adduced  in  favour  of  the 
co-existence  of  man  with  the  animals  whose  re- 
mains were  found  associated  with  his  own.  Yet  at 
least  five-and- twenty  years  earlier,  in  1833,  if  not 
before,  all  of  them  were  well  acquainted  with  a 
long  series  of  researches  which  any  geologist  of  to- 
day would  have  considered  more  than  enough  to 
convert  the  most  sceptical.  MM.  Marcel  de 
Serres,  Tournol,  and  De  Christol  appealed  to 
their  cavern  explorations  in  various  parts  of 
Languedoc.  English  geology  placed  their  dis- 
coveries carefully  on  record,  but  declined  to  accept 
their  conclusions.  Dr.  Schmerling  appealed  to  the 
testimony  of  some  two  score  caverns  near  Liege. 
Mr.  Lyell,  nob  yet  Sir  Charles,  at  once  made  a 
special  pilgrimage  to  Belgium  to  visit  Schmerling's 
collection,  duly  registered  Schmerling's  conclusions 
in  the  next  edition  of  the  'Principles,7 and — declined 
to  accept  them.  Father  McEnery  brought  under 
Buckland's  notice  his  explorations  in  Kent's 
cavern  near  Torquay.  Mr.  Buckland,not  yet  Doctor 
and  Dean,  was  profoundly  interested,  encouraged 
McEnery  to  draw  up  a  joint  memoir  with  himself 
on  the  subject,  but— induced  his  colleague  to  sup- 
press the  conclusions  at  which  he  had  arrived.*  As 
one  of  the  unscientific  I  find  no  difficulty  in  under- 
standing this  imperturbable  repugnance  to  admit- 
ting an  obvious  inference.  What  puzzles  me  is 
that  men  of  science  should  ever  have  thought  it 

It  had  at  least  one  unexpected  result.  The  first 
Englishman  who  frankly  planted  man  face  to  face 
with  the  mammoth  was  not  a  geologist,  but  a 
novelist.  I  am  not  quite  sure  in  what  year  Bulwer 
Lytton — not  yet  baronet,  much  less  baron — wrote 
"  The  History  of  a  False  Religion,"  which  appears 
in  '  The  Pilgrims  of  the  Rhine,'  but  I  rather  think 
it  was  as  early  as  this  very  year  1833.  At  any 
rate,  this  is  how  "  the  Author  of  '  Pelham ' "  therein 
discourses  of  Morven,  the  son  of  Osslah,  the 
prophet  of  the  False  Religion  aforesaid.  Morven 

"  heard  a  great  noise  in  the  forest,  and ascended  one 

of  the  loftiest  pine-trees,  to  whose  perpetual  verdure  the 
winter  had  not  denied  the  shelter  he  sought,  and,  con- 
cealed by  its  branches,  looked  anxiously  forth  in  the 
direction  whence  the  noise  had  proceeded.  And  IT  came 
[the  capitals  are  the  novelist's  own] — it  came  with  a 
tramp  and  a  crash  and  a  crushing  tread  upon  the 
crunched  boughs  and  matted  leaves  that  strewed  the 
soil — it  came — it  came,  the  monster  that  the  world  now 
holds  no  more— the  mighty  Mammoth  of  the  North  ! 
Slowly  it  moved  in  its  huge  strength  along,  and  its  burn- 
ing eyes  glittered  through  the  gloomy  shade;  its  jaws, 
falling  apart,  showed  the  grinders  with  which  it  snapped 
asunder  the  young  oaks  of  the  forest ;  and  the  vast  tusks 
which  curved  downwards  to  the  midst  of  its  massive 
limbs  glistened  white  and  ghastly,  curdling  the  blood  of 
one  destined  hereafter  to  be  the  dreadest  ruler  of  th« 
men  of  that  distant  age.  The  livid  eyes  of  the  monster 

*  See  Lyell,  *  Antiquity  of  Man,'  first  ed.,  p.  97,  not*. 


[7th  S.  I.  JAN.  16,  '* 

fastened  on  the  form  of  the  herdsman,  even  amidst 
the  thick  darkness  of  the  pine.  It  paused— it  glared 
upon  him — its  jawa  opened,  and  a  low  deep  sound,  as  of 
gathering  thunder,  seemed  to  the  son  of  Osslah  as  the 
knell  of  a  dreadful  grave.  But  after  glaring  on  him  for 
some  moments,  it  again,  and  calmly,  pursued  its  terrible 
way,  crashing  the  boughs  as  it  marched  along  till  the 
last  sound  of  its  heavy  tread  died  away  upon  his  ear." 

To  this  passage  the  author  appends  a  note  : 
"  The  critic  will  perceive  that  this  sketch  of  the 
beast  whose  race  has  perished  is  mainly  intended 
to  designate  the  remote  period  of  ihe  world  in 
which  the  tale  is  cast." 

Both  the  sketch  and  the  note  are  eminently 
characteristic  of  the  writer  and  the  time  ;  but  if 
the  latter-day  reader  is  justified  in  thinking  that 
the  creature  would  have  negotiated  all  its  crashing 
and  crunching  much  more  effectively  had  it  taken 
off  its  stilts,  the  naturalist  has  no  right  to  find  fault 
with  its  anatomical  structure.  Science  should  not 
have  left  it  to  literature  to  trace  the  first  outline  of 
the  mammoth  as  the  contemporary  of  man. 

The  discovery  which  finally  drove  English  geo- 
logy out  of  a  position  which  had  long  been  unten- 
able was  made  by  a  fluke.*  In  1838  M.  Boucher 
de  Perthes,  an  antiquary  and  geologist — "  arch^o- 
geologiste  "  he  called  himself — of  Abbeville,  pub- 
lished the  first  volume  of  a  work  entitled  'Creation, 
Essai  sur  la  Progression  des  Etres,'  containing  cer- 
tain reflections  which  had  been  maturing  in  his 
mind  for  a  dozen  previous  years.  In  this  work 
he  advances  an  argument  which  the  author  of 
'  Reliquiae  Diluvianse '  would  have  found  it  hard 
to  answer.  Reduced  to  its  lowest  terms,  it  runs 
nearly  thus  :  The  last  of  the  great  fossil  mam- 
malia whose  remains  have  been  described  by 
Cuvier  and  Brongniart  were  destroyed  by  the 
Deluge.  But  man  was  created  long  before  the 
Deluge  ;  ergo,  man  was  contemporary  with  these 
extinct  animals.  Some  of  the  works  of  man, 
perhaps  even  his  bones,  are  as  durable  as  the 
bones  of  these  other  creatures  ;  ergo,  it  is  almost 
certain  that  some  of  the  works  of  antediluvian 
man,  and  probably  some  portions  of  his  skeleton, 
will  sooner  or  later  be  found  in  the  same  geological 
formation  as  these  lost  quadrupeds. 

Happily  unconscious  of  any  flaw  in  his  theory, 
M.  Boucher  de  Perthes  set  to  work,  accordingly, 
day  after  day,  with  exemplary  patience  to  ransack 
the  gravel- pits  near  Abbeville  for  any  memorials 
they  might  contain  of  his  antediluvian  brother. 
"  Qui  cherche,  trouve."  The  number  was  legion  of 
amorphous  lumps  of  flint  in  which  his  imaginative 
intuition  was  able  to  discern  the  first  rude  efforts 
of  primeval  art  to  imitate  the  shapes  of  birds  of 

*  This  much-needed  word  has  not  yet,  I  believe,found 
its  way  from  the  billiard-table  to  the  dictionary.  The 
sooner  it  does  so  the  better.  Piquet  gave  "  discard  "  to 
the  language,  why  should  billiards  be  forbidden  to  con- 
tribute '•  fluke,"  a  far  better  word  as  regards  form,  and 
one  absolutely  without  a  synonym  ? 

the  air  and  beasts  of  the  field,  the  fishes  of  the  deep, 
and  creeping  things  innumerable  ;  and  when  he 
came  across  a  mass  of  a  form  too  grotesquely 
fantastic  for  even  his  own  ingenuity  to  detect  in 
it  the  likeness  of  anything  on  earth,  he  bore  it 
home  in  triumph  as  an  indubitable  idol  of 
archseogeological  fetish-worship.  Certain  marks, 
indeed,  on  the  white  surface  of  some  of  the 
flints  were  so  obviously  the  relics  of  primal 
caligraphy  that  in  one  of  his  later  works  he 
asks,  with  full  conviction  :  "  Puisque  nous  avons 
eu  un  Ohampollion  pour  les  hi^roglyphes  Egyp- 
tiens,  pourquoi  n'y  en  aurait-il  pas  un  pour  les 
hi^roglyphes  ante-diluviens  ? " 

(To  le  continued.) 

Having  collected  the  following  articles  on  Lord 
Byron  and  his  works,  I  forward  the  list  in  hope 
that  it  may  be  of  aid  towards  a  bibliography  of 
the  subject. 

Personal  Character  of  Lord  Byron,  11  pp.,  London  Maga- 
zine, October,  1824. 
Lord  Byron's  Character  and  Writings,  60  pp.,  North 

American  Review,  October,  1*>25. 
Lord  Byron  and  his  Contemporaries,  47  pp.,  Blackwood, 

March,  1828. 

Gait's  Life  of  Lord  Byron,  24  pp.,  Fraser.  October,  1830. 
3  pp.,  Edinburgh  Review,  October,  1830. 
14  pp.,  Monthly  Review,  December,  1830. 
Moore's  Life  of  Lord  Byron,  28  pp.,  Edinburgh  Revitw, 

June,  1831. 

36  pp.,  Mirror,  No.  411. 
3  pp.,  Monthly  Repository.  December.  1830. 
56  pp.,  Quarterly  Review,  February,  1831. 

6  pp.,  Monthly  Review,  April,  1830. 
16  pp.,  Fraser,  March,  1831. 

Jeaffreson's  Real  Lord  Byron,  2  cols.,  Saturday  Review , 

June  16,  1883. 
Id  cols.,  Athenceum,  Aug.  18,  Sept.  1,  22,  1883. 

3  cols.,  Guardian,  Aug.  15,  1883. 

40  pp.,  Quarterly  Review,  July,  1883. 

4  cols.,  Academy,  March  26,  1883. 

Dr.  Kennedy  and  Lord  Byron,  9  pp.,  Fraser,  August, 

Kennedy's  Conversations  with  Byron,  14  pp.,  Monthly 

Review,  August,  1830. 

Life  of  Lord  Byron,  67  pp.,  British  Critic,  April.  1831. 
Dallas's    Recollections    and    Medwin's     Conversations, 

34  pp.,  Westminster  Review,  January,  1825. 
Lord  Byron,  18  pp.,  Universal  Review,  November,  1824. 
24  pp.,  Blackwood,  July,  1872. 
11  pp.,  Asiatic  Journal,  N.S.,  vol.  i.  No.  2. 

7  pp.,  G.  Gilfillan,  Tail's  Magazine,  vol.  xiv. 

28  pp.,  W.  Howitt,  '  Homes  and  Haunts  of  British 

40    pp.,    Monthly    Review,    February,    1S30,    and 

February,  1831. 

8  pp.,  Temple  Bar,  1869. 

Lord  Byron  and  his  Calumniators,  Blaclwood,  January, 

Lord  Byron  and  his  Times,  Hon.  Roden  Noel,  43  pp., 

St.  Paul's,  vol.  xiii. 
Fashionable  Life  in  the  Time  of  Byron,  14  pp.,  Tinsley's 

Magazine,  October,  1870. 

7th  8. 1.  JAN.  16,  '86.] 



Byron,  23  pp.,  Fortnightly  Review,  vol.  viii.  N.S. 
4  pp., '  Poetic  Companion,'  p.  120. 
11  pp.,  M.  Arnold,  Macmillan's,  March,  1881. 
10  cols.,  '  Encyclopaedia  Britannica,'  eighth  ed. 
10  pp.,  Cunningham's  '  Lives  of  Eminent  English- 
men,' 1837. 
Lady  Blessington's    Conversations    of   Byron,  10  pp., 

Monthly  Review,  1834. 

22  pp.,  Gentleman's  Magazine,  April,  May,  1834. 
Byron  and  Tennyson,  39  pp.,  Quarterly  Review,  No.  262. 
Medwin's  Conversations  of  Byron,  9  pp.,  Gentleman's 

Magazine,  November,  1824. 
Life  of  Lord  Byron,  18  pp.,  with  steel  portrait,  Mirror, 

No.  85. 
Recollections  of  Lord  Byron,  with  various  elegies,  8  pp., 

Mirror,  June  26,  1824. 
Lord  Byron  in  Greece,  with  genealogical  table,  18  pp., 

Mirror,  No.  99. 

Pilgrimage  to  Byron,  4  pp..  Mirror,  Feb.  25,  1837. 
Bucknall  Church,   where  Byron  was  buried,  with  cut, 

Mirror,  No.  99. 
House  in  which  Byron  died,  with  cut,  2i  pp.,  Mirror, 

May  14,  1825.     ' 

Newstead  Abbey,  with  cut,  Mirror.  January  24,  1824. 
W.  Irving's  '  Sketch  Book.' 

7  cols.,  Eliza  Cook's  Journal,  May  1,  1851. 

8  pp.,  Broadway,  vol.  iv.  p.  145. 

5  cols.,  Athenceum,  Aug.  30, 1884. 
Proposed  Byron  Memorial,  15  pp.,  Fraser,  February, 


Byron  Monument,  2  pp.,  Fraser,  May,  1879. 
Recollections  of  Lord  Byron,  10  pp.,  Blackwood,  July, 

On  Sir  A.  Alison's  Views  of  Lord  Byron,  Fraser,  August. 

Last  Record  of  Lord  Byron,  4  pp.,  Chambers^  Journal, 

March  27, 1869. 
Dr.  Evans  on  Lord  Byron's  Infidelity,  6  pp.,  Monthly 

Repository,  January,  1825. 
Lord  Byron's  Theology,    8    pp.,    Monthly  Repository, 

January,  1830. 
Trelawny's  Recollections  of  Shelley  and  Byron,  19  pp., 

Westminster  Review,  April,  18(58. 
Byron  and  his  Biographers,  14  pp.,  Fortnightly  Review, 

vol.  xxxiv. 
Byron  in  Greece,  38  pp.,  Westminster  Review,  vol  ii,,  1824. 

9  pp.,  Temple  Bar,  May,  1881. 
Byron,  Goethe,  and  Mr.  Arnold,  7  pp.,  Contemporary 

Review,  August,  1881. 
Expostulatory    Epistle    to    Lord    Byron,    Jos.    Cottle, 

Monthly  Review,  vol.  xciv.,  1821. 

Burns  and  Byron,  2  pp.,  TaiCs  Magazine,  1844,  p.  621. 
Byron  at  Work,  9  cols.,  Chambers' 's  Journal,  Oct.  &,  1869. 
Byron,  H.  T.  Tuckermari, '  Thoughts  on  the  Poets,'  1850, 

J.  Devey,  13  pp.,  '  Estimates  of  Modern  English 

Poets,'  1873. 
Engraving  of  Tablet  to  Memory  of  Lord  Byron,  Sophia 

Hyatt,  the  White  Lady,  3  pp.,  Mirror,  Oct.  25, 1825. 
Fiction  Fair  and  Foul :  Byron,  J.  Ruskin,  Nineteenth 

Century,  September,  1880. 
Lord  Byron  and  some  of  his  Contemporaries,  12  pp., 

Monthly  Review,  1828. 
Psychological  Study  of  Byron,  Karl  Bleibtreu,  Weekly 

Scotsman,  June  21,  1884. 
Byron  and  the  Countess  Guiccioli,  22  pp.,  Bdgravia, 

vol.  vii. 
Was  Byron  or  Scott  the  greater  Poet1?    17  pp.,  British 

Controversialist  (ed.  S.  Neil.) 

Lord  Byron,  74  pp.,  New  Monthly  Magazine,  Nov.  1, 1819. 
Character  and  Poetry  of  Lord  Byron,  J.  H.  Wiffen,  New 

Monthly  Magazine,  May  1, 1819. 

Byron's  Unpublished   Poems    on   Mr.  Rogers,  4  pp., 

Fraser,  January,  1833. 
True  Story  of  Lady  Byron's  Life,  H.  B.  Stowe,  10  pp., 

Macmillan,  September,  1869. 
Byron  Mystery,  50  pp.,  Quarterly  Review,  No.  254. 
Lord  Byron's  Married  Life,  29  pp.,  Temple  Bar,  June, 

Character  of  Lady  Byron,  21  pp.,  Temple  Bar,  October, 


Lord  and  Lady  Byron,  16  pp.,  Argosy,  October,  1869. 
Byron's  Daughter,  4  pp.,  Argosy,  November,  1869. 
Vindication    of  Lord   Byron.   Alf.  Austen,  pamphlet, 

67  pp.,  Chapman  &  Hall,  1869. 
Byron's  Letters,  14  cols.,  Athenceum,  August,  1883. 
Arnold's  Poetry  of  Byron,  2pp.,   Westminster  Review, 

October,  1881. 
Lord  Byron's  Hours  of  Idleness,  5  pp.,  Edinburgh  Review, 

January,  1808. 
3£  pp.,  Eclectic  Review,  vol.  iii.  p.  289. 

7  pp.,  Monthly  Review,  vol.  liv.  1807. 

Lord  Byron's  Juvenile  Poems,  21  pp.,  Fraser,  September, 

New  Monthly  Magazine,  February,  1819. 

Lord  Byron's  English  Bards,  &c.,  4  pp.,  Eclectic,  vol.  v. 
p.  481. 

Lord  Byron's  Poetry,  3  pp.,  Christian  Observer,  Novem- 
ber, 1819. 

Tendency  of  Byron's  Poetry,  16  pp.,  Broadway,  vol.  iv. 
p.  54. 

Lord  Byron's  Poems,  4  pp.,  Monthly  Review,  September, 

13  pp./ Eclectic,  N.S.,  vol.  vii.  p.  292. 

8  pp.,  Eclectic,  N.S.,  vol.  x.  p.  46. 

Lord  Byron's  Poetry,  33  pp.,  Edinburgh  Review,  Decem- 
ber, 1816. 

2i  pp.,  Monthly  Repository,  December,  1827. 
Lord  Byron's  Poems,  47  pp.,  North  American  Review, 

January,  1825. 
Siege  of  Corinth,  Parisiana,  7  pp.,  Eclectic,  N.S.,  vol  v. 

p.  261. 
Siege  of  Corinth,  &c.,  11  pp.,  Monthly  Review,  February, 


Siege  of  Corinth,  17  pp.,  British  Review,  vol.  vii.  p.  17. 
Manfred,  5  pp.,  Eclectic,  N.S.,  vol.  viii.  p.  82. 

14  pp.,  Edinburgh  Revieio,  August,  1817. 

8  pp.,  British  Review,  vol.  x. 

10  pp.,  St.  James's  Magazine,  December,  1875. 
Lament  of  Tasso,  2  pp.,  Eclectic,  1807. 

3  pp.,  Monthly  Review,  August,  1817. 
Mazeppa,  8  pp.,  Eclectic,  1819. 
Mazeppa  and  Don  Juan,  12  pp.,  Monthly  Review,  vol.  xix. 


Mazeppa.  4  pp.,  New  Monthly  Magazine.  August,  1819. 
Marino  Faliero,  10  pp.,  Eclectic,  N.S.,  vol.  xv.  p.  518. 

7  pp.,  Monthly  Review,  May,  1825. 

15  pp.,  Edinburgh  Revieic,  July,  1821. 
Cain,  20  pp.,  Fraser,  April,  1831. 

9  pp.,  Eclectic,  N.S.,  vol.  xvii. 

8  pp.,  Monthly  Review,  June,  1822. 

17  pp.,  Cases  of  1\Valcot  v.  Walker,  &c.,  Quarterly 

Review,  vol.  xxvii.  1822. 

Bride  of  Abydos,  7  pp.,  Eclectic,  vol.  xi.  p.  187. 
8  pp.,  Monthly  Review,  1813. 
31  pp.,  Temple  Bar,  vol.  xxviii.  p.  61. 
Bride  of  Abydos  and  Corsair,  31  pp.,  Edinburgh  Review, 

July,  1813. 
Childe  Harold,  14  pp.,  Eclectic,  1818. 

10  pp.,  Eclectic,  vol.  viii.  p.  630. 

11  pp.,  Edinburgh  Review,  February,  1812. 
Canto  iv.,  33  pp.,  Edinburgh  Review,  June,  1818. 
21  pp.,  Quarterly  Review,  vol.  vii.  1812. 

Canto  iii.,  23  pp.,  British  Review,  February,  1817. 



[7*  S.  I.  JAN.  16,  '86. 

Childe  Harold,  canto  iv.,  33  pp.,  British  Review,  August, 


Canto  iii.,  36  pp.,  Quarterly  Review,  vol.  xvi.,  1816. 
Canto  iv.,  18  pp.,  Quarterly  Review,  vol.  xix.,  1818. 
Canto  iii.,  8  pp.,  Monthly  Review,  November,  1811. 
Canto  iv.,  13  pp.,  Monthly  Review,  November,  1818. 
Lamartine's  Pilgrimage  of  Harold,  7  pp.,  Monthly 

Review,  November,  1825. 
Childe  Harold's  Monitor,  3  pp.,  Monthly  Review, 

November,  1818. 
Canto  iv.,  9  pp.,  New  Monthly  Magazine,  Sept.  1, 

Address  to  the  Ocean,  16  pp.,  Blackwood,  October, 


Canto  iii.,  13  pp.,  Christian  Observer,  1817. 
Corsair,  10  pp.,  Eclectic,  vol.  xi.  p.  425. 

12  pp.,  Monthly  Review,  1814. 

13  pp.,  Christian  Observer,  1814. 
10  pp.,  British  Critic,  March,  1812. 

Corsair  and  Lara,  30  pp.,  Quarterly  Review,  No.  22,  1814. 
Giaour,  9  pp.,  Edinburgh  Review,  July,  1813. 

9  pp.,  Eclectic,  vol.  x.  p.  528. 

Giaour  and  Bride  of  Abydos,  33  pp.,  Quarterly  Revieiv, 
vol.  x.,  1814. 

7  pp.,  Christian  Observer,  1813. 

2^  pp.,  British  Critic,  1813. 

Prophecy  of  Dante,  4  pp.,  Colburn's  New  Monthly,  vol.  i. 
The  Island,  5  pp.,  Colburn's  Netv  Monthly,  vol.  i. 
Hebrew  Melodies,  7  pp.,  Christian  Observer,  1815. 
Beppo,  9  pp.,  Edinburgh  Review,  February,  1818. 
Heaven  and  Earth,  8  pp.,  Colburn's  New  Monthly,  vol.  i. 
Doge  of  Venice,  12  pp.,  British  Review,  vol.  xvii. 

20  pp.,  New  Edinburgh  Review,  July,  1821. 
Sardanapalus,  &c.,  32  pp.,  British  Preview,  vol.  xix. 
Fare  thee  well,  a  Poem,  British  Review,  vol.  vii. 
Beppo,  6  pp.,  British  Review,  vol.  xi. 

7  pp.,  Monthly  Review,  March,  1880. 
Deformed  Transformed,  8  pp.,  Universal  Review,  vol.  i. 

Prisoner  of  Chillon,  with  Notes,  8  cols.,  Casquet,  vol.  ii. 

4  pp.,  Monthly  Revieio,  December,  1816. 
Bonivard  the  Prisoner  of  Chillon,  6  pp.,Fraser,  May,  1876. 
Dramas,  48  pp.,  Quarterly  Review,  vol.  xxvii. 
Tragedies,  39  pp.,  Edinburgh  Review,  February,  1822. 
Werner,  11  pp.,  Monthly  Review,  December,  1822. 
Don  Juan,  20  pp.,  British  Review,  December,  1821. 

Monthly  Review,    October,    1819 ;    August,    1821  ; 
October,  1823  ;  April,  1824. 

9  pp.,  New  Monthly  Magazine,  August,  1819. 
The  Rest  of  Don  Juan,' 8  cols.,  Bibliographer,  July,  1883. 
The  Vampyre,  a  Tale,  by  Lord  Byron,  10  pp.,   New 
Monthly  Review,  April,  1819. 

9  pp.,  Monthly  Review,  May,  1819. 

City  Library,  Bristol. 

JOHN  TAYLOR,  Librarian. 

Hargrove,  in  his  *  History  of  Knaresborough,' 
says, "  A  family  of  this  name  anciently  resided  here 
[Folyfoot,  in  the  parish  of  Spofforth]  till  the  reign 
of  Henry  V. ,  when  the  heiress,  Oliva  de  Folifaite, 
married  John,  ancestor  of  the  Earls  of  Moira." 
The  first  statement  appears  to  be  incorrect,  the  seat 
of  the  family  having  been  at  "  Follithwaite,  a 
division  of  Walton  township,  but  in  the  parish  of 
Wighill,"  about  seven  miles  east  of  the  place 
indicated  by  Hargrove.  In  the  West  Riding  poll 
tax  of  1379  these  two  places  are  distinguished  as 

East  and  West  Folyfayt.  In  a  terrier  of  the 
parish  of  Wighill  in  1716  it  is  stated,  "There  are 
several  hundred  acres  of  ground  known  by  the  name 
of  Follifoot,  which  was  formerly  a  park,  but  now 
mostly  arable  ground,  being  disparked  time  out  of 
mind"  (Surtees  Soc.,  vol.  xlix.,  p.  25).  I  have 
sought  somewhat  widely  for  a  pedigree  or  any 
account  of  the  genealogy  of  this  family,  but  have 
found  none.  The  following  collected  notes  may  be 
useful  to  future  inquirers.  In  the  account  of  the 
Rawdons,  Earls  of  Moira  (Lodge's  '  Irish  Peer- 
age'), it  is  stated  that  John  de  Rawdon,  mentioned 
in  deeds  of  1376  and  1391,  married  Aliva  or  Alice, 

daughter  and  heir  of Folifate,  and  had  issue 

John,  who  was  living  in  1450  and  1464.  In  the 
pedigree  of  Rawdon  in  *  Ducatus  Leodensis ' 
(p.  171)  the  first-named  John  is  called  of  Brere- 
haugh  (Brearey).  Alan  de  Folifate  is  among  the 
benefactors  to  Kirkstall  Abbey,  granting  "  all  his 
meadow  and  arable  land  lying  between  the  ditch 
or  Foss  and  Wharfe  in  the  territory  of  Foli- 
fait,  reserving  a  right  of  passage  to  and  from  this 
GM~~  an(j  the  river  Wharfe"  (Burton,  '  Mon. 

Ebor.,'  p.  293).  It  appears  probable  that  there 
were  three  or  more  generations  of  this  family  who 
bore  in  succession  the  name  of  Alan.  Alan  de 
Folifate  was  a  witness  to  the  foundation  grant  of 
Helaugh  Priory  by  Bertram  Haget  before  A.D.  1203 
(*  Mon.  Ang.,'  vol.  vi.  p.  438) ;  witnesses  a  charter  of 
Jeffrey  Haget,  son  of  Bertram,  to  the  same  priory 
(ibid.,  p.  438),  and  also,  circa  A.D.  1218,  the  charter 
of  Jordan  de  Sancta  Maria  and  Alice  his  wife,  who 
was  granddaughter  of  Bertram  Haget ;  his  name 
also  appears  to  the  confirmatory  charter  by  Alice 
in  her  widowhood  (ibid. ,  p.  439).  According  to  a 
MS.  in  the  College  of  Arms  Alan  de  Folyfayt  was 
among  the  founders  or  benefactors  buried  in  the 
church  of  Greyfriars  at  York  ('  Coll.  Top.  et  Gen.,' 
vol.  iv.  p.  78).  Alan,  son  of  Alan  de  Folifate, 
married  Ivetta,  daughter  and  heiress  of  Robert  de 
Eskelby,  and  had  issue  Henry,  who  appears,  as  his 
mother's  heir,  to  have  assumed  her  surname.  His 
son  Alan  de  Eskelby,  grandson  of  Alan  and  Ivetta, 
was  living  in  A.D.  1278  (De  Banco  Roll,  Easter, 
6  Edw.  I.,  m.  54).  For  the  mother's  descent  see 
'  N.  &  Q.,'  5th  S.  ix.  447.  There  is  a  grant  (n.  d.) 
by  this  Alan  and  Ivetta  to  the  hospital  of  St. 
Peter  of  York  of  land  in  Eskelby  and  Crosby, 
which  was  witnessed  by  Ralph,  son  of  Alan  de 
Folifate  (Dodsworth,  Harleian  MSS.,  793,  p.  80); 
and  a  grant  by  the  same  persons  (by  a  transcriber's 
error  styled  De  Folisedt)  of  land  in  Leeming  to  the 
abbey  of  St.  Mary,  York,  is  among  the  charters  in 
the  Bodleian  Library  (Oat  Chart,  in  Bodl.  Lib.,  by 
Turner  and  Coxe).  In  Fine  Roll,  23  Hen.  III.,  m.  7 
(A.D.  1239),  Cambridgeshire,  "Alan  de  Folifet 
gave  the  king  20  shillings  to  have  four  justices  to 
take  an  assize  of  '  novel  disseisen  '  against  Alex- 
ander des  Esscalers  and  Alice  his  wife  respecting 
tenements  in  Parva  Linton."  Thomas,  son  of 

?»»  8.  I.  JAN,  16,  '86.] 



Robert  Folifait,  grants  (n.  d.)  to  the  priory  of  New- 
burgh  all  his  lands  in  Follifoot  (Harl.  MSS.,  799, 
p.  60).  In  1284/5  Alan  de  Folifayt  held  one-half 
of  the  manor  of  Folyfayt  of  the  Mowbray  fee 
(Kirkby's  Inq.,  Sur.  Soc.,  vol.  xlix.  p.  25),  and  he 
appears  as  holding  the  same  in  A.D.  1301, 1302,  and 
1315  (ibid.,  pp.  290,  220,  343).  In  1301  he  was 
one  of  the  jurors  for  the  Ainsty  at  the  inquiry  as  to 
knights'  fees  (ibid.,  p.  206).  License  from  the 
Archbishop  of  York  was  granted  in  1313/14  to 
Alan  de  Folyfait  to  have  an  oratory  within  his 
manor  of  Folifoot  (ibid.,  p.  25);  and  on  Feb.  22, 
1351,  an  Alan  de  Folifate  was  witness  to  the 
charter  of  Henry,  Earl  of  Lancaster,  to  Kirkstall 
Abbey  (<Mon.  Aug.,'  vol.  v.  p.  538).  In  the 
Hundred  Rolls,  Edw.  I.,  complaints  are  made 
against  Henry  de  Normanton,  Sheriff  of  York,  and 
Henry,  son  of  Ralph  de  Folyfayt,  appears,  and  the 
jury  say  "  that  he  detained  a  writ  of  the  lord  the 
king  which  is  called  '  quoniam  vi  et  armis,'  to 
attach  certain  persons  of  Wighill  that  they  should 
come  to  the  Bench,  and  he  never  could  have  return 
of  the  writ  to  the  Bench  from  the  said  Sheriff,  to 
his  damage  20  shillings,"  and  further  "that  he 
detained  a  writ  of  the  lord  the  king  to  the  said 
sheriff,  to  raise  a  certain  sum  of  money  from 
Robert  de  Egglesclyf,  dwelling  in  the  fee  of  Rich- 
mond, and  he  could  not  have  return  of  the  writ 
until  he  had  given  the  sheriff  half  a  mark."  Henry 
Folifet  and  John  his  brother  were  living  in  1252 
(Sur.  Soc.,  vol.  Ivi.  p.  269);  and  in  1376/7  Edmund, 
son  of  Alan  de  Folifayt,  quitclaims  to  his  uncle 
Edmund  Lorence,  son  of  John  Lawrence  of  Asshe- 
ton,  his  right  to  the  manor  of  Folifayt,  near  Tad- 
caster,  and  also  the  lands  in  the  said  manor  held 
in  dower  for  Elizabeth,  widow  of  his  brother  John 
de  Folifayt  ('Dep.  K.  Rep.  Pub.  Rec.,'  xxxii.  p.  361). 

The  family  was  evidently  of  importance  at  an 
early  period,  and  I  trust  that  some  of  your  readers 
may  be  able  to  refer  me  to  further  information 
relating  to  it,  particularly  anterior  to  A.D.  1300.  I 
should  also  be  obliged  for  information  as  to  the 
arms  of  the  family.  In  Foster's  '  Yorkshire  Visita- 
tions'  there  is  a  charter  of  Ingram,  or  Ingelram, 
Falefaunt  ;  it  is  undated,  but  there  is  internal 
evidence  that  it  was  executed  about  1254.  The 
seal  of  the  grantor  bears,  On  a  fess,  three  crosses 
patee.  These  are  ancient  arms,  which  it  is  in- 
teresting to  compare  with  those  of  Follefait  or 
Folifoot  given  by  Burke  ('  General  Armory  ')  as 
quartered  by  Sir  George  Rawdon,  Bart,  (funeral 
entry  A.D.  1684),  Ar,  a  fess  between  two  lions 
pass,  reguard.,  sa.  These  latter  arms  appear  to 
have  been  borne  by  no  other  family. 

That  the  family  was  of  Norman  extraction  there 
can  be  no  doubt.  Hubert  Folenfant  in  1066  held 
Gouberville,  Dainonville,  and  Couverville,  in  Nor- 
mandy, from  Adelais,  daughter  of  Turstan  Halduc 
(Wiffen,  'Mem.  Russell,'  i.  17);  Ralph  Folefant 
held  by  knight's  service  in  Bedford  from  Simon 

de  Beaucharnp,  1165  ('  Lib.  Niger');  and  Hugh 
Folenfaunt  was  of  England  1272  (<  The  Norman 
People ').  H.  D.  E. 

EASTER  DAY  ON  ST.  MARK'S  DAY. — One  of 
the  daily  papers  recently  returned  to  the  some- 
what threadbare  subject  of  that  "  singular  person- 
age "  (as  the  '  Penny  Cyclopaedia,'  for  want  of  a 
better  term,  calls  him)  Nostradamus,  who  died  in 
1566  whilst  court  physician  to  Charles  IX.,  of  St. 
Bartholomew  infamy,  and  amongst  whose  prophe- 
cies is  one  that  the  end  of  the  world  will  take 
place  when  Easter  Day  falls  on  St.  Mark's  Day,  as 
it  does  in  the  present  year.  The  subject  is  dis- 
cussed in  *  N.  &  Q.,'  5th  S.  ix.  416,  where  MR.  SOLLY 
sarcastically  remarks  that  we  need  not  have  any 
special  anxiety  on  this  subject  for  1886,  since  the 
prophecy  undoubtedly  was  put  forth  with  reference 
to  the  old  style  of  the  calendar,  by  which,  had  it 
been  still  observed,  Easter  Day  would  not  fall  this 
year  on  St.  Mark's  Day.  That  day  (April  25)  is 
the  very  latest  on  which  Easter  Day,  according  to 
the  complicated  mode  in  which  it  is  reckoned,  can 
fall.  It  falls,  of  course,  very  seldom  on  that  day, 
and  has  not  hitherto  done  so  once  since  the  re- 
formation of  the  calendar  in  England.  It  fell  so, 
.however,  twice  by  the  Gregorian  style  between 
the  dates  of  the  reformation  on  the  Continent 
and  in  England,  viz.,  in  1666  and  1734.  The 
former  of  those  years  was  the  one  called  the  "  annus 
mirabilis  "  by  Dryden,  and  was  certainly  a  memor- 
able one  in  the  annals  of  London ;  the  latter  was 
not  remarkable  for  any  special  event  in  this 
country.  According  to  the  old  or  Julian  style 
(then  still  observed  in  England)  Easter  Day  fell 
during  that  period  on  St.  Mark's  Day,  in  1641 
(the  year  after  the  assembling  of  the  Long  Par- 
liament and  the  year  before  the  actual  outbreak 
of  the  civil  war  in  England)  and  in  1736.  These 
were  all  the  occasions  on  which  Easter  so  fell 
since  the  death  of  Nostradamus.  After  the 
present  year,  the  next  time  on  which  it  will 
fall  on  St.  Mark's  Day  (unless  a  simpler  and 
better  rule  for  the  observance  of  Easter  be  in 
the  mean  time  adopted)  will  be  fifty-seven  years 
hence,  in  1943.  W.  T.  LYNN. 


PUBLIC  MEN  OF  THE  YEAR  1782.— The  follow- 
ing summary  of  the  amusements  followed  by  the 
nobility  and  gentry  in  1782  is  from  the  Morning 
Herald  of  August  6  of  that  year.  It  seems  to  me 
just  one  of  those  little  bits  of  information  which 
historians  like  and  know  how  to  make  use  of.  It 
is  pleasant  to  hear  of  Lord  North  as  liking  a  festive 
board ;  that  Lord  Weymouth  knew  a  good  glass  of 
Burgundy  when  he  came  across  it ;  that  the  Duke 
of  Dorset  threw  off  his  coat  to  enjoy  his  game  at 
cricket  ;  that  Lord  Sandwich  could  enjoy  to  hear 
Lord  Maiden  on  the  violoncello  and  Lord  Abingdon 



[7*  S.  I.  JAN.  16,  '86. 

on  the  flute  ;  whilst  Lord  Grosvenor  stuck  to  the 
turf  and  Lord  Berkeley  to  hare  hunting,  Sir 
William  Draper  to  his  tennis,  and  Sir  John  Lade 
to  gig-driving.  One  can  picture  Lord  Bucking- 
hamshire going  about  town  in  an  old  coat,  and 
turning  into  the  Christie's  of  that  day  with  Lord 
Besborough  to  look  at  objects  of  vertii.  In  fine, 
the  doors  of  conjecture  once  open,  the  imagination 
expands  the  bints  of  the  newspaper,  and  lends  us 
some  of  the  ingredients  which  go  to  make  history. 

"  Amusements  that  ye  following  Men  of  fashion  princi- 
pally delight  in,  viz. 

Duke  of  Norfolk      toping. 

Duke  of  Dorset cricket. 

Duke  of  Cumberland         freshwater. 

Earl  Darmouth the  Tabernacle. 

Earl  Hillsborough a  nap. 

Earl  Cornwallis  military  glory. 

Earl  Pembroke        ...         ..          ...  the  Menage. 

Sandwich  ... 

Lord  Camden 

• Egmont     ... 


Orford       ... 


Earl  Besborough 
Viscount  Weymouth 
Mr.  Rigby 
Earl  Effingham 

ancient  Music. 
.    Agriculture. 
Fox  hunting. 
..    Menageries, 
dirty  Scirt. 

Mr.  Fox popular  tumults. 

Lord  Maiden 
Earl  Egremont  ... 
Duke  of  Devonshire 

Earl  Berkley     

Lord  Grosvenor 

Lord  North        

Earl  Buckinghamshire 

Lord  Westcote 

Lord  Hamilton 

Street  Riding. 
...    retirement, 
hare  hunting, 
the  turf, 
a  festive  board. 
...    an  old  coat, 
a  parenthesis, 

Sir  W.  Draper tennis. 

Earl  Aylesford        pistol  shooting. 

Sir  J.  Lade        gig  driving. 

Lord  Townsbend caricature. 

Sir  W.  W.  Wynne         acting. 

Viscount  Keppel a  warm  Cot. 

Howe Naval  practice. 

G.  B. 

Upton,  Slough. 

JOHN  KNOX'S  CLOCK  — The  following  is  a  cut- 
ting from  the  Toronto   Weekly  Globe  of  Decem- 
ber 25,  1885.     Further  information  in  regard  to 
the  clock  to  test  its  authenticity  is  desirable. 
"  John  Knox's  Clock. 

"  Mr.  W.  H.  Woods,  of  Huntingdon,  Pa.,  is  the  owner  of 
a  clock  which  he  values  so  highly  that  he  could  not  be 
induced  even  to  put  it  on  exhibition  at  the  Philadelphia 
Centennial,  for  fear  it  should  meet  with  some  accident. 
It  was  made  at  Paisley,  Scotland,  by  Evan  Skeoch  in 
1560,  and  was  owned  by  Knox,  the  great  Reformer.  It 
was  handed  down  from  generation  to  generation  of  bis 
descendants,  coming  after  nearly  one  hundred  and  fifty 
years  into  the  possession  of  John  Winterspoon,  father  of 
one  of  the  signers  of  the  Declaration  of  Independence. 
When  the  son  left  Scotland  in  1768  to  come  to  America, 
he  brought  the  old  clock  with  him.  He  prized  it  very 
highly,  cleaning  it  himself  at  regular  intervals,  and 
taking  pleasure  in  showing  it  to  his  friends  and  members 

of  Congress.  Since  his  death  in  1794  it  has  descended 
to  the  first-born  of  each  succeeding  generation.  The 
first  who  held  it  was  his  daughter  Marion,  who  married 
Rev.  Dr.  Jas.  S.  Woods,  of  Lewiston,  Pa.,  who  died  in 
1862.  Mr.  Woods  died  shortly  afterwards,  when  the 
clock  came  into  possession  of  its  present  owner.  It  is 
still  a  good  time-keeper,  is  eight  feet  high,  built  of  rose- 
wood, and  has  brass  works." 

A.  G.  REID. 


you  CAN'T  LODGE  HERE." — In  a  recent  communica- 
tion to  the  Daily  Telegraph  Mr.  Sala,  writing  from 
New  Zealand,  says  : — 

"  This,  for  a  wonder,  is  the  sunniest  and  balmiest  of 
mornings  in  Wellington.  Never  mind  the  '  chockablock  ' 
plethora  at  the  hotels.  I  forget  now  that  for  many 
hours  I  was  a  houseless  wanderer  on  the  Te  Aro  flat, 
disdainfully  repulsed  by  Boniface  after  Boniface,  and 
ruefully  recalling  that  famous  but  inscrutably  mysterious 
utterance  of  the  very  first  year  of  the  Victorian  epoch  : 
'  It 's  all  very  well,  Mr.  Ferguson ;  but  you  can't  lodge 
here.'  How  strangely  do  these  unbidden  memories  rise, 
after  a  long  lapse  of  years,  before  us  !  Who  was  Ferguson, 
and  where  did  he  seek  to  lodge,  and  on  what  ground  was 
he  denied  shelter?  It  were  as  bootless,  perhaps,  at  this 
distance  of  time,  and  with  so  many  thousands  of  milea 
between  Wellington,  New  Zealand,  and  the  office  of 
Notes  and  Queries,  in  Wellington  Street,  Strand,  London, 
as  to  ask  who  Walker  was,  and  why,  nearly  fifty  years 
ago,  he  was  derisively  connected  with  a  certain  coat, 
some  '  tin,'  and  the  New  Penny  Post.  '  Coelum  non 
animam,'  &c.  I  shall  not  descend  contented  to  the 
tomb  until  I  have  solved  the  mysteries  of  Ferguson  and 
of  Walker." 

I  should  not  like  Mr.  Sala  to  "  descend  to  the 
tomb  "  until  one  of  his  queries,  at  least,  has  been 
solved.  In  case,  accordingly,  you  have  nothing 
better,  I  send  the  following.  It  is  very  fresh 
in  my  memory.  About  the  time  to  which  Mr. 
Sala  alludes  the  celebrated  Marquis  of  Water- 
ford  was  in  full  swing,  and  had  a  friend,  a  Capt. 
Ferguson.  At  the  end  of  one  of  their  "  sprees  " 
they  had  become  separated,  and  the  Marquis  found 
his  way  home  to  the  house  of  his  uncle,  the 
Bishop  or  Archbishop  of  Armagh,  a  large  mansion 
at  the  south  corner  of  Charles  Street,  St.  James's 
Square.  The  marquis  had  gone  to  bed  when  a 
thundering  knock  came  at  the  door.  The  marquis, 
sespecting  who  was  the  applicant,  threw  up  the 
window  and  said,  "It  is  all  very  fine,  Ferguson  ; 
but  you  don't  lodge  here."  For  many  years  the 
saying  became  popular,  and  the  particulars  took  a 
deep  hold  on  my  memory,  which  still  retains  them. 

As  to  "  Walker  "  I  am  not  clear  ;  but  I  suppose 
it  may  have  had  something  to  do  with  letter-carriers, 
as  an  old  song  had  it,  "  Walker,  the  Twopenny 
Postman."  THOS.  EARWAKER. 

Meric  Casaubon's  preface  to  his  remarkable  folio 
on  the  intercourse  between  Dr.  John  Dee  and  the 
spirits,  called  '  A  Relation/  published  in  1659,  he 
refers  on  leaf  11  (verso,  top  line)  to  a  haunted 

7*  a  I.JAK.16,'86.] 



parish  of  which  he  was  incumbent  by  right,  though 
then  deprived  of  it.  His  words  are  that  he  him- 
self "  had  a  Parish,  that  is,  right  to  a  Parish  as 
good  as  the  Laws  of  the  land  can  give  me,  which 
hath  been  grievously  haunted  this  many  years,  to 
the  undoing  of  many  there  ;  but  I  must  not  come 
near  it,  nor  have  the  benefit  of  the  Law  to  recover 
my  right,  though  never  told  why."  In  the  margin 
of  my  copy,  once  Horace  Walpole's,  there  is  de- 
fectively printed  what  appear  to  be  the  letters 
"  B.V.  of  T."  I  should  be  glad  to  know  if  these 
initials  are  clearer  in  any  other  copy,  and  whether 
the  names  can  be  extended.  Casaubon  was  pre- 
sented to  Bledon,  co.  Somerset,  by  Bishop  An- 
drews, and  to  Ickham,  co.  Kent,  by  Laud  ;  and 
from  the  latter  living  Walker  (ii.  8)  says  he  was 
ejected.  A  note  by  Kennet  in  *  Athen.  Oxon./ 
ed.  Blis?,  iii.  939,  states  that  Casaubon  was  pre- 
sented by  Laud  in  1634  to  the  livings  of  "  Men- 
stre  (Minster,  in  the  Isle  of  Thanet  ?)  and  Monk- 
ton  ;  and  it  is  also  added  that  he  was  thence 
ejected  during  the  troubles,  but  came  into  posses- 
sion again  in  1660.  JOHN  E.  BAILEY. 
Stretford,  Manchester. 

We  must  request  correspondents  desiring  information 
on  family  matters  of  only  private  interest,  to  affix  their 
names  and  addresses  to  their  queries,  in  order  that  the 
answers  may  be  addressed  to  them  direct. 

A  MISSING  MAZER.— Can  any  one  tell  me  the 
whereabouts  of  a  beautiful  mazer  sold  at  Win- 
chester in  December,  1853,  which  bore  the  legend, 
"  Potum  et  nos  benedicat  agyos  "  ? 

W.  H.  ST.  JOHN  HOPE. 
Society  of  Antiquaries,  Burlington  House. 
Piccadilly,  W. 

[Replies  should  be  sent  direct.] 

MUST. — I  have  a  dispute  with  a  friend  and 
grammarian  as  to  the  powers  of  our  auxiliary  verb 
must,  and  I  feel  compelled  to  appeal  for  informa- 
tion to  your  readers.  The  following,  briefly  stated, 
are  the  facts.  Grammarians  are  divided  in  opinion 
as  to  whether  must  has  a  preterit  tense.  All  are, 
however,  agreed  that  it  has  no  perfect  tense,  for 
"I  have  must"  would  be  out  of  the  question. 
But  those  grammarians  who  give  must  in  their 
grammars  as  a  preterit  stop  short  and  omit  telling 
us  why  we  may  not  say,  "  I  must  go  there  yester 
day,"  or  "He  did  not  come  yesterday;  he  must 
work  all  yesterday."  Nor  do  they,  on  the  other 
hand,  tell  us  under  what  circumstances  the  word 
conveys  the  meaning  of  a  past  time.  It  must  be 
observed  that  sentences  like  the  following,  "  I 
must  have  done  it,"  "  He  must  have  forgotten  it,' 
are  not  evidences  of  any  preterit  power  of  must,  for 
the  past  is  conveyed  by  the  words  "  have  done  " 
and  "  have  forgotten."  This  becomes  evident  by 

substituting  can,  as  "  Can  he  have  forgotten  it  ?  " 
Here  can,  like  must,  is  a  present  tense.  If  I  re- 
member right,  there  are  instances  of  must  appear- 
ing with  the  powers  of  a  past  tense,  but  I  am  quite 
unable  to  call  to  mind  where  I  met  with  them. 
Perhaps  some  of  your  readers  will  kindly  ventilate 
the  question,  and  oblige 


[In  our  opinion  no  idea  of  past  time  can  be  attached 
to  the  word  must.  The  explanation  is  that  of  all  the 
tenses  of  the  German  verb  miissen,  the  present  was  the 
only  one  which  passed  into  English.  A  German  can 
say,  "  Ich  miisste,"  "  I  musted,"  and  can  use  the  infini- 
tive "  to  must,"  while  we  are  restricted  to  the  present 
alone.  The  same  thing  occurred  with  the  infinitive  of 
the  verb  "  to  can "  (konneri) ,  which  is  common  in 
German,  but  was  never  employed  in  English.] 

WESTMINSTER  AND  Music. — Will  any  obliging 
student  of  musical  history  aid  me  in  preparing  a 
correct  statement  of  all  musical  societies  con- 
nected with  the  ancient  city — now  borough — of 
Westminster  since  about  1675 — Purcell's  time  ? 
Information  on  this  subject  will  be  much  value< 

Sec.  Westminster  Orchestral  Society 

33,  Great  Pultenev  Street. 

ARMY  LISTS. — What  printed  lists  of  the  Eng- 
lish army  are  there  prior  to  1754,  when  the  first 
edition  of  the  *  Annual  Army  List '  was  printed  ? 

0.  M. 

are  these  arms: — Quarterly,  1  and  4,  Gules,  three 
heads  with  white  caps;  2,  Ermine,  three  bars 
vert;  3,  Sa.,  three  swans  arg.,  with  crest  a  swan; 
all  coats  of  Fazakerley,  impaling  Or,  a  lion  statant 
regardant.  I  have  carefully  examined  the  lion, 
and  all  his  four  paws  are  resting  on  the  ground, 
which,  I  believe,  entitles  him  to  be  described  as 
"statant."  No  such  coat  is  given  by  Papworth. 
"  Or,  a  lion  passant  gu.,"  is  assigned  to  Gaynes 
of  co.  Brecon  and  to  Charlton. 

On  a  plate  are  the  arms  of  Duberley,  On  a 
fess  an  arrow  between  two  mullets,  two  garbs  in 
chief,  a  reaping  hook  in  base;  and  crest,  a  hand 
holding  three  ears  of  corn,  impaling  Gu.,  a  swan  or 
goose  or.  There  is  no  question  that  the  bird  is 
"  or,"  and  this  coat  is  not  given  by  Papworth. 

Can  any  of  your  readers  give  me  the  name  of  the 
alliance  in  each  of  these  cases,  and  of  the  member 
of  the  family  respectively  whom  they  represent 
Both  specimens  belong  to  the  first  half  of  the  last 
century;  the  latter  is  Oriental  china.     G.  L.  G. 

TRAPP.  —In  Christ  Church,  Newgate  Street,  lies 
Dr.  Trapp,  for  twenty-six  years  vicar.  He  died 
1747.  He  translated  Virgil  into  blank  verse — 
very  blank,  it  is  said;  critics  say  the  only  value  of 
the  book  is  in  the  notes,  which  are  copious.  Cun- 
ningham says  it  occasioned  a  well-known  epigram. 
What  was  it  ?  I  know  of  the  epigram  that  he 



S.  I.  JAN.  16,  '86. 

himself  wrote  upon  George  I.'s  sending  troops  to 
Oxford  and  Bishop  Moore's  library  to  Cambridge: 
The  king,  observing  with  judicious  eyes 
The  state  of  both  his  universities, 
To  Oxford  sent  a  troop  of  horse ;  and  why  ? 
That  learned  body  wanted  loyalty: 
To  Cambridge  books  he  sent,  as  well  discerning 
How  much  that  loyal  body  wanted  learning. 

This  was  repeated  to  Sir  Wm.  Browne,  the 
eccentric  physician  of  Lynn,  who  answered  im- 
promptu (Nichols's  '  Lit.  An./  viii.  439). 

C.  A.  WARD. 
Haverstock  Hill. 

AND  HIS  WIFE. — Can  any  Scottish  readers  of 
'  N.  &  Q.'  inform  me  if  any  portraits  of  the  above 
couple  are  still  in  existence  ?  The  Rev.  John 
Livingston  was  minister  of  Ancram,  and  banished 
to  Holland  for  nonconformity  in  1663.  From  the 
following  extract  from  '  The  Ladies  of  the  Cove- 
nant,7 by  the  Rev.  James  Anderson,  published  by 
Messrs.  Blackie  &  Son  in  1851,  it  appears  that 
there  used  to  be  a  portrait  of  Mrs.  Livingston  (nee 
Mary  Fleming)  at  Gosford  House,  but  I  believe 
that  it  is  not  now  to  be  found  : — "  There  is  a  por- 
trait of  Mrs.  Livingstone  in  Gosford  House,  be- 
longing to  the  Earl  of  Wemyss,  as  we  learn  from  a 
footnote  in  Kirkton's  'History/  by  the  editor, 
p.  345."— P.  233,  note.  E.  B.  L.,  F.S.A.Scot. 
7,  Orford  Villas,  Walthamstow. 

APOSTATE  NUNS.— I  shall  be  obliged  if  any 
readers  will  favour  me  with  names  of  works  in 
which  the  practice  of  immuring  apostate  nuns  is 
fully  noticed.  Its  antiquity  and  the  forms  of  the 
attendant  ceremony  are  the  points  I  especially 
want  notes  upon.  Are  there  any  known  instances 
in  late  Anglo-Saxon  times  of  more  severe  punish- 
ment than  excommunication,  forfeiture  of  dowry, 
&c.,  as  Lingard  relates  ? 


Whips  Cross,  Walthamstow,  Essex. 

MOGGRIDGE. —  I  seek  for  the  names  of  the 
two  wives  of  Samuel  Rickards  (son  of  Thomas 
Rickards  by  Elizabeth,  daughter  of  John  Read,  of 
Great  Washbourn,  Gloucestershire),  of  Fenchurch 
Street,  London,  merchant.  He  died  January  18, 
1771,  aged  seventy-two,  and  was  buried,  as  was 
his  second  wife,  at  Bunhill  Fields.  By  his  first 
wife  he  had  a  daughter  Hannah  (died  September  18, 
1782),  who  married  Alexander  Maitland  (died 
February  20,  1775),  and  they  had  a  daughter 
Sarah,  who  married  March  26,  1776,  at  St. 
Martin's-in-the-Fields  (as  his  first  wife)  John  Sin- 
clair, of  Ulbster,  Caithnessshire,  created  a  baronet 
February  14,  1786,  and  had  issue  a  daughter 
Janet,  who  married,  June  — ,  1799,  Sir  James 
Colquhoun,  Bart.,  and  had  issue.  Samuel  Rickards, 
by  his  second  wife  Susannah,  daughter  of 

(she  died  August  22,  1775,  at  Clapham,  aged 
sixty-six),  had  Elizabeth,  who  married  John  Yer- 
bury  (son  of  William  Yerbury,  of,  I  believe,  Brad- 
ford, Wiltshire,  by  his  wife  Ann,  daughter  of 

Wereat),  of  Gracechurch  Street  and  Clapham 
Common,  and  had  issue  a  son  John  Yerbury,  of 
Shirehampton  and  Clifton,  both  in  Gloucestershire, 
who  by  his  wife  Mary  Ann  Clutterbuck  had  two 
daughters.  Eliza,  wife  of  Charles  William  Jebb, 
and  Marianne,  second  wife  of  Major  John  Blood. 
John  Yerbury,  junior,  had  a  sister  Susannah,  who 
married  William  Towgood,  of  London,  and  after- 
wards of  Cardiff,  banker  (son  of  Matthew  Towgood, 
of  London,  banker),  and  had  issue.  Yerbury, 
Moggridge,  and  Towgood  intermarried.  This 
family  of  Moggridge  is  now  of  Woodfield  Park, 
near  Newport,  Monmouthshire.  Can  any  corre- 
spondent give  me  any  information  as  to  the 
ancestry,  &c.,  of  the  above  family  of  Yerbury  ? 

Beaoonsfield  Club,  Pall  Mall,  S.W. 

AN  ALLEGORY. — '  Seven  Boys,  an  Allegory  of 
the  Pleiades,  or  Seven  Stars,'  by  Frances  Floris,  a 
print  of  which  appeared  in  the  Graphic,  Decem- 
ber 26.  Where  is  the  original  painting  ? 


St.  John's  Wood. 

OLD  TERMS  USED  BY  TANNERS,  &c.— If  any 
of  your  readers  can  explain  any  of  the  following 
terms,  which  occur  in  the  Manchester  Court  Leet 
Records,  1624  to  1631, 1  shall  be  much  obliged. 
A  certain  skin  " called  peeche  hide/'  "half  a 
peech  of  Leather/'  and  "  the  said  half  peech  of 
Leather."  A  piece  of  skin  called  "a  butt,"  and 
two  skins  called  "  butts  "  (is  not  this  the  skin  off 
the  buttock  of  the  animal?).  One  little  skin 
called  "peache  hide/'  and  two  pairs  of  articles 
called  "  ossles "  ("  duo  paria  implement'  vocat' 
oseles  ").  These  articles  called  "  ossles,"  it  was  re- 
turned by  the  jury  specially  empannelled  to 
examine  them,  were  lawfully  tanned,  &c.  I  can- 
not find  these  words  in  any  of  the  ordinary 
books  of  reference.  J.  P.  EARWAKER. 

Pensarn,  Abergele,  N.  Wales. 

C.  PATCH. — Can  any  reader  of  '  N.  &  Q.'  in- 
form me  at  what  date  writing  paper  bearing  this 
name  as  a  water-mark  was  in  use  ?  I  have  reasons 
for  believing  that  it  was  prior  to  the  latter  part  of 
the  seventeenth  century,  but  do  not  know  of  any 
work  on  the  manufacture  of  paper  likely  to  give 
the  desired  information.  E.  B.  L.,  F.S.A.Scot. 

7,  Orford  Villas,  Walthamstow. 

SOCIETY  OF  HATTERS. — I  am  anxious  to  identify 
the  author  of  a  sermon  of  the  time  of  George  II., 
which  between  the  years  1746  and  1748  seems 
to  have  proved  a  useful  stock  one  to  the  preacher, 
whose  handwriting  I  am  told  resembles  that  of 
Bishop  Sherlock.  It  is  from  the  text  Eccles.  xi.  9, 

7th  S.  I.  JAN.  16,  '86.] 



and  is  noted  as  having  been  delivered  on  the  fol- 
lowing occasions  : — "  Before  ye  Society  of  Hatters, 
8  Jan.,  1746";  "  M.  L.  (17)46,  Funeral  of  Mr. 
Fenton  at  Prestwich";  "  Eccles,  (17)47";  "Mrs. 
Scholes's  Sermon,  (17)46";  "  Oldham,  (17)46"; 
"Wid.  Cook's  Funeral,  (17)47-8";  "Mr.  James 
Wilson's  Funeral,  (17)48."  What  is  known  of  the 
Society  of  Hatters  ;  and  when  did  it  cease  to  be  a 
recognized  company  ? 

74,  King  Edward  Road,  Hackney. 

PROWSE  FAMILY.— In  10  Geo.  III.  an  Act  of 
Parliament  was  passed  to  confirm  and  render  valid 
and  effectual  a  partition  of  divers  lands,  manors, 
&c.,  in  the  several  counties  of  Somerset,  Wilts, 
Worcester,  Surrey,  Middlesex,  and  in  the  City  of 
London,  late  the  estates  of  Thomas  Prowse,  Esq., 
deceased,  and  which  upon  the  death  of  George 
Prowse,  Esq.,  his  only  son,  devolved  upon  and 
vested  in  the  two  daughters  and  coheiresses  of  the 
said  Thomas  Prowse,  deceased.  Will  one  of  your 
correspondents  kindly  assist  me  by  taking  a  few 
notes  from  the  Act,  which  I  presume  is  to  be  found 
in  the  British  Museum  ? 


Axbridge,  Somerset. 

CHAINED  BIBLES. — In  Chambers's  'Book  of 
Days/  and  under  the  date  January  25  (vol.  i. 
p.  164),  "Authorized  Version  of  the  Bible,"  is  the 
following  paragraph  :•— 

"A  copy  of  the  Authorized  Version  was,  as  before, 
placed  in  each  parish  church  that  it  might  be  accessible 
to  all ;  and  usually  it  was  chained  to  the  place.  A 
sketch  of  such  a  Bible,  remaining  in  Cumnor  Church, 
Leicester,  is  given  in  the  preceding  page." 

Will  you  kindly  inform  me  if  this  subject,  chained 
Bibles,  has  been  fully  treated  in  *  N.  &  Q.,'  and 
where  any  list  of  such  still  remaining  is  to  be  found1? 


PIGEONS  AND  SICK  PEOPLE. — I  shall  be  glad  if 
some  reader  of '  N.  &  Q.'  will  tell  me  the  origin 
and  meaning  of  the  custom  of  putting  pigeons  to 
the  feet  of  persons  very  ill.  It  seems  to  have  been 
usual  in  Pepys's  time  ('  Diary,'  October  19,  1663, 
and  January  21,  1668),  and  there  is  still  a  super- 
stition in  some  parts  of  the  country  that  a  person 
cannot  die  easily  if  lying  on  a  pillow  containing 
pigeons'  feathers.  H.  ASTLEY  ROBERTS. 

KNOXIS  :  WIMES  :  WRAT. — Will  some  reader 
of  *  N.  &  Q.'  be  good  enough  to  help  me  to  identify 
the  following  three  names,  which  occur  in  the 
itinerary  of  Prince  Lewis  of  Anhalt,  who  came  to 
England  in  1596  ? 

(a)  A  "  ritter  Knoxis,"  who  had  probably  some 
official  connexion  with  Whitehall,  as  he  showed 
the  visitors  over  the  palace  (end  of  June,  1596). 
Not  finding  the  name  of  Knoxis,  I  tried  Knollys  ; 
but  from  what  follows  in  the  itinerary  Knollys 

cannot  be  right.  The  wife  of  "ritter  Knoxis "  was 
of  Dutch  extraction.  Sir  Francis  Knollys  died  on 
March  22, 1596  ('  N.  &  Q.,'  2nd  S.  iii.  449),  and  Sir 
William  Knollys's  first  wife  (who  died  in  1606)  was 
the  daughter  of  Lord  Bray. 

(6)  In  Cambridge  the  prince  was  hospitably 
received  by  Herr  Wimes,  who  must  have  been  a 
head  of  a  college,  for  the  itinerary  goes  on  to  say 
he  drew  up  specially  well  the  rules  of  discipline, 
&c.,  and  was  made  "freyherr"  by  James  I.  ("ea 
ward  auch  dieser  mann  zum  freyherrn  drauf  er- 
hoben  durch  Konig  Jacobs  hand  zu  Sie  "— Sie  for 
Sir?).  The  records  of  Cambridge  University  have 
no  notice  of  this  visit  of  the  prince,  and  a  certain 
Ludovicus  Weems,  of  Queen's,  was  S.T.B.  1621, 
S.T.P.  (by  royal  mandate)  1624,  and  held  later  on 
one  of  the  Corpus  livings. 

(c)  One  German  mile  from  Ware  the  prince 
visited  an  Edelmann  Johann  Wrat,  who  spoke 
German  very  well  and  had  spent  a  long  time  in 
Venice.  This  is,  I  suppose,  John  Wroth,  who 
was  sent  on  the  queen's  special  service  to  the 
Count  Palatine  and  other  princes  of  Germany 
(State  Papers,  1599,  July  4),  and  he  probably 
belonged  to  the  Wroth  family  who  held  in 
possession  "the  manor  of  Durants,  now  Durance, 
with  a  mansion  on  the  high  road  between  Ware 
and  Edmonton,  opposite  Enfield"  (Dan.  Lysons, 
'  The  Environs  of  London/  vol.  ii.  p.  299). 

H.  H. 

CURRAN'S  HISTORICAL  FLEAS. — In  an  article 
on  the  new  Parliament  in  the  weekly  edition  of  the 
Times  it  is  said  that  the  Irish  electors  seem  to  have 
voted  "  with  the  unanimity  of  Curran's  historical 
fleas."  I  should  be  glad'  to  know  to  what  this 
refers.  JAMES  HOOPER. 

[Is  not  the  reference  to  the  assertion  that  the  fleas 
were  so  numerous  if  they  had  been  unanimous  they 
would  have  pulled  him  out  of  bed  ?] 

KELLY.— Where  was  Michael  Kelly's  saloon  ? 
"  C.  A.  WARD. 
Haverstock  Hill. 

COUNTY.— This  man  was  one  of  the  subscribers 
to  the  fund  which  sent  the  Massachusetts  colony 
to  America,  and  June  16,  1632,  in  partnership 
with  Thomas  Purchas,  was  granted  a  patent  for 
"  a  Plantation  at  Pechipscot."  Can  any  particulars 
of  Way  be  given?  Possibly  some  Dorset  anti- 
quary may  know  something  of  him. 


JOHN  ARMETRIDING. — Entered  Trinity  College, 
Cambridge,  1727;  curate  of  Bispham,  Lancashire, 
1767,  where  he  died  in  1791,  aged  eighty-three 
years.  His  father's  name  was  Kichard,  and  he 
was  a  Lancashire  man.  Information  wanted  about 
the  father  and  son.  H.  FISHWICX,  F.S.A. 

The  Heights,  Rochdale. 



[7"'  S.  I.  JAN.  16, 

*AME    DES    B&TES.'— Who   wrote  'L'Histoire 
Critique  de  1'Ame  des  Betes'?       C.  A.  WARD. 
Haverstock  Hill. 


(6th  S.  xii.  270,  336,  391,  415,  474,  504.) 
It  seems  desirable  that  the  number  of  times 
this  hag  been  asserted  should  be  recorded ;  and 
a  perfect  list  is  nowhere  more  likely  to  be  ob- 
tained than  from  your  columns.  [  cannot  find 
more  than  five  instances,  viz.,  (1)  Alrnericus, 
Lord  Kingsale,  1669-1720,  "  by  walking  to  and 
fro  with  his  hat  on  his  head"  in  the  presence 
chamber  of  William  III.  (no  exact  date  is  given  to 
this  exploit)  is  said  to  have  attracted  that  king's 
attention,  to  whom  he  explained  his  conduct  by 
stating  that  he  did  so  to  assert  the  ancient  pri- 
vilege of  his  family,  u  granted  to  John  de  Courci, 
Earl  of  Ulster,  and  his  heirs,  by  John,  King  of 
England."  (2)  His  successor,  Gerald,  Lord  King- 
sale,  1720-1759,  executed  the  movement  June  19, 
1720,  before  George  I.,  and  again  (3;  June  22, 
1727,  before  George  II.  (4)  The  next  peer  in 
succession,  John,  Lord  Kingsale,  1759-1776,  per- 
formed the  (now  fast  becoming)  celebrated  "hat 
trick"  September  15,  1762,  before  George  III.; 
and  that,  too,  notwithstanding  the  prophecy  of 
George  Montagu,  in  a  letter  to  Horace  Walpole, 
dated  February  6  in  the  same  year,  that  "  our 
peers  need  not  fear  him  assuming  his  privilege  of 
being  covered,  for,  till  the  king  gives  him  a  pen- 
sion, he  cannot  buy  the  offensive  Hat."  See 
*  Eighth  Report  of  the  Royal  Commission  on  His- 
torical MSS.'  (1881)  second  appendix,  p.  115;  and 
see  also  Archdall's  edition  of  Lodge's  *  Peerage  of 
Ireland  '  (1789),  vol.  vi.  p.  156,  &c. 

After  the  lapse  of  about  a  century  (during  which 
period  we  hear  from  your  correspondent,  6tn  S.  xii. 
336,  of  the  non-performance  of  this  ceremony  before 
George  IV.  when  in  Ireland  in  1821)  one  is  somewhat 
surprised  to  find  it  reproduced  (5)  June  25,  1859, 
before  the  Queen,  though  apparently  without 
notice,  which,  in  these  days  of  more  accurate  in- 
vestigation, would  probably  have  been  fatal  to  its 
performance.  The  exhibitor  of  this  date  was  the 
great-great-grandson,  and  the  fourth  peer  in  suc- 
cession, to  the  (once  hatless)  "  Hatter"  of  1762. 

The  matter  of  this  somewhat  questionable 
"  right "  would  be  greatly  elucidated  if  answers 
could  be  furnished  to  the  following  queries,  viz., 
(1)  Is  there  any  trustworthy  documentary  evidence 
of  the  wording  of  King  John's  grant  (i.e.,  to  the 
earl  "  and  his  heirs  "),  or  even  of  the  existence  of  the 
grant  itself  ?  (2)  Is  there  any  evidence  whatever 
that  the  first  Lord  Kingsale  was  "  the  heir"  of  the 
Earl  of  Ulster?  (3)  Was  not  "Johannes  de 
Courci,  Junior"  (who  was  father  of  Milo,  first 

Lord  Kingsale),  a  bastard  son  of  the  said  earl, 
who  is  stated  by  Giraldus  Cambrensis  to  have 
died  without  lawful  issue  ?  (4)  Supposing 
"Young  John"  not  to  have  been  such  son,  whac 
proof  is  there  of  his  parentage  being  such  as 
would  entitle  him  and  his  issue  to  be  the  heirs  of 
the  said  earl  ?  (5)  Can  any  instance  be  produced 
of  any  Lord  Kingsale  claiming  this  right  prior 
to  the  last  decade  of  the  seventeenth  century? — a 
somewhat  modern  date  for  the  commencement  of 
the  exercise  of  such  a  mediaeval  privilege. 

It  may  be  observed  that  the  pedigree  of  the 
family  leads  one  to  suppose  that  since  1642,  and 
apparently  since  1599,  no  Lord  Kingsale  was  the 
heir  (i.e.,  heir  general,  though  doubtless  he  was 
heir  male)  of  the  first  lord,  and,  a  fortiori,  not  of 
the  Earl  of  Ulster.  G.  E.  C. 

I  am  sorry  that  SOMERSET  H.  should  imagine 
that  I  have  taken  an  "  undeserved  attitude  to- 
wards him,"  or  that  I  have  "  indulged  in  per- 
sonalities"; he  should  bear  in  mind  that  he 
commenced  the  attack  on  me  in  his  letter  of 
November  21,  to  which  I  have  only  fairly  re- 
sponded. So  far  from  making  any  personal  attack 
on  him,  I  was  not,  nor  am  I  now,  aware  that  the 
Stephen  Tucker  of  Henry  VIII.'s  time  was  an 
ancestor  of  his ;  so  I  cannot  fairly  be  charged  with 
"  personality"  towards  SOMERSET  H.;  but  if  he  will 
show  that  he  is  descended  from  that  person,  and 
feels  that  any  of  my  remarks  have  aggrieved  him, 
I  shall  be  ready  to  make  the  amend. 

It  is  refreshing  to  think  that  after  John  Forester 
and  Stephen  Tucker  had  obtained  the  "  privilege  " 
from  Henry  VIII.,  in  feeble  imitation  of  the 
"grand  privilege"  of  the  De  Courcys,  given  them 
by  King  John,  they  found  some  other  "  notion  of 
enjoyment"  than  attempting  to  claim  their  pri- 
vilege from  any  sovereign  since  that  time. 

SOMERSET  H.  is  certainly  a  great  sceptic  in  such 
matters,  if  tradition,  custom,  and  admitted  claims 
are  not  enough  proof  for  him  that  King  John  did 
accord  the  De  Courcy  privilege  as  stated. 

In  all  probability  the  privilege  was  granted  by 
word  of  mouth  only,  as  that  was  enough  in  such 
remote  times,  without  calling  in  the  aid  of  any 
Herald.  John  Constantine,  Lord  Kingsale,  was 
no  doubt  wise  on  this  point,  and  did  not  think  it 
necessary  to  take  any  counsel  of  members  of  the 
Heralds'  College  on  such  a  very  simple  matter  as 
the  making  his  claim  to  his  splendid  family  "  pri- 
vilege." I  quite  agree  with  SOMERSET  H.  that  it 
would  certainly  have  been  better  if  Lord  Kingsale 
had  consulted  the  Lord  Chamberlain  before  attend- 
ing the  levee  on  June  25,  1859,  and  claiming  his 
undoubted  privilege. 

This  correspondence  has  been  carried  on  by  me 
in  the  best  of  tempers,  and  I  hope  SOMERSET  H. 
will  permit  other  people  to  hold  an  opinion  upon 
a  very  interesting  historic  question,  and  express 

?tf-S.  I.  JAK.  16, '86.] 



their  belief  in  the  existence  of  the  De  Courcy 
right  to  wear  the  hat  in  the  royal  presence  with- 
out fear  of  any  refusal  of  such  privilege,  and  I 
hope  ere  long  this  question  will  be  put  to  the  test. 

There  is  in  the  possession  of  the  Rev.  Henry 
Hill,  of  Buxhall,  Suffolk  (the  present  representa- 
tive of  the  English  branch  of  theCopinger  family), 
the  following  curious  grant,  given  to  Walter 
Copinger,  of  Buxhall,  by  Henry  VIII.  :— 
"  Henry  R. 

"  Henry,  by  the  grace  of  God,  King  of  England  and 
of  France,  and  Lord  of  Ireland. 

''  To  all  manor  our  subjects,  as  well  of  the  spiritual 
pre-eminence  and  dignities,  as  of  the  temporal  auctority, 
these  our  Letters  hearing  or  seeing,  and  to  every  of  them 

"  Whereas  we  be  credibly  informed  that  our  trusty  and 
Avell  beloved  subject  Walter  Copinger  is  so  diseased  in 
his  head  that  without  his  great  danger  he  cannot  be 
conveniently  discovered  of  the  same  :  In  consideration 
whereof  we  have  by  these  presents,  licensed  him  to  use 
and  wear  his  Bonet  upon  his  said  head,  as  well  in  our 
presence  as  elsewhere,  at  his  liberty— Whereof  we  will 
and  command  you  and  every  of  you  to  permit  and  suffer 
him  so  to  do,  without  any  your  challenge,  disturbance,  or 
interruption  to  the  contrary,  as  ye  and  every  of  you  tender 
our  pleasure — Given  under  our  signet,  at  our  manor  of 
Greenwych,  the  24ttl  day  of  October,  in  the  fourth  year 
of  our  reigne. ' 

L.  H. 

Lord  Kingsale  attended  the  levee,  as  related. 
He  was  a  very  tall  man,  and  wore  a  deputy- 
lieutenant's  uniform,  which,  in  those  days,  ex- 
hibited a  high  cocked  hat  with  a  long  straight 
feather ;  so  that  when  he  had  his  hat  on  he  could 
scarcely  enter  the  door  without  touching  the  top 
of  it.  Some  of  the  courtiers  rushed  to  stop  him, 
but  were  prevented  from  interfering  by  those  who 
knew  him.  SEBASTIAN. 

HIGHLAND  KILT  (7th  S.  i.  8).— This  question 
has  been  discussed  before  in  the  pages  of  *N.  &  Q.' 
See  1"  S.  ii.  62,  174,  470;  iv.  7,  77, 107,  170,  445. 
According  to  the  second  edition  of  'Notes  to  assist 
the  Memory  in  Various  Sciences/  quoted  by  one 
of  the  many  correspondents,  "  Thomas  lUwlinson, 
an  iron-smelter  and  an  Englishman,  was  the  person 
who,  about  or  prior  to  A.D.  1728  introduced  the 
pheliebeg,  or  short  kilt  worn  in  the  Highlands." 
Planche1,  however,  in  his  '  Cyclopaedia  of  Cos-? 
turne'  (1876),  vol.  i.  p.  396,  states  that  "the  period 
of  the  separation  of  the  ancient  feile-beag  into  a 
waistcoat  and  kilt  is  at  present  unknown,  but  I 
imagine  about  the  accession  of  James  VI.  to  the 
throne  of  England."  G.  F.  E.  B. 

W.  A.  P.  will  find  a  very  good  account  of  the 
origin  of  the  kilt  in  Dr.  James  Browne's  '  History 
of  the  Highlands  and  of  the  Highland  Clans' 
(Glasgow,  1835),  vol.  i.  p.  101.  Although  in  its 
present  form,  as  worn  by  our  Highland  regiments, 
the  kilt  is  only  an  adaptation  of  the  ancient  dress, 

still  the  philabeg  is  probably  of  much  earlier  date 
than  the  beginning  of  the  eighteenth  century.  The 
original  form  was  the  breacan  feile,  or  chequered 
clothing,  "  consisting  of  a  plain  piece  of  tartan 
from  four  to  six  yards  in  length  and  two  yards 
broad."  This  "  was  adjusted  with  great  nicety, 
and  made  to  surround  the  waist  in  great  plaits  or 
folds,  and  was  firmly  bound  round  the  loins  with  a 
leathern  belt  in  such  a  manner  that  the  lower  side 
fell  down  to  the  middle  of  the  knee  joint,  and 
then,  while  there  were  the  foldings  behind,  the 
cloth  was  double  before.  The  upper  part  was  then 
fastened  on  the  left  shoulder  with  a  large  brooch 
or  pin,  so  as  to  display  to  the  utmost  advantage 
the  tastefulhess  of  the  arrangement,  the  two  ends 
being  sometimes  suffered  to  hang  down  ;  but  that 
on  the  right  side,  which  was  necessarily  the  longer, 
was  more  usually  tucked  under  the  belt." 

This  was  the  "  belted  plaid  "  out  of  which  General 
Wolfe's  tailors  are  said  to  have  devised  the  mili- 
tary kilt  and  plaid  as  the  two  separate  articles 
now  worn  by  our  Highland  regiments.  The 
modern  plaid  is  simply  an  encumbrance,  that  of 
the  officers  being  wound  under  the  right  and  over 
the  left  arm,  and  having  no  connexion  with  the 
kilt  below ;  while  that  of  the  men,  worn  only  on 
full-dress  parades,  is  a  scrap  of  tartan  brought 
from  the  waist  to  the  left  shoulder,  and  hanging 
thence  in  meagre  folds.  The  plaid,  both  of  men 
and  officers,  is  dressy  and  picturesque,  but  useless ; 
representing  as  it  does  the  free  end  of  the  old 
belted  plaid  (the  folded  end  of  which  made  the 
kilt),  it  is  a  part  of  the  dress  which  soldiers  clad 
in  doublets  might  very  well  dispense  with.  In 
1884,  when  the  feather  bonnets  of  Highland  regi- 
ments were  condemned  on  the  score  of  economy,  I 
ventured  to  advocate  in  the  House  of  Commons  the 
discontinuance  of  the  modern  plaid,  rather  than  the 
abolition  of  the  bonnet  whose  feathers  had  waved 
on  so  many  continental  battle-fields.  The  ostrich 
plumes  are  the  military  development  of  the  feathers 
(whether  of  eagle  or  exotic  birds)  which  the  duine 
uasal  (man  of  gentle  birth)  had  the  right  to  wear. 
It  was  from  this  class  that  the  Black  Watch  was 
originally  composed. 

The  belted  plaid  had  no  pockets,  so  the  sporan 
originated  in  the  leathern  pouch  or  purse  which 
was  suspended  to  the  belt  in  front. 

If  W.  A.  P.  has  access  to  Pont's  maps  of  Scot- 
land in  Blaeu's  magnificent  atlas  (1662),  and  will 
turn  to  the  chart  of  Aberdeen  and  Banff  (p.  90),  he 
will  there  find  engraved  beside  the  scala  milia- 
rium  the  figure  of  a  native  in  belted  plaid. 


I  think  Burton's  *  History  of  Scotland '  contains 
a  statement  that  the  kilt  in  its  present  form  was 
made  by  Field  Marshal  Wade's  military  tailor. 


W.  A.  P.  may  be  assured  that  his  authority 



[7lh  S.  I.  JAN.  16, 

was,  at  least,  hasty  in  assertion,  as  there  is  ample 
evidence  of  the  use  of  the  kilt  before  1700.  A 
portrait  of  the  Regent  Murray  at  Taymouth 
Castle  (circ.  1560)  represents  him  in  the  kilt  and 
belted  plaid.  A  good  deal  may  be  gathered  on 
the  subject  from  Campbell's  '  Popular  Tales  of  the 
West  Highlands,'  vol.  iv.  Your  correspondent 
might  also  find  something  to  the  purpose  in  a 
series  of  letters  to  the  Scotsman  by  Lord  Archi- 
bald Campbell,  either  in  1882  or  1883;  I  think  in 
the  former  year.  Their  dates,  I  see  by  a  note 
made  at  the  time,  were  Jan.  31,  Feb.  2,  3,  19,  24, 
25,  28,  and  April  19.  But  references  will  be 
found  in  the  'Popular  Tales'  to  the  principal 
authorities  on  the  subject ;  see  especially  pp.  368 
and  371-4.  Browne's  '  History  of  the  Highlands  ' 
might  also  be  consulted. 


The  subject  of  the  antiquity  of  the  Highland 
dress  and  the  reticence  of  historians  respecting  it 
is  discussed  in  chap,  xxiii.,  "On  the  National 
Costume  of  Scotland,"  in  the  '  History  of  British 
Costume,'  by  J.  R.  Planche  (Knight's  u  Library  of 
Entertaining  Knowledge,"  Lond.,  1834,  pp.  332- 
351).  The  kilt  is  noticed  at  pp.  340-1. 


Many  of  the  figures  sculptured  on  Sweno's  stone, 
near  Forres,  appear  to  wear  the  kilt.  The  stone  is 
thought  to  commemorate  some  battle  with  the 
Danes.  G.  B.  LONGSTAFF. 

[This  subject  is  fully  discussed  by  Lord  Archibald 
Campbell  in  his  '  Records  of  Argyll '  (Blackwood  &  Sons), 
reviewed  6"'  S.  xii.  79.] 

EARL  OF  ANGUS  (6th  S.  xii.  494).— Archibald 
Douglas,  sixth  Earl  of  Angus,  was  son  of  George, 
Master  of  Angus,  by  his  wife  Elizabeth,  daughter 
of  John,  first  Lord  Drummond.  The  said  George, 
Master  of  Angus,  was  son  of  Archibald,  fifth  Earl 
of  Angus,  by  Elisabeth,  daughter  of  Robert,  Lord 
Boyd.  He  fell  at  the  battle  of  Flodden,  1513. 


This  is  not  a  query  concerning  the  history  of 
the  earls  of  the  Red  Douglas  line  generally,  as 
the  heading  would  naturally  indicate.  If  your 
correspondent  MR.  C.  H.  SANDARS  is  in  pos- 
session of  any  documents  by  which  he  thinks  he 
can  establish  a  different  parentage  for  Archibald, 
sixth  Earl  of  Angus,  from  that  given  in  the 
peerages,  readers  of  '  N.  &  Q.'  will  doubtless  be 
glad  to  know  the  nature  of  the  documents.  Other- 
wise I  almost  feel  that  I  am  taking  up  valuable 
space  unwarrantably  in  order  to  state  such  a  well- 
known  descent.  Archibald,  sixth  earl,  grandson 
and  heir  (1514)  of  Archibald  "  Bell-the-Cat,"  fifth 
earl,  was  son  of  George,  Master  of  Angus — who  fell 
at  Flodden,  vita  patris—by  Elizabeth,  second 
daughter  of  John,  first  Lord  Drummond  (cr. 

1487-8).  These  facts  are  given  in  Burke's  l  Peer- 
age,' in  Anderson's  '  Scottish  Nation,'  and  in  that 
portion  of  the '  New  Peerage,'  by  G.  E.  C.,  published 
in  vol.  i.  of  the  new  series  of  the  Genealogist,  for 
1884.  As  G.  E.  C.  mentions  certain  points  in 
the  earlier  history  of  the  descent  of  the  earldom 
of  Angus  in  the  Douglas  line  which  have  suggested 
matter  for  doubt  to  the  present  Jearned  Lyon  in  his 
valuable  edition  of  the  Exchequer  Rolls  of  Scot- 
land, it  may  be  taken  that  neither  authority  was 
aware  of  doubts  or  difficulties  concerning  Archi- 
bald, sixth  earl.  C.  H.  E.  CARMICHAEL. 
Sew  University  Club,  S.W. 

The  sixth  Earl  of  Angus  was  eldest  son  of 
George  Douglas,  Master  of  Angus,  and  Elizabeth 
Drummond,  who  were  married  circa  1488,  the 
year  in  which  James,  ninth  and  last  Earl  of 
Douglas,  died  at  Lindores  Abbey.  George,  the 
Master,  was  slain  at  Flodden  a  few  months  before 
the  death  of  his  father,  Archibald  "  Bell-the-Cat," 
the  fifth  earl.  His  mother,  Bell-the-Cat's  first 
wife,  was  Elizabeth  Boyd,  elder  daughter  of 
Robert,  first  Lord  Boyd  (ancestor  of  the  Earls  of 
Kilmarnock  and  Erroll).  His  wife  was  Elizabeth, 
second  daughter  of  Sir  John  Drummond,  first 
Lord  Drummond  (ancestor  of  the  Earls  of  Perth, 
of  Viscount  Strathallan,  and  of  Lady  Willoughby 
D'Eresby).  Archibald  Douglas,  the  fifth  earl, 
having  received  an  affront  from  the  King  of  Scot- 
land before  the  battle  of  Flodden,  left  the  field 
"  in  tears  of  indignation,"  but  his  sons,  George 
and  Sir  William  of  Glenbervie,  and  two  hundred 
gentlemen  of  the  name  fell  in  that  fratricidal 
struggle.  SIGMA. 

Archibald,  sixth  earl,  was  the  son  of  George, 
Master  of  Angus  (killed  at  Flodden  in  the  lifetime 
of  his  father,  old  Archibald  "  BelUhe-Cat  »),  and 
Margaret,  daughter  of  John,  Lord  Drummond. 


[Similar  information  is  supplied  by  F.S.A.Scot.  and 

IMARY  (6th  S.  xii.  187). — This  ware  is  china. 
EBORACUM  might  consult  'Japanese  Potteries' 
/u  South  Kensington  Museum  Descriptive  Cata- 
ogue  Series  "),  by  A.  W.  Franks  ;  *  Me"moire  sur 
a  Porcelaine  du  Japon,'  by  Dr.  Hoffman,  appended 
;o  Julien's  '  Histoire  de  la  Porcelaine  Chinoise,' 
Paris,  1856  ;  or  'Keramic  Art  of  Japan,'  by  Auds- 
.ey  and  Bowen,  1881,  might  possibly  assist  him. 

34,  St.  Petersburg  Place,  W. 

COGERS'  HALL  (7th  S.  i.  9).— The  present  es- 
:eemed  County  Court  judge  of  Cavan  tells  me  that 
Rogers'  Hall  was  certainly  in  Shoe  Lane,  not 
Bride  Lane,  as  alleged  by  Cunningham.  He  often 
took  part  in  its  debates,  and  once  invited  the 
'reat  pulpit  orator  Fr.  Tom  Burke  to  accompany 
in  disguise.  Fr.  Burke  gave  his  old  school- 

7<h  S.  I.  JAN.  16,  '86.] 



fellow,  Mr.  J.  J.  Brady,  C.E.,  Galway,  an  account 
of  a  visit  made  by  him  "  to  a  debating  club  in 
London — how  he  quietly  listened  until  two  orators 
had  delivered  themselves  of  some  ponderous  plati- 
tudes— and  then  smashed  them  into  smithereens." 
I  find  some  reference  to  these  incidents  in  '  The 
Life  of  Father  Thomas  Burke/  by  your  corre- 
spondent Mr.  W.  J.  Fitzpatrick,  F.S.A.,  lately 
published  by  Kegan  Paul,  Trench  &  Co.,  vol.  ii. 
p.  263,  and  fully  reviewed  in  the  Morning  Post 
of  Dec.  25  last.  JOVERNA. 

I  have  so  many  errors  and  blunders  to  answer 
for  that  I  hope  my  good  friend  MR.  C.  A.  WARD 
will  excuse  me  if  I  decline  to  be  made  responsible 
for  any  statement  on  this  subject.  I  never  wrote 
a  line  about  either  Cogers'  Hall  or  Shoe  Lane,  and 
I  am  quite  ignorant  of  the  locality  of  the  former. 
It  is  well  to  put  the  saddle  on  the  right  horse. 

2,  Hyde  Park  Mansions,  N.W. 

If  MR.  WARD  had  read  Mr.  Parkinson's  sketch 
of  the  Cogers'  Hall  given  in  the  first  volume  of 
'Old  and  New  London,'  which,  I  believe,  was 
written  by  the  late  Mr.  Thornbury,  and  not  by 
Mr.  Walford,  he  would  have  found  the  following 
paragraph  : — 

" '  Established  1755 '  ia  inscribed  on  the  ornamental 
signboard  above  us,  and  *  Instituted  1756  '  on  another 
signboard  near." — Vol.  i.  p.  125. 

With  regard  to  the  locality  of  Cogers'  Hall,  the 
following  extract  from  an  editorial  answer  to  a 
query  concerning  the  Coachmakers'  Company  (3rd 
S.  vii.  496)  will  probably  explain  the  difference 
between  Mr.  Thornbury  and  Mr.  Cunningham : — 

"  The  Society  of  Cogers,  founded  in  1755,  ia  nothing 
more  or  less  than  a  political  debating  club,  meeting 
sometimes  in  one  place  and  sometimes  in  another.  Its 
present  Discussion  Hall  is  at  Mr.  G.  Walter's  house  of 
refreshment  in  Shoe  Lane,  Fleet  Street." 

This  was  written  in  June,  1865.      G.  F.  R.  B. 

[MR.  E.  H.  COLEMAN  supplies  the  same  reference  as 
G.  F.  R.  B.,  and  says  that  the  "  political  debating  club 
known  as  Cogers'  Hall  met  sometimes  in  one  place  and 
sometimes  in  another."] 

HERALDIC  (6th  S.  xii.  516).— In  the  hall  at 
Broughton  Castle,  Oxfordshire,  the  seat  of  Lord 
Saye  and  Sele,  is  a  portrait  of  the  famous  Lord 
Burghley,  the  father  of  Kobert,  Earl  of  Salisbury. 
He  is  represented  as  riding  on  a  white  ass  (or 
mule),  with  short  docked  tail,  on  a  side  saddle,  but 
on  the  off  side.  He  wears  a  short  robe  of  gold 
tissue,  with  a  short  cloak  over  it  of  the  same 
material,  lined  and  fringed  with  scarlet,  a  black 
cap  on  his  head  coming  down  over  the  ears,  a 
white  frill  round  his  neck,  and  white  cuffs  round 
the  wrists.  His  hands  are  bare  ;  the  left  hand 
holds  the  reins,  and  in  the  right  is  a  rose  and 
a  honeysuckle.  Bound  his  neck  is  the  chain  and 
order  of  the  Garter.  Suspended  by  a  red  ribbon 

from  the  trunk  of  a  tree  in  the  left-hand  corner  of 
the  picture  is  a  shield  of  arms  within  the  ribbon 
of  the  Garter,  and  on  it  six  bearings,  the  same, 
doubtless,  as  those  which  T.  W.  W.  S.  mentions  : 
1  and  6,  Cecil.  2,  Per  pale,  gu.  and  az.,  a  lion 
rampant,  arg.,  supporting  between  the  paws  a  tree 
eradicated  vert  (Wynston).  Sir  Thomas  Cecil, 
circa  Kic.  II.,  married  Margaret,  daughter  and 
heiress  of  Sir  Gilbert  Wynston,  Kt.  3,  Sa.,  three 
castles  triple- towered,  arg.,  in  fessoint  an  annulet 
of  the  second  (Casteleine).  4,  Arg.,  on  a  bend  gu. 
cotised  or,  three  cinquefoils  of  the  third  (Ecking- 
ton).  Richard  Cecil,  who  died  May  19,  1552, 
married  Jane,  daughter  and  heiress  of  William 
Eckington,  of  Bourn,  co.  Lincoln.  5,  Arg.,  a 
chevron  between  three  chess-rooks  ermines  (Walcot 
or  Pinchbeck).  Below  is  the  motto,  "  Cor  unum 
via  una."  G.  L.  G. 

1  and  6,  Cecil.  2,  Per  pale,  gules  and  azure,  a 
lion  ramp,  holding  a  tree  vert  (Winston).  Sir 
Thos.  Sitselt  =  Margaret,  d.  and  h.  of  Sir  Gil- 
bert Winston.  3,  Sable,  a  plate  between  three 
castles  argent  (Carleone,  ?  Castleton).  4,  Argent, 
on  a  bend  cotised  gules,  three  cinquefoils  or 
(Eckington).  Kich.  Cyssel  =  Eliz. ,  d.  and  h.  of 
Wm.  Eckington,  of  Bourn,  co.  Lincoln.  5,  Ar- 
gent, a  chevron  between  three  chess-rooks  ermine 
(Walcote).  See  Bray  and  Manning's  *  Surrey,  ' 
vol.  iii.  p.  274 ;  also  Misc,  Gen.  et  Herald.,  May, 
1885.  H.  S.  W. 

The  quarterings  of  Kobert,  first  Earl  of  Salis- 
bury, are  as  follows: — 1  and  6,  Barry  of  ten  argent 
and  azure,  over  all  six  escutcheons  sable,  on  each 
a  lion  rampant  of  the  first  (Cecil)  ;  2,  Per  pale 
gules  and  azure,  a  lion  rampant  argent,  holding  in 
both  paws  a  tree  eradicated  vert  (Winston) ;  3, 
Sable,  a  plate  between  three  towers  triple-towered 
argent  (Cairleon)  ;  4,  Argent,  on  a  bend  cotised 
gules  three  cinquefoils  arg.  (Heckington  or  Eck- 
ington) ;  5,  Argent,  a  chevron  between  three 
chess-rooks  ermines  (Wallcott). 

The  alliances  may  briefly  be  explained  thus  : — 

Thomas  Sitsilt  (Cecil)  mar.  Margaret,  d.  and  h. 
of  Gilbert  Winston  (2),  who  brought  in  Cairleon 
(3).  _Vis.  Glou.,  1623. 

Kichard  Sitsilt,  fourth  in  descent  from  the  said 
Thomas  (although  the  Gloucestershire  Vis.  makes 
him  third),  mar.  Jane,  d.  and  h.  of  William  Heck- 
ington (4),  of  Bourn,  Lincolnshire,  who,  I  suppose, 
brought  in  Walcott  (5).  —  Collins's  'Peerage/ 
vol.  iii.  This  Kichard  was  father  of  William 
Cecil,  Lord  Burleigh,  whose  arms  are  given  quar- 
terly of  six  as  above  in  the  '  Book  of  Knights/  by 
Mr.  Metcalfe.  CHARLES  L.  BELL. 

Chesterton  Road,  Cambridge. 

The  correct  blazon,  &c.,  are  as  follows : — 
1,  Barry  of  ten  arg.  and  az.,  over  all  six 
escutcheons  (3,  2,  1)  sa.,  each  charged  with  a  lion 
ramp,  of  the  first  (Cecil) ;  2,  Parted  per  pale  gu. 


[7th  S.  I.  JAN.  16, 

and  az.,  a  lion  ramp.  arg.  sustaining  a  tree  vert 
(Winston  of  Hereford)  ;  3,  Sable,  a  plate  between 
three  towers  triple-towered,  with  ports  disp.  arg. 
(Cairleon) ;  4,  Arg.,  on  a  bend  between  two  cot- 
tises  gu.  three  cinquefoils  or  (Heckington  of 
Bourne,  co.  Lincoln)  ;  5,  Arg.,  a  chev.  between 
three  chess-rooks  ermines  (Walcot  of  Walcot,  co. 
Lincoln,  quartered  by  Heckington  of  Bourne). 



P.S.— To  my  query  (6">  S.  xii.  517)  I  may  add 
that  Mildred  Erniin  proved  her  husband's  will  at 
Lincoln  August  16,  1693. 

I  believe  the  three  roses  are  for  Carey,  viz., 
three  roses  argent  on  a  bend  sable. 

T.  W.  CAREY. 

If  T.  W.  W.  S.  will  drop  me  a  line  I  will  send 
him  a  rubbing  of  the  Salisbury  coat  in  question, 
which  I  hope  to  take  in  a  few  days. 


157,  Dalston  Lane,  E. 

[MR.  J.  RADCLIFFE  sends  an  answer  corresponding 
with  that  of  MB.  JUSTIN  SIMPSON.] 

WAITS  AND  MUMMERS  (6th  S.  xii. 
"  Mummers  "  were  inquired  about  recently  in  the 
'  Local  Notes  and  Queries '  of  the  Birmingham 
Weekly  Post.  Numerous  answers  were  received, 
and  many  various  versions  and  details  given  from 
Warwickshire,  Worcestershire,  Oxfordshire,  Glou- 
cestershire, &c.  If  J.  B.  S.  would  like  to  have  a 
copy  I  shall  be  glad  to  send  him  one  of  nearly  all 
that  appeared  in  print.  ESTE. 

BELL  OF  THE  HOP  (7th  S.  i.  7).— Surely  the 
*  bell "  is  the  fruit  of  the  hop,  which  may  be  said 
to  resemble  a  bell  in  shape.  Reynolde  Scot,  in 
his  '  Perfite  Platforme*  of  a  Hoppe  Garden/  &c. 
(1574),  states  that  "the  good  and  the  kindely 
Hoppe  beareth  a  great  and  a  greene  Stalke,  a  large 
and  a  harde  bell"  (p.  8) ;  and  in  speaking  of  the 
wild  hop  says  that  "  the  fruite  is  eyther  altogither 
seede,  or  else  loose  and  light  belles "  (p.  9).  In 
the  passage  quoted  by  DR.  MURRAY  from  the 
edition  of  1578,  which,  by  the  way,  does  not  ap- 
pear in  the  edition  of  1574,  I  understand  Scot  to 
mean  that  commonly  about  St.  Margaret's  Day 
hops  came  into  flower,  and  that  about  Lammas 
the  fruit  or  bell  appeared.  G.  F.  R.  B. 

In  the  beginning  of  the  fifteenth  century  I  have 
twice  come  upon  the  above  as  a  sign  for  houses 
in  London.  In  the  Patent  Rolls  for  the  year 
1400  (1  Henry  IV.,  8,  17)  "The  Bell  on  the 
Hope"  is  the  name  of  a  house  in  Friday  Street. 
In  Additional  Charters  (Brit.  Mus.),  5313,  dated 

*  Another  of  Dr.  Murray's  words,  used  in  the  sense  of 
plan  or  model. 

February  14,  1402,  a  messuage  called  the  "  Belle 
on  the  Hoop,"  with  four  shops  annexed,  situate  in 
the  parishes  of  St.  Marie  de  la  Stronde  and  St. 

lement  Danes,  passes  into  the  possession  of  the 
Prioress  of  Kilburn.  I  have  always  thought  that 
the  sign  meant  the  bell  on  the  hoop,  but  DR. 
MURRAY'S  note  makes  it  probable  that  it  may 
mean  the  hop-bell  J.  H.  WYLIE. 


SIGN  OF  THE  SWAN  (6th  S.  xii.  515).— Blome 
says  : — 

'  As  touching  the  antiquity  of  these  signs  which  we 
call  arms,  Diodorus  Siculus  maketh  mention  that  Oeyris, 
son  to  Cham,  as  well  as  his  sons  and  others,  did  paint 
certain  signs  upon  their  Shields,  Bucklers,  and  other 
weapons.  And  we  find  in  Homer  and  in  Virgil  that  the 
Hero's  had  their  Signs  or  Marks  whereby  their  persons 
were  distinctly  known  and  discerned  in  Battel." 

And  he  goes  on  to  say  that 

"  in  the  first  assumption  of  these  Signs,  every  man  did 
take  to  himself  some  such  Beastr,  Bird,  Fish,  Serpent,  or 
other  creature  as  he  thought  best  fitted  his  Estate,  or 
whose  nature  and  quality  did  in  some  sort  quadrate  with 
his  own  or  wished  to  be  resembled  unto." 

And  furthermore  he  says  that  "after  long 
tract  of  time  these  tokens  became  remunerations 
for  service,  and  were  bestowed  upon  Martial  men, 
Learned  men,  or  such  as  had  performed  any  ex- 
cellent work";  and  "the  Heralds  had  to  devise 
with  discretion  arms  correspondent  to  the  desert 
of  the  person."  "  The  Swan,"  Blome  also  says, 
"  was  called  by  the  Ancients  Apollo's  Bird,  because 
those  that  are  learned  know  best  how  to  contemn 
this  life,  and  to  die  with  resolution  and  comfort." 
This,  of  course,  is  an  allusion  to  the  fable  that 
swans  sing  from  joy  before  they  die. 

Dr.  Brewer  says  that  the  swan,  like  the  peacock 
and  pheasant,  was  an  emblem  of  the  parade  of 
chivalry.  Every  knight  chose  one  of  these  birds, 
which  was  associated  with  God,  the  Virgin,  and 
his  lady-love  in  his  oath,  and  hence  their  use  as 
public-house  signs. 

In  the  '  British  Apollo,'  1710,  the  following  lines 
occur : — 

I  'm  amazed  at  the  signs, 

As  I  pass  thro'  the  town 
To  see  the  odd  mixture, 
A  Magpye  and  Crown, 
The  Whale  and  the  Crow, 

The  Razor  and  Hen, 

The  Leg  and  Sev'n  Stars, 

The  Bible  and  Swan. 

The  last  odd  combination  may  bear  the  same 
allusion  mentioned  by  MR.  CAREY. 

King  Edward  III.  made  use  of  a  white  swan  as 
one  of  his  badges  ;  and,  according  to  Ritson,  the 
motto  displayed  upon  his  shield  and  wrought  upon 
his  surcoat  at  a  celebrated  tournament  at  Canter- 
bury ran  thus : — 

Hay,  hay,  the  wyth  swan, 
By  godes  soule  I  am  thy  man. 

Thomas  of  Woodstock,  Edward  III.'s  sixth  son, 

7th  S,  I,  JAN.  16,  '86.] 



adopted  the  swan  for  his  cognizance,  and  both 
Henry  IV.  and  Henry  V.  had  it  as  one  of  their 


The  swan  argent,  collared  and  chained  or,  one 
of  the  badges  of  the  house  of  Lancaster,  is  derived 
from  the  family  of  the  De  Bohuns,  Henry  Boling- 
broke,  Duke  of  Lancaster,  afterwards  Henry  IV., 
having  married  Mary  de  Bohun,  youngest  daughter 
aud  coheir  of  Humfrey,  Earl  of  Hereford,  Essex, 
and  Northampton.  The  De  Bohuns  derived  the 
swan  as  Earls  of  Essex  from  the  Mandevilles  or 
Magnavillas,  whom  they  through  marriage  suc- 
ceeded in  the  earldom.  The  Mandevilles  appear 
to  have  been  related  to  Adam  Fitz  Swanne  or 
Swanus  (perhaps  originally  Sweyn  or  Swayn,  a 
common  Danish  name),  who  was  seised  of  large 
estates  in  the  north  of  England  temp.  William  the 

The  swan  was  also  borne  by  the  Nevils, 
and  formed  the  crest  of  the  Staffords,  the 
Buckinghams,  the  Beauchamps,  the  Bouchiers,  and 
many  other  noble  families. 


A  swan  was  one  of  the  badges  of  King  Henry  V. 
It  is  not  improbable  that  this  bird,  used  as  the  sign 
of  an  inn,  may  in  some  cases  have  been  taken  from 
this  royal  symbol.  EDWARD  PEACOCK. 

Bottesford  Manor,  Brigg. 

ETON  MONTEM  (6th  S.  xii.  494).— The  last  Eton 
Montem  was  in  1846.  H.  S.  W. 

Montem  was  originally  an  annual  festival,  but 
after  1775  was  only  celebrated  once  in  three  years. 
It  was  finally  abolished  in  1847,  as  it  interfered 
greatly  with  school  work,  and  after  the  opening  of 
the  railway  the  crowds  of  sightseers  became  in- 
tolerable. EVERARD  HOME  CoLEMAN. 

71,  Brecknock  Road. 

The  Montem  wai  last  performed  at  Salt  Hill  in 
1846.  C.  A.  WARD. 

Haverstock  Hill. 

Haydn's   'Dictionary  of   Dates'    says,    "The 
Montem  was  discontinued  in  1847,"  so  that  the 
last  performance  must  have  taken  place  in  1844. 


The  last  Montem  was  celebrated  on  May  28, 
1844.  See  H.  C.  Maxwell  Lyte's  *  History  of  Eton 
College'  (1875),  pp.  467-73;  Annual  Register, 
1844,  Chron..  p.  59  ;  ibid.,  1847.  Chron.,  p.  65. 

G.  F.  K.  B. 

MERTONA  :  AKEBERGA  :  BELAGA  (6th  S.  xii. 
495). — Is  it  possible  that  for  Belaga  should  be  read 
"  Helaga,"  i.  e.,  Healaugh,  near  Tadcaster  ? 

W.  C.  B. 

William  Fossard  the  elder  gave  Akeberga  and 
Belaga  to  the  canons  of  Merton,  near  London, 

These  lands  the  canons  afterwards  exchanged  with 
the  monks  of  Meaux,  near  Beverley,  for  others  at 
Wharrom.  Belaga,  "near  Lockington,"  was  a 
grange  built  by  the  said  William  Fossard,  which 
subsequently  belonged  to  the  nuns  of  Swine.  As 
to  Akeberga,  no  wonder  J.  S.  was  unable  to  find 
it,  as  the  monks  of  Meaux  themselves  were  un- 
certain about  this  "  vaccary  so  called,"  unless  the 
manor  of  Berge,  near  Ake,  in  the  parish  of  Lock- 
ington, or  a  portion  of  the  grange  of  Belaga  in  the 
same  parish.  Thus  the  '  Chron.  Monasterii  de 
Melsa'  answers  J.  S.'s  queries  fully  (vol.  i.  pp.  103 
and  110).  Lockington,  Swine,  and  Meaux  are  all 
near  Beverley.  A.  S.  ELLIS. 

SCOTCH  NAMES  OF  FISHES  (7th  S.  i.  8).— My 
solution  is  certainly  the  right  one.  Scotch  MSS. 
confuse  i  with  c,  and  e  with  o.  Hence  scuir  is  an 
error  for  stuir,  sturgeon.  Pellat  is  for  pollac,  i.  e., 
a  whiting,  which  Jamieson  calls  a  gwiniad,  mean- 
ing thereby  the  Welsh  gwyniad.  And  pran  is  the 
correct  spelling  of  prawn,  not  connected  with 
either  brandling  or  parr.  WALTER  W.  SKEAT. 

I  take  it  that  pdlat  is  pellock,  the  common  name 
amongst  Scottish  fishermen  for  the  porpoise,  being, 
in  fact,  its  Gaelic  equivalent.  Can  pran  be  prawn, 
the  vowel  being  pronounced  with  the  broad  open 
sound,  as  it  almost  certainly  would  have  been  in 
Scotland  at  that  period  ?  Scuir  passes  me.  On 
the  West  Highland  coast  scuither  means  a  jelly- 

Pellat  resembles  pellock,  the  name  still  given  to 
the  porpoise  by  the  Scotch  fishermen  (Gaelic 
peileag).  Pran  suggests  prawn,  M.E.  prane 
(*  Prompt.  Parvulorum  ;). 


AVENUES  OF  TREES  (6th  S.  xii.  495). — 
"  The  custom  of  making  avenues  of  lime  trees  was 
adopted  in  the  time  of  Lewis  XIV.,  and  accordingly  the 
approaches  to  the  residences  of  the  French  as  well  as 
the  English  gentry  of  that  date  were  bordered  with  lime- 
trees.  It  subsequently  fell  into  disrepute  for  this  pur- 
pose, on  account  of  its  coming  late  into  leaf,  and  shedding 
its  foliage  early  in  autumn,  and  was  supplanted  by  the 
Hornbeam  and  Elm."— Rev.  C.  A.  Johns'a  '  Forest  Trees 
of  Great  Britain,'  s.  v.  "  Lime." 


The  querist  will  find  the  information  he  wants 
in  London's  *  History  of  Gardening.'  Most  books 
on  trees  and  arboriculture  generally  give  historical 
accounts  more  or  less  extensive.  W.  EGBERTS. 

NOSTOC  (6th  S.  xii.  496).— The  dictionaries,  so 
far  as  I  know  them,  pass  over  nostoc,  sicissimis 
pedibus.  In  London's  '  Cyclopaedia  of  Plants '  it 
is  mentioned  as  "a  name  first  used  by  Paracelsus, 
without  an  explanation  of  its  meaning." 





[7'h  S.  I.  JAN.  16,  '86. 

WEATHERCOCKS  (6th  S.  xii.  515).— Brand  says  : 

"  Vanes  on  the  tops  of  steeples  were  anciently  made 
in  the  form  of  a  cock,  and  put  up,  in  Papal  times,  to 
remind  the  clergy  of  watchfulness." 

"  In  summitate  crucis,  quse  companario  vulgo  im- 
ponitur,  galli  gallinacei  effugi  solet  figura.  quae  ecclesia- 
rum  rectores  vigilantiae  admoneat."— Du  Cange,  •  Gloss.' 

In  '  A  Helpe  to  Discourse '  (1633)  is  the  follow- 
ing query  and  answer  : — 

"  Q .  Wherefore  on  the  top  of  church  steeples  is  the 
cocke  set  upon  the  crosae,  of  a  long  continuance  ? 

"A.  The  flocks  of  Jesuits  will  answer  you.  For  in- 
struction :  that  whilst  aloft  we  behold  the  crosse  and  the 
cocke  standing  thereon,  we  may  remember  our  sinnes, 
and  with  Peter  seeke  and  obtaine  mercy,  as  though 
without  this  dumbe  cocke,  which  many  will  not  hearken 
to  untill  he  crow,  the  Scriptures  were  not  a  sufficient 



Thomas  Delafield  leffc  an  account  of  weather- 
cocks, the  manuscript  of  which  is  described  briefly 
in  5th  S.  vi.  165.  W.  0.  B. 

ICHABOD  (6th  S.  xii.  496).  —  A.  R.'s  Bible 
(1  Sam.  iv.  21,  22)  would  have  enabled  him  to 
answer  his  query,  at  lease  as  to  the  meaning.  The 
word  means  "  Where  is  the  glory  ?  "  or  "  The  glory 
is  departed," — literally  "  No  glory," — and  it  is  quite 
easy  to  conceive  a  more  or  less  lax  interjectional 
use  of  it.  As  to  the  origin  of  this  use,  historically 
speaking,  that  is  another  question.  I  am  not  able 
to  answer  it;  it  is,  perhaps,  a  matter  for  DR. 
MURRAY.  I  can  only  remember  that  Scott  puts 
it  into  the  mouths  of  David  Deans  (1818)  and 
Isaac  the  Jew  (1819). 

0.  F.  S.  WARREN,  M.A. 

Treneglos,  Kenwyn,  Truro. 

EXTEME  (6th  S.  xii.  495).— This  is,  no  doubt, 
the  Latin  extimus.  The  following  passage,  which 
I  find  in  Lewis  and  Short,  will  explain  both  the 
word  and  its  connexion: — "Novem  orbes,  quorum 
unus  est  ccelestis,  extimus,  qui  reliquos  omnes 
complectitur "  (Cic.,  'Rep.,'  vi.  17).  "Heaven 
exterae  "  is,  according  to  the  old  astronomy,  the 
last — supercelestial— sphere  ;  the  abode  of  God 
and  of  the  blessed.  C.  B.  M. 

SEAL  OF  GRAND  INQUISITOR  (6th  S.  xii.  387, 
438,  472;  7th  S.  i.  17).— MR.  WOODWARD  has 
blazoned  quite  correctly  the  arms  of  the  Catholic 
see  of  Plymouth.  I  have  the  bishop's  seal  before 
me.  The  coat  was  designed  shortly  after  the 
restoration  of  the  Catholic  hierarchy.  It  was 
given  to  the  see,  no  doubt,  in  the  same  way,  and 
certainly  by  the  same  authority,  as  those  of  the 
ancient  sees  of  England  and  elsewhere.  On  the 
bishop's  receiving  from  the  Holy  See  the  admi- 
nistration of  the  new  diocese  all  details  would  be 
settled  by  him.  The  coat  of  the  see  would  be  one. 

The  family  arms  which  MR.  WOODWARD  saw 

mpaled  with  Plymouth  are  the  arms  of  Herbert, 
as  he  says.  But  they  misled  him  as  to  the  name 
of  the  bishop.  The  name  of  the  bishop  is  not 
Herbert.  He  is  a  Vaughan  of  the  ancient  race  of 
Vaughan  of  Courtfield,  who  carry  Herbert  first,  in 
virtue  of  a  Herbert  descent,  Vaugban  (Three 
child's  heads,  each  encircled  with  a  serpent)  fol- 
"owing.  D.  P. 

Stuart's  Lodge,  Malvern  Wells. 

The  personal  arms  of  the  Roman  Catholic  pre- 
ate,  which  are  impaled  on  his  episcopal  seal  with 
;hose  assumed  for  his  see  of  Plymouth,  are  those 
of  Vaughan,  not  Herbert.  Both  these  families 
bore  the  same  coat — Per  pale  az.  and  gu.,  three 
[ions  ramp.  arg. — a  fact  of  which  I  was  not  mind- 
ful in  attributing  the  coat  to  the  better-known 
name.  MR.  ANGUS  confirms  my  suspicion  with 
regard  to  the  assumption  of  arms  by  Roman 
Catholic  prelates  in  Great  Britain.  Can  he  kindly 
inform  me  if  foreign  prelates  do  the  same  1  Some 
of  the  episcopal  seals  which  I  have  seen  in  Spain 
are  wonderful  compositions  from  an  heraldic  point 
of  view.  JOHN  WOODWARD. 

TANGIER  (6th  S.  xii.  447,  522).— My  attention 
has  been  drawn  to  a  passage  at  the  second  of  the 
above  references,  where  mention  is  made  of  "  Miss 
Boyd,  F.S.A."  Will  you  please  allow  me  to  state 
that  the  initials  F.S.A.  are  universally  allowed  to 
mean  "  Fellow  of  the  Society  of  Antiquaries,"  and, 
as  we  have  no  lady  fellows,  Miss  Boyd  is  not  a 
member  of  our  society.  It  is  also  officially  notified 
in  the  Journal  of  the  Society  of  Arts  for  Nov.  22, 
1867,  that  the  members  of  that  society  "neither 
by  charter,  by  the  by-laws,  nor  by  custom  "  have 
any  authority  for  placing  the  letters  F.S.A.  after 
their  names. 

W.  H.  ST.  JOHN  HOPE,  Assist.  Sec. 

Soc.  Antiq.  Lond. 

[Our  correspondent  should  doubtless  have  put  the 
abbreviation  "  Newc."  after  the  letters  F.S.A.] 

TOOT  HILL  (6th  S.  xii.  491).— I  fear  the  state- 
ment that  "  Toot  Hill  means  the  place  of  a  folk- 
mote  "  will  not  bear  critical  examination.  The 
word  has  no  connexion,  etymologically,  with  a  folk- 
mote  or  popular  assembly,  such  as  appears  in  the 
Danish  Thing-wall  or  the  Saxon  Burh.  The 
corresponding  term  in  Cymric  is  Caer.  We  must, 
therefore,  look  elsewhere  for  an  explanation ; 
and  that  is  not  very  difficult  to  find.  Toot,  Tot, 
Tut,  are  very  common  English  prefixes.  We 
have  Toot-ing  in  Surrey;  Toote  Hill  or  Tuthill 
Fields,  Westminster;  Tot-hill,  Lincoln;  Tot-ley, 
Derbyshire;  Tot-nes,  Devon;  Tot-tenham,  Middle- 
sex; Tot-teridge,  Herts;  Tut-bury,  Stafford;  cum 
multis  aliis.  It  will  be  found  that  in  the  majority 
of  cases  they  indicate  an  eminence,  not  rugged  or 
precipitous,  but  a  gentle  swelling  from  a  plain. 

Ingenious  persons  have  troubled  themselves  to 
discover  far-fetched  etymologies.  Mr.  Edward 

7'h  S,  I.  JAK.  16,  '86.] 



Walford  ('  Old  and  New  London,'  iv.  14)  derives 
it  "  from  the  Welsh  word  Twt,  a  spring  or  rising  "; 
the  simple  answer  to  which  is  that  there  is  no  such 
word  in  the  Welsh  language  with  that  meaning. 
There  is  a  word  Twt,  but  it  signifies  something 
quite  different.  Another  antiquary,  quoted  by 
Mr.  Walford,  derives  the  name  from  Teut,  "  the 
chief  divinity  of  the  Druids,  and  the  equivalent  of 
Thoth,  the  Egyptian  Mercury."  The  Druids  and 
the  Egyptians  offer  an  inexhaustible  source  to 
those  whose  only  idea  of  etymological  inquiry  is 
that  of  idle  guesswork.  Canon  Taylor  ('Words  and 
Places')  quotes  Lucan  for  the  Celtic  divinity  Teu- 
tates,  or  Taith,  and  considers  that  Tot-hill,  &c., 
may  possibly  have  been  seats  of  Celtic  worship. 

It  happens  not  unfrequently  that  inquirers  roam 
abroad  in  search  of  information  which  lies  at  their 
feet  if  they  will  only  stoop  to  pick  it  up. 

The  old  English  or  Saxon  verb  Totian  means 
to  lift  up,  to  elevate;  "eminere,  tanquam  cornu 
in  fronte."  It  has  its  equivalent  in  Old  Ger. 
Tuttel,  Tutta.  Hence  the  idea  of  watching  and 
surveying.  Tote-hylle  is  given  in  the  'Catholicon 
in  Lingua  Materna,'  the  oldest  English-Latin 
dictionary,  with  the  Latin  equivalent  specula,  a 
height,  eminence,  look-out.  Hence  the  verb  to 
toot,  anciently  to  tote,  to  spy,  look  carefully,  to 
pry.  Toot-hill  is  the  English  "Look-out." 

The  fullest  information  on  this  subject  will  be 
found  in  Mr.  Albert  Way's  notes  to  the  edition  of 
the  '  Promptorium  Parvulorum'  published  by  the 
Camden  Society.  Sub  voc.  "  Totehylle  "  he  gives 
a  note  with  an  exhaustive  list  of  quotations  and 
references,  leaving  not  a  shadow  of  doubt  as  to 
the  origin  and  application  of  the  term  Toote-hill. 

J.  A.  PICTON. 

Sandyknowe,  Wavertree. 

514). — I  think  I  am  right  in  saying  that  when 
there  is  metal  in  the  arms— and  surely  there 
generally  is — the  wreath  should  be  twined  of  a 
strand  of  that  metal  and  of  one  which  is  of  the 
tincture  of  the  field.  I  have  the  impression  that 
not  more  than  six  alternations  of  metal  and  tinc- 
ture should  be  shown  in  the  representation  of  a 
wreath,  and  that  the  metal  should  be  first  in  the 
series.  Engravers,  carriage-painters,  and  other 
workmen  usually  know  so  little  of  heraldry  that 
we  cannot  wonder  their  performances  are  fertile  in 
examples  of  errors  which  may  come  to  be  cited  as 
precedents.  ST.  SWITHIN. 

In  Scotland  the  latter  are  always  given  gules 
and  argent.  GEORGE  ANGUS. 

St.  Andrew's,  N.B. 

SIGN-PAINTING  ARTISTS  (6th  S.  xii.  494).— One 
the  best-known  signboards  painted  by  an  artist  is 
that  of  "  The  Royal  Oak,"  at  Bettws-y-Coed,  by 
David  Cox.  It  is  now,  after  much  stormy  weather 
and  litigation,  safe  in  the  possession  of  the  Wil- 

loughby  d'Eresby  family.  Many  of  the  signboards 
were  done  by  some  "  limner,  who  travelled  the 
country  and  took  likenesses  for  fifteen  shillings  a 
head,"  like  the  nameless  wanderer  whose  fame 
lives  in  the  pages  of  '  The  Vicar  of  Wakefield.' 

34,  St.  Petersburg  Place,  W. 

(6th  S.  xii.  493).— Powell  held  a  situation  in  the 
Treasury,  but  he  was  unfortunately  lucky  in  gain- 
ing a  prize  of  500/.  in  a  lottery,  from  which  time 
he  neglected  his  official  duties  and  never  ceased 
wandering  after  lottery  speculations.  He  soon  lost 
not  only  the  500Z.,  but  his  situation,  which  he  was 
permitted  to  resign  upon  a  very  small  pension. 
He  lived  in  Sloane  Street,  at  the  expense  of  some 
friends,  until  Aug.  15,  1803,  and  was  buried  in 
the  burying-ground,  King's  Road,  Chelsea,  at  the 
age  of  sixty-four.  For  several  years,  in  all  seasons 
and  weathers,  he  walked  early  in  the  morning 
from  Sloane  Street  to  the  foot  of  Highgate  Hill, 
then,  raising  his  hands  to  heaven  as  in  the  act  of 
devotion,  would  start  off  in  a  run,  and  never 
stopped  or  looked  back  till  he  had  reached  the 
top  ;  but  if  stopped,  would  return  to  the  spot 
whence  he  started,  and  recommence  his  running 
till  he  had  accomplished  his  purpose.  When 
asked  the  cause  of  this  practice,  he  replied  that 
when  he  ceased  to  ascend  the  hill  in  that  manner 
the  world  would  be  no  more.  This  gained  him 
the  appellation  of  "  the  prophet,"  by  which  he  was 
known  at  Highgate. 

71,  Brecknock  Koad. 

TUNISIA  (7th  S.  i.  7).— The  list  of  works  on 
Tunis  given  by  H.  S.  A.  does  not  include  *  Tunis, 
the  Land  and  People/  by  the  Chevalier  Ernest  von 
Hesse  Warteg,  published  by  Chatto  &  Windus 
some  three  years  ago.  J.  WOODWARD. 

9). — 0.  A.  J.  M.  would  find  all  the  principal  early 
engravings  of  places  connected  with  the  period 
comprised  in  Clarendon — and,  of  course,  therefore, 
of  Carisbrook  and  Newport — in  the  Sutherland 
collection  in  the  Bodleian.  There  is  a  complete 
catalogue,  in  two  quarto  volumes,  which  must  be 
in  the  British  Museum.  ED.  MARSHALL. 

CAREW  RALEIGH  (6th  S.  xii.  448,  527).— Car- 
lyle's  list  of  Long  Parliament  members  is  probably 
based  chiefly  upon  that  given  in  the  l  Parl.  His- 
tory,' and  is  far  from  exhaustive  as  to  names 
or  conclusive  as  to  the  constituencies  represented. 
The  "  Recruiters  "  for  Kellington  (or  Callington), 
brought  in  to  replace  the  "disabled"  members, 
were,  as  I  have  already  shown  (6th  S.  xii.  448) 
Edward,  Lord  Clinton,  and  Thomas  Dacres,  who 
were  elected  circa  September,  1646,  Conse- 



[7ih  S.  I.  JAN.  16,  '86. 

quently,  if  Carew  Raleigh  represented  this  Cornish    spondent  is  quite  right  in  his  estimate  of  the  worth 

of  the  book.  It  was  one  of  the  greatest  delights  of 
one's  childhood,  and  it  is  a  pity  it  has  never  been 
exactly  reproduced. 


borough,  he  must  have  been  returned  later  on  in 
the  place  of  one  of  these.  Thomas  Dacres  was 
one  of  the  "secluded"  members  in  December, 
1648.  Lord  Clinton  ceased  to  be  a  member  about 
the  same  time,  or  possibly  a  little  earlier,  but 
whether  from  death  or  seclusion  has  not  been 
ascertained.  If  from  the  former,  Raleigh  may 
have  been  elected  in  his  stead,  retaining  his  seat 
—  like  Prynne  in  the  case  of  Newport  —  but  a  few 
weeks  till  expelled  by  the  "Purge."  The  date  of 
decease  of  Lord  Clinton  (who  was  eldest  son  of 
Theophilus,  Earl  of  Lincoln)  would,  could  it  cor- 
rectly be  ascertained,  possibly  help  to  solve  the 
difficulty.  W.  D.  PINK. 

xii.  349,  394;  7th  S.  i.  15).- 


FONTS  (6th  S. 
a  font  in  Cat- 

MOLINOS  (6th  S.  xii.  496 ;  7»>  S.  i.  38).— See 
the  brief  life  of  Molinos  prefixed  to  "  '  Golden 
Thoughts  from  the  Spiritual  Guide  of  Miguel 
Molinos,  the  Quietist.'  With  Preface  by  J.  Henry 
Shorthouse,  Author  of '  John  Inglesant.'  Glasgow, 
1883."  See  also  a  short  sketch  of  Molinos  and  his 
doctrine  in  R.  A.  Vaughan's  'Hours  with  the 
Mystics/  vol.  ii.  p.  242,  third  edition  (undated). 

A.  J.  M. 


VISITATION  OF  LONDON  IN  1687  (6th  S.  xii. 
495)i_Tnis  Visitation  has  never  been  printed,  nor 

terick  Church  York,  is  an  inscription  around  the    .    ^  ,    t    b          th        5  inal  ig  .   ^    Q^ 

nprlpRhil — t.Vip.   Ifitl.ers   T.  A.  T?,.  or  PL    in    Old    En  or-  -V        ,    '     ,T,     ~x        ft  •,  •    .    ,-L    • 

pedestal — the  letters  I.  A.  R.  or  C.,  in  Old  Eng- 
lish, and  above,  in  panels,  are  shields  of  arms  of 
the  local  gentry.  On  one  shield  are  the  arms  of 
Fairfax  (?),  on  another  the  letter  B,  on  a  third  the 
arms  of  Cleborn  of  Killerby,  near  Catterick,  and 
several  other  shields  on  other  panels  that  I  cannot 
recall.  Will  some  correspondent  oblige  me  with 
the  meaning  of  the  inscription  and  date  of  this 
font  1  It  seems  to  be  of  the  fifteenth  century. 

F.  A.  DIXON. 


[R.  P.  G.  supplies  an  inscription  which  has  already 

HOLBEIN  (6th  S.  xii.  429;  7th  S.  i.  14).— Pil- 
kington  says  :— 

"  It  is  observed  by  most  authors  that  Holbein  always 
painted  with  his  left  hand;  though  one  modern  writer 
objects  against  that  tradition  (what  he  considers  as  a 
proof)  that  in  a  portrait  of  Holbein  painted  by  himself, 
which  was  in  the  Aruridelian  collection,  he  is  repre- 
sented holding  the  pencil  in  the  right  hand.  But,  with 
great  deference  to  the  opinion  of  that  ingenious  connois- 
seur, that  evidence  cannot  be  sufficient  to  set  aside  so 
general  a  testimony  of  the  most  authentic  writers  on 
this  subject ;  because,  although  habit  and  practice  might 
enable  him  to  handle  the  pencil  familiarly  with  his  left 
hand,  yet,  as  it  is  so  unusual,  it  must  have  had  but  an 
unseemly  and  awkward  appearance  in  a  picture  ;  which 
probably  might  have  been  his  real  inducement  for  repre- 
senting himself  without  such  a  peculiarity.  Besides,  the 
writer  of  Holbein's  life  at  the  end  of  the  treatise  by  De 
Piles  mentions  a  print  by  Hollar,  still  extant,  which 
describes  Holbein  drawing  with  his  left  hand.'" 

giving  the 
the  age  of 

(7th  S.  i.  8).— A.  W.  R.  might  probably  get  all  the 
information  he  wants  from  Mr.  Charles  Welsh,  of 
Messrs.  Griffith,  Farran  &  Co.  I  am  almost  cer- 
tain he  once  told  me  that  a  copy  of  the  book 
was  in  the  possession  of  the  firm.  Your  corre- 

of  Arms,  London  (K.  9),  and  no  transcript  (it 
believed)  exists  elsewhere.  The  pedigree  of  Upton, 
Billingsgate  Ward,  Love  Lane  Precinct,  is  the 
second  therein  contained,  and  your  correspondent 
should  apply  to  one  of  the  heralds  respecting  the 
fee  for  a  copy.  I  may  add  that  the  names  of 
Henry  Upton,  Dukes  Place;  Hugh  Upton,  ditto; 
Mr.  Upton,  Newington  Town ;  and  Gilb.  Upton, 
Cloak  Lane,  appear  in  the  first '  London  Directory 
of  Merchants,'  1677,  and  that  my  vast  collections 
from  parish  registers  would  doubtless  furnish 
further  information  as  to  the  family,  if  desired. 

W.  I.  R.  V. 

ORIGIN  OF  PROVERBIAL  PHRASE  (7th  S.  i.  8). — 
Ray  compares  this  with  a  Spanish  proverb  : — 

" '  If  the  mountain  will  not  go  to  Mahomet,  let  Maho- 
met go  the  mountain.'  Si  no  va  el  otero  a  Mahoma, 
vaya  Mahoma  el  otero.  Since  we  cannot  do  as  we 
would,  we  must  do  as  we  can."— Bohn,  'Proverbs,' 
p.  117. 


HOKEY  POKEY  (6th  S.  xii.  366,  526).— The  de- 
rivation of  hocus  pocus  from  "  Hoc  est  corpus  "  is, 
I  believe,  Tillotson's.  He  says  : — 

"  In  all  probability  those  common  jugling  wordg  of 
hocus  pocus,  are  nothing  else  but  a  corruption  of  hoc  est 
corpus,  by  way  of  ridiculous  imitation  of  the  priests  of 
the  church  of  Rome  in  their  trick  of  Transubstantia- 
tion."— '  Works,'  vol.  i.  Ser.  26. 

Nares  thinks  that  the  expression  is  taken  from 
the  Italian  jugglers,  who  said  Ochus  Bochus,  in 
reference  to  a  famous  magician  of  those  names. 
Is  this  gentleman  apocryphal  ?  If  not,  when  did 
he  exist  ?  Prof.  Skeat,  in  his  'Dictionary,'  regards 
the  expression  as  a  reduplication.  He  mentions 
that  Hokos-Pokos  is  the  name  of  the  juggler  in 
Ben  Jonson's '  Magnetic  Lady,'  licensed  in  October, 
1632.  Ben  Jonson  has  the  word  in  an  earlier 

play,  'The  Staple  of  News,' first  acted  in  1625  :— 
"  Iniquity  came  in  like  hokos-pokos  in  a  jugler's 
jerkin,  with  false  skirts  like  the  knave  of  clubs  " 

7"  S.  I.  JiS.  16,  '86.] 


(II.,  sub  finem).    Is  there  no  earlier  instance  of 
the  use  of  the  word  1    F.  C.  BIRKBECK  TERRY. 

In  the  twenty-first  volume  of  the  Mirror  I  find 
the  following  origin  for  these  words,  and  one 
would  be  glad  to  think  they  were  not  a  piece  of 
Puritan  profanity:— 

"  Ochus  Bochus  was  a  magician  and  demon  among  the 
Saxons,  dwelling  in  forests  and  caves,  and  we  have  his 
name  and  abode  handed  down  to  the  present  day  in 
Somersetshire  (viz.,  Wokey  Hole,  near  Wells).  Thus  it 
appears  that  modern  conjurors,  in  making  use  of  the 
words,  are  invoking  the  name  of  their  powerful  pre- 

This  is  taken  from  a  note  to  the  '  Dragon  King ' 
in  Pennie's  '  Historical  Drama.' 


St.  Saviour's,  Southwark. 

SUICIDE  OF  ANIMALS,  INSECTS,  &c.  (6th  S.  xi. 
227,  354  ;  xii.  295,  454).— Mr.  Frederick  Whym- 
per  is  communicating  some  interesting  papers  on 
'  Travellers'  Snake  Stories '  to  Good  Words.  In 
the  second  of  these  papers  (December,  p.  786)  he 
has  this  notice  of  a  snake  suicide: — 

"An  Australian  gentleman  some  years  ago  was  the 
cause  of  a  venomous  snake  committingsuicide  by  poisoning 
itself.  (Communication  to  the  Launceston  Examiner,  Tas- 
mania, quoted  in  Nature,  May  13, 1880.)  He  had  pinned 
a  black  snake  to  the  ground  by  means  of  a  forked  stick, 
and  unintentionally  by  his  haste  in  the  middle  of  the 
body.  No  sooner  had  he  done  this  than  the  snake  got 
in  a  violent  rage,  and  instantly  buried  its  fangs  in  itself, 
making  the  spot  wet  either  with  viscid  slime  or  the 
deadly  poison.  It  had  hardly  unburied  its  fangs  when 
its  coils  round  the  stick  suddenly  relaxed,  a  perceptible 
quiver  ran  through  its  body,  and  in  much  less  time  than 
it  takes  to  write  this,  it  lay  extended  and  motionless,  as 
though  gasping  for  breath.  Jn  less  than  three  minutes 
from  the  time  it  bit  itself  it  was  perfectly  dead." 


OXFORD  CATALOGUE  (6th  S.  xii.  516). — In  the 
English  edition  of  Bayle  (5  vols.,  folio,  London, 
1736),  iii.  528,  the  passage  queried  by  MR.  C.  A. 
WARD  is  given  thus : — "  I  know  the  Latin  version 
only  by  means  of  the  Catalogue  of  the  Bodleian 
Library.  It  was  printed  in  the  year  1622  in  8vo., 
and  translated  by  ^Esch.  Major."  Huarte's  book, 
to  which  this  paragraph  refers,  has  been  translated 
into  English  by  Richard  Carew  (with  an  Exeter 
imprint,  1596,  4to.),  or,  as  some  say,  by  Thomas 
Carew;  and  by  Mr.  Bellamy  (8vo.,  1698),  &c. 

i.  29).— Can  the  Keepsake  for  1829  be  a  slip  of. the 
pen  for  1828  ?  Because  in  the  latter  were  origin- 
ally published  'My  Aunt  Margaret's  Mirror,'  'The 
Tapestried  Chamber,'  and  '  The  Death  of  the 
Laird's  Jock.'  All  three  of  these  short  stories  are 
certainly  by  Sir  Walter  Scott,  and  may  be  seen  in 
any  collected  edition  of  his  works. 


Newbourne  Rectory,  Woodbridge. 


The  Fall  of  Constantinople :  leinq  the  Story  of  the  Fourth 
Crusade.     By  Edwin  Pears,  LL.B.    (Longmans  &  Co.) 
THE  second  title  of  Mr.  Pears's  volume  is  necessary  to 
explain  the  first.     What  is  generally  known  as  the  fall 
of  Constantinople,  that  is,  its  subjugation  beneath  Moslem 
rule,  Mr.  Pears  mentions  incidentally  as  a  remote  con- 
sequence of  agencies  the  working  of  which  he  describes. 
Less  than  half  his  very  interesting  and  scholarly  volume 
is,  indeed,  occupied  with  the  fourth  crusade  and  with  the 
conquest  and  sack  of  the  seat  of  the  Eastern  Empire.    The 
first  and  longer  portion  is  concerned  with  a  description 
of  persistent  attempts  at  invasion  of  imperial  territory 
on  the  part  of  the  Turks  arid  Tartars,  which,  though 
resisted    with    almost    unbroken    success,    sapped    the 
strength  of  Constantinople,  and  with  the  internal  causes 
which    led    to    decline    and   ultimate    defeat.      Sur- 
rounded on  all  sides  by  hostile  and  aggressive  populations, 
the  Byzantine  empire  needed  for  its  preservation  forti- 
tude and  energy  on  the  part  of  rulers  and  people  such  as, 
unfortunately,  these  did  not  possess.    Noteworthy  alike 
for  the  splendour  of  its  treasures  of  art  and  erudition 
and  for  the  private  wealth  of  its  rulers  and  citizens,  it 
stood  an  object  of  universal  cupidity.    Its  destruction 
was  brought  about  by  the  licentiousness  of  its  rulers,  by 
internecine  feud,  by  luxury,  effeminacy,  and  vice  such  as 
have  ruined  many  empires.     So  quickly  did  emperors 
succeed  each  other  in  later  times  that  a  change  passed 
almost  unnoticed  by  the  people.     Mr.  Pears,  indeed,  in 
some  striking  passages  shows  how  something  answering 
to   the  fatalism  of  the  modern  Turk  existed  in  Con- 
stantinople   in  the   twelfth  and    thirteenth   centuries. 
Illustrations    of    this  kind   the    information    obtained 
by  Mr.  Pears  while  president  of  the  European  Bar  at 
Constantinople  enables  him  to  make  with  signal  gain 
to    his    work.      Mr.    Pears    over-estimates    the    effect 
of    Turkish    attempts    at   invasion.      Those    countless 
hordes    which    he    picturesquely    describes    fell    off 
broken    and    beaten   from  the    empire  which  was    so 
long  the  bulwark  of  Christianity.    At  the  period  when 
the  fourth  crusade  was  diverted  from  its  specific  purpose 
and  sent  to  the  destruction  of  a  Christian  capital,  he 
shows  that  the  Turkish  power  waa  broken.    The  real 
causes  of  decline  were,  as  has  been  said,  luxury.vice,  and 
effeminacy,  aggravated  by  domestic  discord.  Upon  these 
things  supervened  the  invasion  from  the  West,  brought 
about  by  the  ambition  and  envy  of  Venice,  and  assum- 
ably  by  the  wrongs  of  Dandolo,  and  the  doom  of  Con- 
stantinople was  sealed  and  the  city  was  weakened  until 
it  became  the  prey  of  the  Moslem.   Upon  the  manner 
which  the  leaders  of  the  fourth  crusade  were  led  to 
adopt  the  policy  of  Venice,  and  to  direct,  in  the  face  of 
Papal  prohibition,  against  Constantinople  a  force  raised 
for  the  conquest  of  Palestine,  Mr.  Pears  has  written  some 
admirable  chapters.     Of  the  fidelity  and  service  of  the 
Warings    or    Varangian    guards    he    gives   a    striking 
picture.     His  book  is,  in  short,  an  eminently  satisfactory 
product  of  researches  not    only  in  Villebardouin  and 
Nicetas  and  the  Byzantine  historians,  but  in  modern 
French  and  German  literature  upon  the  subject. 

Letters  and  Journals  of  Jonathan  Swift.  Selected  and 
edited  by  Stanley  Lane-Poole.  (Kegan  Paul,  Trench 

Asa  companion  volume  to  the  selection  from  Swift's 
prose  writings,  included  in  that  delightful  series  the 
•'  Parchment  Library,"  has  ndw  been  issued  a  selection 
from  Swift's  journal  to  Stella  and  from  his  letters.  The 
task,  far  from  easy,  of  foraging  in  correspondence  so  volu- 
minous, has  been  admirably  accomplished,  and  the 



S.  I.  JAN.  16,  '8 

letters  given  are  in  all  respects  representative.  In 
these  things  we  see  Swift  at  his  best,  and  those  who 
know  the  great  master  of  English  only  in  his  imagina- 
tive works,  or  in  the  biographies  of  him  that  have  been 
written,  will  do  well  to  have  the  volume  by  their  side. 
To  those  who  read  the  passages  on  the  death  of  Mrs. 
Johnson,  pp.  168  et  seg.,  it  will  be  difficult  to  believe  all 
the  evil  that  has  been  written  about  Swift.  The  whole, 
indeed,  besides  being  delightful  reading,  is  calculated  to 
raise  our  estimate  of  the  man.  It  is  pleasant  to  hear 
that  Mr.  Lane-Poole  has  had  no  call  to  bowdlerize  these 
letters.  The  editor's  notes  are  brief  and  to  the  purpose, 
the  prefatory  matter  is  satisfactory  in  all  respects,  and 
the  volume  is  an  acceptable  addition  to  a  series  that 
has  established  itself  in  public  favour. 

Fotheringay  and  Mary,  Queen  of  Scots.     By  Cuthbert 

Bede.  (Simpkin,  Marshall  &  Co.) 
OUR  brilliant  and  versatile  contributor  Cuthbert  Bede 
has  collected  into  a  volume  the  papers  on  Fotheringay 
which  he  contributed  twenty  years  ago  to  the  Leisure 
Hour.  These  interesting  chapters  have,  however,  been 
considerably  revised  and  corrected,  and  have  been 
adorned  with  fresh  illustrations.  Thus  improved  they 
constitute  a  pleasant  and  valuable  contribution  to  topo- 
graphy, and,  indeed,  to  history,  as  well  as  an  agreeable 
companion  to  those  who  may  visit  the  spot.  It  is  need- 
less to  say  that  Cuthbert  Bede  espouses  warmly  the 
cause  of  Mary  Stuart,  of  whose  fortitude  and  resignation 
under  the  most  trying  circumstances  he  gives  a  graphic 
account.  Very  attractive  reading  is  the  volume,  and 
the  appendices  contain  much  valuable  matter.  The 
illustrations,  principally  by  the  author,  have  a  value  of 
their  own,  and  the  book  deserves  the  welcome  it  is  sure 
to  get  from  a  large  class  of  readers.  These  illustrations 
include  a  reproduction  of  an  original  portrait  in  the 
possession  of  the  author,  which  goes  far  to  justify  the 
reputation  of  the  unfortunate  queen  for  beauty. 

The  White  Horses  of  the  West  of  England,  with  Notices 
of  some  other  Ancient  Turf  Monuments.  By  the  Rev. 
W.  C.  Plenderleath,  M.A.  (A.  R.  Smith.) 
ON  those  curious  turf  monuments — of  which  this  country 
possesses,  so  far  as  is  known,  a  monopoly — the  rector  of 
Cherhill  has  written  a  brief  and  valuable  dissertation, 
giving  a  full  account  of  all  which  are  known  to  exist,  and 
putting  forward  some  ingenious  theories  as  to  their 
origin.  The  work  is  scholarly  and  constitutes  a  desir- 
able possession.  Much  information  is  cast  upon  the 
subject  from  ancient  coins,  engravings  of  which  and  of 
the  monuments  themselves  are  afforded.  On  p.  11  Mr. 
Plenderleath  speaks  of  the  authorship  of  the  pamphlet 
entitled  '  The  impertinence  and  Superstition  of  Modern 
Antiquaries  displayed  by  Philalethes  Rusticus,'  being 
apparently  assigned  to  Mr.  Bumstead,  while  a  copy  in 
the  Devizes  Museum  gives  the  name  of  Esplin  as  author. 
The  pamphlet  in  question,  which  consists  of  a  letter,  is 
by  the  Rev.  William  Asplin,  M.A.,  vicar  of  Banbury, 
author  of  '  Alkibia  :  a  Disquisition  upon  Worshipping 
towards  the  East.'  The  preface  is  by  Bumpstead,  or 
Bumstead,  to  whom  the  letter  is  addressed. 

The    Antiquary.      Vol.    XII.,    July-December,    1885. 


IN  an  excellent  volume  of  the  Antiquary  &  few  papers 
stand  prominently  forward.  Amongst  these  are  Mr. 
Wheatley's  review  of  Miss  Toulmin  Smith's  volume  '  Tiie 
York  Plays';  Mr.  Ordish's  account  of  the  London 
theatres  in  Tudor  and  Stuart  times;  Mr.  J.  H.  Round's 
paper  on  '  The  Attack  on  Dover  ';  Mr.  Price's  '  Notes 
on  London  Wall ';  Mr.  Peacock's  '  Scotter  and  its 
Manor  ';  «  Steele's  "  Christian  Hero,"  '  by  Mr.  Solly ; 
'Extracts  from  Diaries  of  Early  Travel,'  by  Mr.  J. 

Theodore  Bent ;  and  Miss  Toulmin  Smith's  '  The  House 
of  Lords.'  In  a  valuable  contribution  by  Mr.  Wheatley 
on  '  The  Fairies  in  Literature  '  there  is  no  mention  of 
the  fairy  poems,  which  are  exquisite,  of  Sir  John  Mennis. 
In  the  "  Antiquary's  Note-Book  "  there  is  some  useful 
information.  Perhaps  the  funniest  thing  in  the  volume, 
which  might  almost  serve  to  give  it  some  day  a  place  as 
a  curiosity,  is  a  memoir  of  W.  J.  Thorns  in  which  no 
mention  of  '  N.  &  Q.'  is  made  ! 

The  Murder  of  Amy  Roosart:  a  Brief  for  the  Prosecu- 
tion. By  Walter  Rye.  (Elliot  Stock.) 
IN  behalf  of  the  view  that  Amy  Robsart  was  murdered 
by  Leicester  with  the  cognizance  of  Elizabeth  Mr. Walter 
Rye  writes  convincingly  and  well,  though  avowedly  as 
an  advocate.  His  known  erudition  is  brought  to  bear  in 
this  admirable  pamphlet,  which  brings  forward  much  new 
evidence,  and  is.full  of  scandal  against  Queen  Elizabeth. 
A  more  important  contribution  to  history  has  seldom 
been  made  in  pamphlet  form.  The  whole  is  worthy  of 
Mr.  Rye's  high  reputation. 

IT  is  proposed  to  reprint  the  index  or  *  Table  Book  ' 
to  the  Brotherhood  and  Guestling  of  the  Cinque 
Ports.  This  republication  will  provide  a  key  to  records 
of  great  historical  importance.  Two  hundred  and 
fifty  copies  only  will  be  printed  for  subscribers  by  Mr. 
Elliot  Stock. 

$otfrnf  to 

We  must  call  special  attention  to  the  following  notices  : 

ON  all  communications  must  be  written  the  name  and 
address  of  the  sender,  not  necessarily  for  publication,  but 
as  a  guarantee  of  good  faith. 

WE  cannot  undertake  to  answer  queries  privately. 

To  secure  insertion  of  communications  correspondents 
must  observe  the  following  rule.  Let  each  note,  query, 
or  reply  be  written  on  a  separate  slip  of  paper,  with  the 
signature  of  the  writer  and  such  address  as  he  wishes  to 
appear.  Correspondents  who  repeat  queries  are  requested 
to  head  the  second  communication  "  Duplicate." 

J.  J.  STOCKEN  ("  '  Hamlet,'  II.  ii.  861  ").—  Anser,  as 
the  generic  name  for  our  domestic  waterfowl,  is  sug- 
gested, instead  of  "  hand-saw,"  in  '  N.  &  Q.,'  3rd  S.  xii.  3. 

A.  B.  G.  ("'La  Metamorphose  d'Ovide  Figuree,'  a 
Lyon,  par  Jan  de  Tournes,  1557").—  The  designs  in  this 
are  attributed  to  Bernard  Salomon,  known  as  "  Le  Petit 
Bernard."  See  a  full  account  in  the  '  Manuel  du 
Libraire  '  of  Brunet.  The  book  should  have  90  pages 
in  all  and  176  illustrations.  It  sells,  when  perfect,  for 
twenty  to  forty  francs.  Turreau  is  probably  the  name 
of  a  possessor. 

ALICE  R.  ("Quotations  Wanted").  —  !.  "Cabined, 
cribbed,  confined,"  '  Macbeth,'  III.  iv.  2.  "  Flown  with 
insolence  and  wine,"  Milton's  '  Paradise  Lost,'  book  i. 
3.  "  Bloody  with  spurring,  fiery  hot  (red)  with  haste  " 
we  must  leave  to  others. 

REV.  OSWALD  BIRCHALL  ("  Proportion  of  Ulster  Pro- 
testant  Emigrants  who  return  to  Ireland  from  Ame- 
rica"). —  No  statistics  from  which  such  a  return  can  be 
obtained  are,  we  believe,  anywhere  accessible. 


Editorial  Communications  should  be  addressed  to  "  The 
Editor  of  '  Notes  and  Queries  '  "  —  Advertisements  and 
Business  Letters  to  "  The  Publisher  "—at  the  Office,  22, 
Took's  Court,  Cursitor  Street,  Chancery  Lane,  E.G. 

We  beg  leave  to  state  that  we  decline  to  return  com- 
munications which,  for  any  reason,  we  do  not  print  ;  and 
to  this  rule  we  can  make  no  exception. 

7'!'  S.  1.  Jus.  23,  '86.] 




CONTENTS.— N°  4. 

NOTES :— History  of  the  Thames,  61— Black  Mary's  Hole,  62 
—Deaths  in  1886,  63— Robin  Hood's  Chapel— New  Words  in 
1808,  64  — Wyclif  Society's  *  De  Civili  Dominio '—Early 
Mention  of  Book-plates-  Curious  Surnames,  65— Burning  for 
Heresy — Bird-lore—Johannes  Adamus  Transylvanus — Par- 
liamentary Trains— Jaw,  66. 

QUERIES  :— Collegium  Grassinseum— Ordinance  for  Suppres- 
sion of  Stage  PJays— '  Choice  Notes '—Stock— Author  of 
Story— Caffling—R.  Mead  and  Jno.  Wilkes- Welsh  Fair,  67 
— W.  WooJlett  —  "  Tabard  "  Inn  —  Wentworth— Marriage 
Dinners  at  Town  Halls— Stangni — Standing  at  Prayers — 
Browne — Fictitious  Names— Scotch  Religious  Houses — Dr. 
Henry  King— Manors  in  England— Company  of  Mines— A 
"  Shepster"— Mrs.  Parsons,  68— Bristol  Pottery— Symonds : 
Hakluyt,  &c.— Volume  of  Sermons— Dunstanborough  Castle 
— '  Bridge  of  Sighs '— '  Vathek  '  —  A.  Colquhoun— "  Leaps 
and  bounds"— Castles  — Sir  T.  Cornwallis,  69  —  Origin  of 
Saying — Prayer  of  Mary,  Queen  of  Scots— Memoirs  of  D. 
O  Connell— Almanac— Pentameters— '  Valor  Ecclesiasticus ' 
—Authors  Wanted,  70. 

REPLIES  :— Primitive  Wedding,  70—"  Ifs  and  Ands"— Must 
— "  Sepelivit  nuptam,"  &c.— Golden  Bottle— Conquer,  71— 
Colchester  Castle— Belief  the  Hop — Freemasonry — Duncan  I. 
— Lym— Books  dedicated  to  Princess  Victoria— Arms  of  Ox- 
ford Halls— Velvet  and  Fustian—*  The  Tempest,'  72— Scotch 
Names  of  Fishes— Wharton— "  Our  friend  the  enemy  "—Two 
Epitaphs— Highland  Kilt— When  was  Burns  born?  73— 
Garter  Brasses  —  General  Armstrong  —  Washington's  An- 
cestors— Author  Wanted— Esquire,  74— Scales  and  Bardolf 
—Docket—"  Speech  is  silver  "— Stilt=Crutch  —  Coronation 
Stone,  75 — Touch- Jane  Clermont— "  Filius  populi" — Vene- 
tian Glass,  76— "He  kept  throwing,"  &C-— Act  of  Union- 
Irish  Parliament — Commonplace  Book— Omitted  Reference, 
77— St.  Alkelda— John  Thurloe— Church  in  Danger— Brian 
Walton  —  Campleshon  Family  —  Homer— Fourteenth  Cen- 
tury Lease,  78— Son  of  a  Sea  Coote— Filius  Dei— Authors 
Wanted,  79. 

NOTES  ON  BOOKS :— Cushing's  'Initials  and  Pseudonyms' 
— Ashton's  '  Dawn  of  the  Nineteenth  Century  '—Shirley 
Hibberd's  •  Golden  Gates  and  Silver  Steps.' 



Fortunately,  "Qui  cherche,  trouve"  is  sometimes 
objectively  as  well  as  subjectively  true.  In  1841, 
while  examining  a  bed  of  sand  at  the  village  of 
Menchecourt  lez  Abbeville,  M.  de  Perthes  found  a 
flint  implement  really  chipped  by  the  hand  of  man, 
and  closely  resembling  the  then  long-forgotten  wea- 
pons found  by  Conyers  and  Frere.  Shortly  after- 
wards M.  L.  Cordier,  of  the  Institute,  wrote  to  him 
asking  for  a  sample  of  the  sand  in  the  lowest  bed 
of  the  Menchecourt  drift.  He  accordingly  had  a 
barrow  filled  with  sand  from  the  undisturbed  soil, 
some  eighteen  feet  from  the  surface,  and,  examin- 
ing it  to  see  whether  it  contained  any  fossils, 
found,  embedded  in  a  hard  sandy  concretion, 
another  drift  implement,  as  perfect  and  with  its 
edges  as  sharp  as  when  it  was  first  chipped. 
These,  with  innumerable  later  finds,  many  of  them 
attested  by  formal  proces-verbal  on  oath,  are  duly 
chronicled  in  his  magnum  opus,  *  De  1'Industrie 
Primitive/  the  printing  of  which  began  in  1844, 
but  was  not  finished  till  1846.  This  work  re- 
appeared in  the  following  year  as  vol.  i.  of  '  An- 

tiquite"s  Celtiques  et  Ante"diluviennes '  (Paris, 
Treuttel  &  Wiirtz),  the  second  volume  of  which 
was  not  published  till  early  in  1858.  Unfortu- 
nately the  lithographs  with  which  the  work  was 
illustrated  were  on  a  small  scale,  and  the  outlines 
of  the  genuine  works  of  art  were  accompanied  by 
an  overwhelming  number  of  others  representing 
purely  natural  forms  of  flints.  English  geology, 
accordingly,  in  taking  stock  of  the  unfinished 
work,*  had  no  difficulty  in  rejecting  the  discoveries 
it  announced  as  not  less  unsatisfactory  than  the 
theories  it  propounded. 

But  "  Facile  est  addere  inventis"  is  a  maxim  of 
wide  application.  In  1854  Dr.  Rigollot,  of 
Amiens,  learnt  that  similar  implements  had  been 
found  near  that  city,  and  in  the  following  year 
published  an  account  of  them  accompanied  by 
good  illustrations. f  With  the  appearance  of  this 
memoir  all  the  innumerable  particles  of  evidence, 
so  long  held  in  solution  in  the  minds  of  men, 
began  to  crystallize  into  solid  and  definite  shape. 
But  the  process  was  far  from  instantaneous.  The 
question  raised  had  a  special  interest  for  the  anti- 
quary and  anthropologist,  but  the  evidence  could 
only  be  satisfactorily  tested  by  the  geological  ex- 
pert. And,  in  England  at  least,  the  geological 
expert  of  the  period  as  a  rule  objected  to  testing 
any  evidence  afforded  by  deposits  so  contemptibly 
modern  as  mere  quaternary  river-drifts.  I  am 
not  aware  that  the  members  of  the  Geological  Sur- 
vey ever  actually  formulated  an  anathema  against 
the  Glacial  Period  and  all  its  works  ;  but,  at  any 
rate,  they  habitually  spoke  of  the  Boulder  Clay 
with  contumely,  and  cherished  an  inveterate 
animosity  against  all  post-pliocene  formations. 
These  troublesome  new-comers,  it  was  generally 
felt,  had  no  business  to  obtrude  themselves  above 
the  heads  of  the  "  good  old  county  family"  groups 
of  primary,  secondary,  and  tertiary  rocks,  and 
hide  them  out  of  sight.  Nor  was  the  prejudice 
in  any  way  abated  when  the  antiquary  began  to 
assert  his  interest  in  these  recent  clays  and  gravels 
and  sands.  It  was  disturbing  the  old  landmarks  and 
breaking  down  the  fences  of  geology  in  the  interest 
of  trespassers,  who  might  possibly  be  poachers 
also,  from  the  adjoining  manor  of  archaeology.  At 
all  events,  whether  owing  to  any  prejudices  of  the 
kind,  or  simply  to  the  fact  that  the  antiquary  is 
generally  a  degree  or  two  less  sceptical  than  the 
geologist,  the  Amiens  and  Abbeville  discoveries 
appear  to  have  been  carefully  investigated  by  the 
former  before  the  latter  began  to  trouble  his  head 
about  them.  The  names  of  Thomson  and  Wor- 
saae  from  Denmark,  and  of  Dr.  Thurnam,  W.  M. 
Wylie,  and  C.  Roach  Smith  from  England  were 
duly  inscribed  in  M.  Boucher  de  Perthes's  visitors' 

*  Mantell, '  On  the  Remains  of  Man  and  Works  of 
Art  imbedded  in  Rocks  and  Strata,'  1851. 

'Memoire  sur  des  Instruments   en  Silex  Trourea 
&  St.  Aeheul  pres  d' Amiens,'  1856. 


[7*  8. 1.  JAN.  23,  '86. 

album  considerably  earlier  than  those  of  any 
foreign  geological  specialist.  It  was  not  long, 
however,  before  the  evidence  derived  from  cavern 
researches  at  home  compelled  English  geology  to 
reconsider  its  verdict  as  to  the  extremely  recent 
origin  of  man,  and  when  once  it  was  shown  that 
there  was  no  antecedent  absurdity  in  supposing 
him  to  be  at  least  as  old  as  the  river- drift  of  the 
Somme,  it  was  no  longer  possible  to  refuse  M. 
Boucher  de  Perthes  a  hearing. 

In  1858  a  suite  of  bone-caves,  hitherto  untouched, 
was  discovered  at  Brixham,  near  Torquay,  which 
was  thoroughly  and  systematically  explored  and  ex- 
amined by  a  committee  of  geologists,  of  which  Mr. 
Prestwich  and  the  late  Dr.  Hugh  Falconer,  then 
vice-president  of  the  Geological  Society,  were  mem- 
bers. While  engaged  in  this  work  Dr.  Falconer 
heard  of  the  discovery  of  similar  caverns  at  Mac- 
cagnone,  near  Palermo,  in  Sicily,  and  at  once  deter- 
mined to  visit  that  island.  On  his  way  he  halted 
at  Abbeville,  and  satisfied  himself  that  the  hdches 
found  by  the  French  archaeologist  were  indubitably 
the  work  of  human  hands.  Unable  himself  to 
make  any  detailed  investigation  of  the  circum- 
stances under  which  they  had  been  discovered, 
Dr.  Falconer  wrote  to  his  colleague  Mr.  Prestwich, 
urging  him  to  undertake  an  early  pilgrimage  to 
Abbeville.  Thither,  accordingly,  Mr.  Prestwich 
repaired  in  April,  1859,  and  was  shortly  after- 
wards joined  by  Mr.  John  Evans.  Both  started 
on  their  errand  as  sceptics.  The  antiquary,  M  r. 
Evans,  who  had  made  stone  implements  one  of  his 
special  studies,  entertained  grave  doubts  as  to  the 
true  character  of  the  hdches ;  the  geologist,  Mr. 
Prestwich,  the  highest  authority  on  all  questions 
relating  to  post -pliocene  formations,  doubted 
whether  the  implements  had  been  found  in  un- 
disturbed soil  at  the  depths  alleged.  Both  re- 
turned converts  on  both  points.  No  qualified 
observer  could  doubt  that  the  marvellous  series 
of  implements  collected  at  Abbeville  were  fashioned 
by  the  hand  of  man,  and  their  occurrence  in  un- 
disturbed strata  was  conclusively  proved  by  Mr. 
Prestwich's  picking  one  out  of  the  matrix  in  which 
it  was  imbedded  seventeen  feet  below  the  surface, 
in  a  gravel-pit  near  Amiens.  On  their  return  Mr. 
Prestwich  laid  the  result  of  their  investigations 
before  the  Royal  Society,  and  Mr.  Evans  before 
the  Society  of  Antiquaries.  By  a  singular  stroke 
of  luck,  just  before  ne  read  his  paper,  Mr.  Evans 
went  to  the  rooms  of  the  Society  to  invite  some 
friends  to  come  and  see  the  treasures  brought  home 
from  France,  and  while  waiting  for  his  friends  to 
come  out  of  the  council-room,  happened  to  look 
into  one  of  the  glass  cases  in  the  window-seats. 
There,  at  once  to  his  delight  and  dismay,  he  beheld 
four  implements  of  flint,  the  very  counterparts  of 
those  he  has  just  procured  at  Abbeville  and 
Amiens.  It  was  no  dream,  no  optical  delusion  ; 
there  the  things  were,  and  there  they  had  lain  in 

the  museum  of  the  Society  for  more  than  three- 
score years.  There  was  no  label  on  them,  but  a 
reference  to  the  books  showed  that  they  came  from 
Hoxne,  and  that  Mr.  Frere  had  written  the  letter 
already  quoted  about  them.  A  further  reference 
to  the  Archceologia  showed  that  the  paper  had  been 
illustrated  by  two  admirable  engravings,  which, 
had  the  history  not  been  known,  might  well  have 
passed  as  portraits  of  some  of  the  new  French  find. 
This  rediscovery  led  to  further  research,  in  the 
course  of  which  the  Black  Mary  implement  was 
found  in  the  British  Museum  by  Mr.  A.  W. 
Franks,  who  also  unearthed  the  account  of  it  given 
in  Mr.  Bagford's  letter. 

Thus  it  came  to  pass  in  1859,  a  hundred  and 
fifty  years  and  more  after  John  Conyers  had 
been  gathered  to  his  fathers,  that  his  discovery 
was  recognized  as  the  first  link  in  the  chain  of 
evidence  by  which  it  was  finally  proved  that  man 
had  inhabited  the  globe  at  a  date  indefinitely 
earlier  than  that  which  a  mistaken  chronology  had 
assigned  to  his  creation.  This  conclusion,  im- 
plicitly assumed  by  Darwin  in  his  '  Origin  of 
Species,'  first  published  in  this  year  1859,  was 
explicitly  accepted  by  Lyell  at  the  meeting  of  the 
British  Association,  and  thenceforward  the  onus 
probandi  has  rested  not  on  the  upholders,  but  on 
the  impugners  of  the  antiquity  of  man. 

Safe  came  the  ship  to  haven 
Through  billows  and  through  gales, 

When  once  the  Great  Twin  Brethren 
Sat  shining  on  the  sails. 

(To  be  continued.) 

BROTHER  FABIAN  is  mistaken  in  supposing 
(p.  42)  that  fluke  has  not  yet  found  its  way  into  a 
dictionary.  It  is  in  Annandale's  '  Ogilvie,'  vol.  ii. 
(1882),  with  a  quotation  from  the  Times. 



The  true  origin  of  this  name  does  not  seem  to 
be  known  with  certainty.  Pink,  in  his  *  History 
of  Clerkenwell,'  has  referred  to  the  chief  sugges- 
tions ;  but  he  was  unable  to  decide  which  of  them 
was  the  true  one.  First  there  is  an  old  tradition 
that  the  well  was  called  "  the  blessed  Mary's  well," 
next  that  it  was  known  as  "  Black  Mary's  well," 
and  thirdly  that  it  was  called  "  Black  Mary's 
hole."  It  is  stated  that  the  well  was  leased  to 
a  black  woman  named  Mary  Woolaston,  who  lived 
in  a  stone  house  or  hovel,  and  sold  the  water  to 
the  neighbouring  citizens ;  that  she  died  about  1685; 
the  well  was  then  enclosed  and  protected  by  the 
proprietor,  Walter  Baynes,  Esq.  Prior  to  this  the 
place  was  known  as  "Black  Mary's  hole";  whether 
this  name  applied  to  the  well  itself  or  to  the  stone 
hovel  in  which  Mrs.  Woolaston  lived  is  not  clear ; 
but  after  her  death  the  name  was  clearly  used  to 

7*  S.  I,  JAN.  23, '86.] 



designate  the  entire  road,  the  continuation  north 
of  Coppice  or  Codpiece  Row.  The  exact  place  is 
distinctly  shown  in  Rocque's  map  of  1746  as 
"Black  Mary's  well,"  in  the  White  Conduit 
Fields.  In  Pine's  map,  published  the  same  year, 
the  conduit  is  marked,  and  about  ten  small  houses, 
the  road  being  described  as  "  Black  Mary's  hole." 
There  is  an  account  in  the  Gentleman's  Magazine 
for  1813,  ii.  557,  suggesting  that  the  name  was  de- 
rived from  a  black  cow  belonging  to  the  woman  who 
leased  the  well ;  but  this  is  clearly  "  a  pleasant 
fiction."  There  is  great  uncertainty  as  to  dates  in 
all  the  old  references  to  this  place.  Thus, in  'London 
and  its  Environs  Described,'  1761,  i.  324,  it  is 
said  that  the  "  Blackmoor  woman"  called  Mary  lived 
in  the  circular  stone  hut  "  about  thirty  years  ago," 
that  is,  about  1730,  whereas  from  all  other  accounts 
she  seems  to  have  died  at  least  forty  years  pre- 
viously. Perhaps  the  most  clear  and  distinct  date 
is  that  given  by  Mr.  Pink  (p.  561)  ;  he  states  that 
in  the  poor-rate  book  for  1680  John  Giles  is  rated 
for  "  Black  Maries."  This  note  is  interesting  ;  it 
seems  to  suggest  that  there  was  then  one  or  more 
tenement  so  called,  possibly  the  remains  of  some 
small  religious  foundation.  A  careful  examina- 
tion of  the  parish  books  might  perhaps  throw 
further  light  on  this  matter.  EDWARD  SOLLY. 

This  name,  together  with  the  "  large  black  flint " 
and  the  tenor  of  the  whole  description,  reminds 
me  very  forcibly  of  the  black  virgins,  i.  e.t  "  Les 
Vierges  Noires,"  in  the  '  Encyclope'die  des  Sciences 
Religieuses,'  par  M.  Gaidoz,  from  which  I  made 
the  following  extract : — 

"  Lea  deesses  Meres  (Matres  ou  Matrse  ou  Matron* 
avec  des  epithetes  generalement  topiques,  par  exemple 
Matrebo  Nemarsicabo, '  aux  MSres  de  Nimes,'  et  Matribvs 
Treveris,  '  aux  M6res  de  Treves ')  sembleut  avoir  etc'  lea 
'  bonnes  dames  '  ou  lea  '  dames  blanchea  '  de  1'endroit,  et 
aont  vraisemblablement  le  prototype  de  DOS  fees.  On 
les  represente  generalementassises,  tenant  un  ou  plusieura 
enfants  sur  leurs  genoux.  Plusieurs  d'entre  dies  ont  la 
meme  attitude  que  plus  tard  la  Vierge  tenant  1'Enfant 
Jesus;  et  les  statues  miraculeuses  de  la  Vierge  Marie 
trouvees  dans  la  terre  a  diverses  epoques  (telle  est  dans 
plus  d'un  cas  1'origine  de  ce  qu'on  appelle  les  '  Vierges 
JNoires ')  etaient  sans  doute  des  statues  des  deesses  Meres 
gauloises  ou  gallo-romaines." 

It  is  true  there  is  no  mention  made  of  Black 
Mary,  but  since  there  were  black  virgins,  why 
should  there  be  no  black  Virgin  Mary  contracted 
Black  Mary?     The  quotation  may  at  least  tempt 
some  of  your  contributors  to  further  researches. 

[See  7"'  S.  i.  1.] 

DEATHS  IN  1885. 

The  following  list  includes  the  names  of  the 
greater  number  of  eminent  persons  who  died 
during  the  past  year,  1885.  Divines  and  soldiers, 
unless  eminent  to  some  extent  as  literary  men,  are 

not  included ;  but  it  may  not  be  out  of  place  to 
mention  that  the  mortality  of  these  two  classes 
during  1885  seems  to  have  been  very  high.  Scien- 
tific men,  whose  literary  works  were  confined  to 
the  objects  of  their  especial  study,  have  also  been 

I  should  like  to  point  out  the  slipshod  manner 
in  which  the  newspaper  and  magazine  obituaries 
are  written.  I  refer  to  the  frequency  with  which  a 
biography  is  printed  without  mentioning  either 
date  of  birth  or  decease.  Sometimes  the  extremely 
lucid  (?)  "  last  week  "  or  "  the  other  day  "  is  only 
out-distanced  by  very  vague  references  to  a  "  ripe 
old  age"  and  the  like.  It  is  highly  important 
that  these  matters  of  birth  and  death  should  be 
explicitly  stated,  without  any  evasion.  The  Times 
and  more  than  one  other  leading  journal  are  open 
to  considerable  improvement  in  this  matter.  When 
the  demise  of  any  particular  person  is  current 
news,  it  is  comparatively  easy  to  ascertain  the 
dates  of  his  birth  and  death — facts  which  in  years 
to  come  will  be  difficult  to  obtain,  if  obtainable 
at  all. 

About,  Edmond,  author,  journalist;  b.  Feb.  14,  1828 

d.  Jan.  17. 

Ansdell,  Richard.  R.A.,  artist;  b.  1815;  d.  April. 
Barlow,  Peter  William,  F.R.S.,  engineer;  d.  May  20. 
Benedict,  Sir  Julius,  musician;  b.  (Stuttgart)  Nov.  27, 

1804 ;  d.  June  5. 
Bodichon,  Dr.  Eugene,  author ;  b.  (Nantes),  1810 ;  d. 

Jan.  28. 
Cairns,  Hugh  MacCalmont   (Earl  Cairns),   statesman, 

philanthrophist ;  b.  1819  ;  d.  April  2. 
Campbell,  John  Francis,  F.G.S.,  author,  antiquary,  b. 

1821 ;  d.  Feb.  17. 

Carpenter,  Dr.  W.  B.,  author:  b.  1813  ;  d.  Nov.  10. 
Cassal,  Hagues  Charles  Stanislas,  educationalist,  author; 

b.  April  1,1818;  d.  March  11. 
Colquhoun,  John,  author ;  b.  1805 ;  d.  May  27. 
Coote,   Henry  Charles,   antiquary,  scholar;    d.  Jan  4 

Mat.  70). 
Corrie,  Rev.  George  E.,  D.D., antiquary;  b.  April,  1793 ; 

d.  Sept.  20. 

Davies,  D.  C.,  geologist,  author ;  d.  Sept.  19. 
Ellacombe,  Rev.  Henry  Thomas,  antiquary ;  d.  July  30 

(aetat.  96). 

Ewing,  Mrs.  Juliana  Horatia,  authoress ;  d.  May  13. 
Falconer,  Rev.  William,  scientist,  linguist,  author;  b. 

1801 ;  d.  Feb. 
Fargus,  Fred.  J.  (" Hugh  Conway  "),  author;  d.  May  15 

(setat.  38). 

Farley,  J.  Lewis,  author ;  d.  Nov.  12. 
Flight,  Walter,  scholar,  scientist ;  d.  Nov.  6  (setat,  44). 
Gydry,  Wilhelm,  Hungarian  poet ;  d.  April  14. 
Haghe,  Louis,  artist ;  b.  (in  Belgium)  1806  ;  d.  March  9. 
Hood,  Rev.  Edwin  Paxton,  author  ;  b.  1820 ;  d.  June. 
Hugo,  Victor,  poet ;  b.  Feb.  26,  1802;  d.  May  22. 
Jackson,  Right  Rev.  John,  Bishop  of  Lincoln;  b.  Feb., 

1811 ;  d.  Jan.  6. 
Jackson,  Mrs.  W.  S.  ("H.  H.")»  American  authoress ; 

b.  Oct.  18, 1831 ;  d.  Aug.  12. 
Jacobsen,  J.  P.,  "  the  De  Quincey  of  Danish  literature  "; 

b.  April  7, 1847;  d.  April  30. 

Jeffreys,  Dr.  Gwyn,  scientist:  b.  Jan.  18, 1809  ;  d.  Jan.  24. 
Kaalund,  Hans  Vilhelra,  Danish  poet;  b.  1818;  d. 

April  26. 
Kalisch,  Dr.  M.  M.,  Jewish  scholar ;  d.  Aug.  23  (aetat.  57), 



I.  JAN.  23,  !86. 

Kavyelin,    Konstantin    Dmitrievich,  Russian  scholar 

b.  Nov.  15,1818;  d.  May  15. 
Kingston,  Alfred,  antiquary  ;  b.  1829  ;  d.  April. 
Kostomarof,  Nikolai  Ivanovich,  Russian  historian ;   b 

1817 ;  d.  April. 
Kozmian,  Stanislas,  translator  of  Shakspeare  into  Polish ; 

b.  April  21, 1818;  d.  April  23. 
Milnes,  Richard  Monckton  (Lord  Hough  ton),  author, 

poet ;  b.  1809  ;  d.  Aug.  11. 
Moberley,  Rev.  George,  Bishop  of  Salisbury ;  b.  1803  ; 

d.  July  6. 
Montefiore,  Sir  Moses,  philanthropist ;  b.  Oct.  24.  1784  ; 

d.  July  28. 
Munro,  Hugh  Andrew  Johnstone,  scholar,  author;  d. 

March  30. 
Neuville,  Alphonse  Marie  de,  artist;  b.  (St.  Omar)  1836; 

d.  May  19. 

Primrose,  Col.  Everard  Henry;  b.  Sept.  1848;  d.  April  8. 
Ralph,  John,  journalist ;  d.  Dec.  5  (aetat.  62). 
Richards,  Brinley,  musician ;  b.  1819  ;  d.  May. 
Rigaud,  Major-General  Gibbes,  antiquary  ;  d.  Jan.  1. 
Rosenberg,  Dr.  C.  P.  B.,  Danish  journalist;  b.  1828;  d. 

Dec.  3. 

Shairp,  John  Campbell,  poet,  critic ;  d.  Sept.  18. 
Siebold,  Carl  Theodor  Ernst  von,  scientist ;  b.  Feb.  16, 

1804  ;  d.  April  7. 
Thorns,  William  John,  antiquary,  author,   founder  of 

'N.  &Q.';  b.  1803;  d.  Aug.  15. 
Thorburn,  Robert,  A.R.A.,  artist;  b.  March,  1818;  d. 

Nov.  7. 
Trumpp,  Prof.  Ernst,  scholar ;  b.  CWurtemberg)  March 

13, 1828 ;  d.  April. 
Vaux,  William  Sandys  Wright,  antiquary,  scholar;  b. 

1818  ;d.  June  21. 

Walford,  Cornelius,  antiquary  ;  d.  Sept. 
Warner,  Miss  Susan,  authoress ;  b.  1818 ;  d.  April. 
Webb,  Rev.  Thomas  William,  author,  scientist ;  d.  May. 
White,  Richard  Grant,  American  journalist,  author ;  b. 

1822 ;  d.  April  (?)  (ajtat.  64). 
Wordsworth,    Rev.    Christopher,    Bishop  of    Lincoln, 

scholar,  author ;  b.  18C6 ;  d.  March  20. 
Woreaae,  Jens  Jacob  Asmussen,  archaeologist ;  b.  (Kejle) 

March  14, 1821 ;  d.  Aug.  15. 


I  built  me  a  chapel  in  Barnisdale 

That  seemly  is  to  see ; 
It  is  of  Mary  Magdalene, 

And  thereto  would  I  be. 

I  have  never  observed  comment  or  attempt  at  ex- 
planation of  the  very  definite  phrase  in  the  third 
line  of  this  verse  of  the  '  Ballad  of  Robin  Hood,' 
and  yet  it  seems  to  me  very  deserving  of  both. 
Barnsdale  is  more  than  a  geographical  expression, 
it  is  the  name  of  a  distinct  district  in  South  York- 
shire, between  Doncaster  and  Pontefract.  And 
the  question  deserves  consideration,  What  was  the 
position  of  the  chapel  in  Barnsdale,  the  foundation 
of  which  is  thus  claimed  by  Robin  Hood  as  having 
been  built  by  him,  and  dedicated  or  connected 
with  St.  Mary  Magdalene?  Now  it  is  remarkable 
that  all  the  conditions  of  the  verse  are  exactly  met 
by  just  such  a  chapel  in  this  district  (now,  however, 
the  church  of  a  new  parish),  and  its  date  corre- 
sponds, as  nearly  as  can  be  ascertained,  with  that  of 
Robin  Rood  (temp.  Rich.  I.). 

The  extra-parochial  chapel  of  Skelbrook  did  not 
exist  at  the  time  of  Domesday  (1086),  nor  was  it 
in  existence  when  the  townships  of  this  and  the 
neighbouring  wapentakes  were  (about  the  time  of 
Stephen  or  Henry  II.)  consolidated  into  parishes 
and  allotted  to  the  various  churches  then  existent. 
But  it  certainly  was  in  existence  when  the  York 
Diocesan  Records  commence,  about  1220.  It  was 
on  the  borders  of  three  parishes,  but  belonging  to 
none  ;  and,  moreover,  although  dedicated  to  St. 
Michael,  it  was  in  the  patronage  of  the  nunnery  of 
St.  Mary  Magdalene  at  Monk  Bretton  ;  and  the 
arms  of  that  convent — three  covered  cups,  for- 
merly a  part  of  the  western  window  in  the  tower — 
have  been  but  recently  (at  a  restoration  about  fif- 
teen years  ago)  removed  and  placed  over  the  porch. 
In  its  immediate  neighbourhood,  behind  Woodfield 
House,  Campsalls,  two  hundred  feet  above  sea- 
level,  according  to  the  six-inch  Ordnance  Survey  of 
Yorkshire — Robin  Hood's  well,  on  the  Great  North 
Road,  close  by,  being  but  eighty  feet — there  is  a 
high  land  called  to  this  day  Sayles  Wood,  the  view 
from  which  extends  to  beyond  Market  Weighton. 
It  is  this  hill  which  is  probably  referred  to  in  the 
poem  at  lines  76  and  830.  As  Robin  Hood's  men 
looked  from  the  Sayles  towards  Barnsdale,  the 
knight  was  coming  by  a  dune  way,  just  such  a 
way  as  leads  the  traveller  past  the  front  of 
Woodfield  House,  as  Sayles  Wood  is  behind. 

This  topographical  note  will,  I  trust,  not  be  with- 
out interest  to  many  who  are  already  interested  in 
the  Robin  Hood  ballads.  R.  H.  H. 


NEW  WORDS  IN  1808.— The  following  extract 
from  the  Satirist;  or,  Monthly  Meteor,  1808,  vol.  iii. 
p.  441,  may  be  of  service  to  Dr.  Murray,  if  he  has 
not  already  fallen  in  with  it.  It  occurs  in  a  critique 
of  the  Annual  Review,  a  publication  which  seems 
to  have  been  the  object  of  the  Satirist's  deadliest 
animosity.  A  large  proportion  of  the  words  it 
objects  to  are  amongst  the  most  familiar  in  our 
mouths  at  the  present  day : — 

'Our  first  specification  shall  consist  of  words  new- 
coined,  new-modelled,  or  employed  from  an  affectation 
of  singularity;  and  of  these  the  leading  class  comprises 
verbs  engrafted  on  the  fruitful  stock  of  the  termination 
izet  which  stands  so  conspicuous  among  '  that  myriad  of 
new  words,'  to  quote  the  Annual  Review*  itself,  'with 
which  the  French  Revolution,  and  the  French  science- 
mongerp,  have  inundated  European  literature.'  Of  this 
description  we  find  '  liberalized,  solitarized,  reprotestant- 
ized,  peculiarizes,  martializing,  all-barbarizing,  rebarbar- 
izing,  demoralizing,  Socinianizing,  uniformalizing,  and 
modernization': — '  preconized,'  though  quite  as  uncouth 
as  any  of  them,  perhaps  is  not  to  be  classed  by  its  ter- 
mination. The  rest,  which  we  shall  not  take  much 
trouble  in  arranging,  are,  '  by-gone,  f  tiffs,  tomes,  based, 

'•  "  P.  660  of  the  volume  last  published  (the  sixth);  to 
which,  it  is  hardly  necessary  to  mention,  these  observa- 
tions are  applied." 

f  "  We  beg  to  have  it  understood,  that  we  by  no  means 
ntend  to  point  out  every  one  of  the  words  in  these  lists 

7th  S.  I.  JAN.  23,  '86.] 



motived,  hatred?,  apings,  intercourses,  proses,  stabile, 
driftless,  obtainal,  retainal,  correctional,  ancestrial  [«'c], 
vaticinal,  monopolous,  euphonous,  autonomous,  autoch- 
thonous, autopsy,  moratory,  appendicatory,  convul- 
sionary,  denary,  ponderosity,  religiosity,  paternity, 
senility,  longanimity,  consentaneity,  rivality,  localities, 
plasticities,  antagonistic,  monotheistic,  liturgic,  micro- 
logical,  neologic,  etymologikon,  cosmopolitical,  cohabit- 
ants, circulable,  ornate,  evulgate,  registrators.  con- 
frontation, expatriation,  regnrgitation,  oonvictive, 
descensive.  subsecive.  pervasiveness,  incorrigibleness, 
statesmanship,  connoisseurahip,  pietists,  provincialism, 
savagism,  carnivorism,  tyrannously,  analogously,  shrink- 
jngly,  rememberably,*  unpicturesque,  unreluctant,  un- 
drying,  impatriotic,  imprecision,  inappropriate,  inter- 
reign,  interdeal,  disadvise,  discountenance  (as  a  sub- 
stantive), influencing  (as  a  mere  adjective),  pre-establish- 
ment  (for  previous  religious  establishment),  remade, 
redaction,  chorussed,  chieftaincy,  meddlesome,  bepraise- 
ments,  scriggling,  glossology,  obsolesce,  reminiscences, 
diatribe,  decennium.  mimesis,  nimbus,  and  lacunas.'  To 
these  we  may  add  the  sesquipedalian  '  uncharacteristic- 
ally' and  '  Constantinopolitan  ':— the  compounds  '  anti- 
catholics,  anti-papistical,  non-repeal,  non-consultation, 
over-abhorred,  over-utterance,  fore-ordained,  all-absolv- 
ing, all-involving,  self-immolating,  life-writing,  fellow- 
creedsmen,  tonguesmen.  sccience-mongers,  torture- 
mongers,  business-like,  ill  minded,  stem-tribes,  branch- 
banks,  street-banking,  citizen-bankrupts,  and  robber- 
virtues';— -the  orthographical  improvements  '  philan- 
throp&y  (p.  276,  288),  West/alia,  and  mos£s ';  the 
comparative  '  bitterer ';  and  the  superlatives  '  properest ' 
and  '  though  fullest.' " 

Of  the  verbs  ending  in  ize,  Little"  observes  of 
cUmoraliser  that  "  Ce  mot  n'etait  pas  connu  avant 
la  Involution."  The  remainder,  with  the  excep. 
tion  of  modernization  (also  a  neologism  in  French) 
hardly  appear  to  have  struck  root  in  English. 

W.  F.  P. 

— I  have  noticed  a  very  curious  misapprehension 
on  p.  54  of  this  book,  which  has,  oddly,  escaped  the 
careful  editor.  The  argument  is  that  good  fame 
cannot  be  taken  away  from  a  man  by  slander, 
because  the  good  fame,  or  good  name,  is  laid  up 
safely  in  the  presence  of  God.  The  Latin  is  : — 

as  essentially  vicious.  Our  only  object  is,  to  expose  the 
coxcombical  pedantry  of  raking  together,  within  such  a 
compass,  so  many  words  distinguished  by  their  singularity 
alone  from  multitudes  of  others  that  would  have  been  at 
least  equally  well  adapted  for  the  particular  purpose." 

*  " '  A  ce  trait-la  je  te  reconnois,  Santillane  !  '  cries 
Fabricio  to  Gil  Bias  on  a  very  different  occasion  ;  and 
this  single  word  would  have  effectually  served,  if  any- 
thing  had  here  been  wanting,  to  recall  to  our  mind  a 
grotesque  genius  whom  we  first  noticed  four  or  five  years 
ago,  figuring  in  the  Critical  Review  at  that  time ;  par- 
ticularly in  translations  from  Klopstock  and  Wieland,  in 
those  numbers  appropriated  to  foreign  works,,  We  have 
since  undeviatingly  tracked  him  (for  he  always  leaves  a 
strong  trail)  in  various  periodical  publications;  but  the 
last  time  we  were  led  more  peculiarly  to  notice  him,  was 
in  the  article  on  Mr.  Southey's  '  Madoc,'  in  a  volume  of 
the  A  nnual  Review,  where  remember  able,  and  unforgettable 
stood  conspicuous  among  much  other  trash  of  the  same 

"  Quarto  patet  quod  non  est  possibile  diffamare  jus- 
turn  nisi  peccando  excidat  a  virtute.  Patet  sic  :  Omnis 
fama  creature  servatur  aput  Deum  proporcionaliter  ad 
virtutem  ;  sed  non  est  possibile  creaturam  famam  istam 
a  Deo  tollere,  stante  dignitate;  ergo  conclusio.  Unde 
falsum  est  quod  mencientes  denigrant  famam  constants, 
cuna  inscripta  sit  libro  vite,  qui  est  speculum  fine  macula 
(Sapiencie  vii.  26) :  sed,  ad  propriurn  modum  loquendi 
Verbi  veritatis  (Math.  v.  11).  mencientes  scandalizati  sunt 
in  justo,  et  secundum  Aristoteleui  f  sicut  tetragous  sive 

The  editor  has  used  the  obelus  according  to  his 
rule,  p.  xviii,  as  marking  a  "passage  which 
appears  to  be  corrupt,  but  in  which  he  has  been 
unable  to  propose  any  satisfactory  emendation." 
And  he  gives  a  foot-note  thus,  "  Tetragous. — Can 
Wycliffe  mean  KaK-rjyopos  1 " 

The  needful  emendation  is  simple  ;  the  passage 
is  a  reference  to  Aristotle,  '  Nicomachean  Ethics,' 
i.  (10)  11,  §  11,  6  y'  d)5  aA,?7#ws  dya$os  /cat 
Terpaywvos  avev  i/soyov,  the  truly  good,  man  and 
"faultless  cube";  which  some  one  rendered  "a 
regular  brick. '  The  text  should  be  emended  so  as 
to  read  "  tetragonus  sine  vituperio,"a  square  without 
a  fault,  which  I  have  no  doubt  may  be  found  in  some 
Latin  Aristotle.  Tetragonus  or  tetragonum  is  found 
in  late  Latin,  and  vituperium  may  be  seen  in  Scapula 
as  a  rendering  of  ^oyos,  and  in  return  in  Facciolati 
vituperium  is  glossed  by  j/-oyos.  The  editor  has 
read  vitupero,  a  nominative,  hence  Ka/o?yopos, 
which  I  fancy  is  not  a  very  good  guess  for  Aris- 
totle. Possibly  the  writer  of  the  MS.  misunder- 
stood the  expression,  as  others,  cf.  p.  x ;  but  I  have 
no  doubt  Wiclif  was  struck  by  the  likeness  to 
"speculum  sine  macula," the  unspotted  mirror,  and 
he  was  very  well  acquainted  with  Aristotle,  and 
constantly  quotes  him.  The  last  sentence,  then, 
reads  thus  : — 

"  It  is  untrue,  therefore,  that  men,  when  they  speak 
falsely,  blacken  the  fame  of  a  consistently  good  man,  for 
that  fame  is  written  in  the  book  of  life,  and  the  good 
man  is  '  a  mirror  unspotted  '  (Wisdom  vii.  26),  but  to  use 
his  manner  of  speaking  who  is  the  word  of  truth  (Matt. 
v.  11),  speaking  falsely  they  speak  evil  against  the  man 
who  is  just,  and,  in  the  words  of  Aristotle, '  as  it  were  a 
faultless  cube.' " 

0.  W.  TANCOCK. 

I  hope  this  early  mention  of  book-plates  in  Eng- 
land (the  thing,  at  least,  if  not  the  name)  may 
be  interesting  to  collectors.  I  do  not  know  an 
earlier : — 

"  I  was  led  into  this  Comparison  from  the  Curiota 
Felicitas  of  those,  whose  Way  it  is  to  paste  their  Arms 
and  Titles  of  Honour  on  the  Reverse  of  Title  Pages, 
which  shews  the  Affinity  of  the  two."—'  The  Right  of 
Precedence,  &c.,'written  by  Dr.  Swift,  printed  at  Dublin 
in  the  year  1720. 

T.  W.  CARSON. 

CURIOUS  SURNAMES. — In  1753  administration 
was  granted  (P.  C.  Chester)  to  the  effects  of  "  John 
Brasskettle  of  Bowden,  husbandman,  deceased," 
which  name  is  doubtless  a  corruption  of  Brace- 



[7'h  S.  I.  JAN.  28,  '86. 

girdle,  spelt  also  Brassgirdle.  Among  the  licences 
issued  from  the  Vicar  General's  Office  was  one  for 
the  marriage  of  "Jeremiah  Eightshilling  and 
Susannah  Aryier,"  dated  July  25,  1666. 


"  Mm,  the  xii  Day  of  Apl  Ano  1587,  were  brent  at 
Smithfeld  fyve  Persons  for  Heresy  &  all  of  sondry 
Opynyons  :  One,  holdyng  that  Chryst  was  not  yet  cum  : 
Another,  that  He  was  not  yet  ascended :  Another,  that 
He  was  not  equall  with  the  Father  in  godhead.  The 
fourth,  that  a  child  begotten  betwene  a  christen  man  and 
woman  was  christened  in  the  Mother's  Bely  &  ought  no 
otherwise  to  be  christened :  and  the  vth  held  that  all 
men's  wyveg  ought  to  be  comon  to  all  men  &  no  man  to 
have  a  wyfe  sevrall."— Add.  MS.  (Cole)  5860,  p.  284. 

If  this  note  be  historically  accurate,  there  are 
other  cases  of  burning  for  heresy  since  the  Reforma- 
tion than  those  mentioned  in  Tomlin's  'Law 
Diet./  vol.  i.,  sub  "  Heresy  ":  "There  are  instances 
of  the  writ  de  heretico  comburendo  being  put  in 
execution  upon  two  Anabaptists  in  the  seventeenth 
of  Elizabeth  and  two  Arians  in  the  ninth  of 
James  I."  J.  MASKELL. 


When  I  went  away  at  Michaelmas  day, 
The  barns  were  full  of  corn  and  hay ; 
When  I  came  back  at  Ladyday, 
'Twas  winnow-winnow-winnowed  all  away. 

This  is  the  interpretation  of  the  song  of  the 
"  haying-bird,"  as  given  to  it  in  Sussex  fifty  and 
more  years  ago,  according  to  the  information  of 
a  native  of  the  county.  On  hearing  it  I  was  struck 
with  the  close  resemblance  of  the  words  to  those 
of  the  swallow's  song,  as  current  in  Western  and 
Central  Germany  (and  probably  in  other  provinces 
of  the  Fatherland),  and  made  immortal  by  Ruckert 
in  one  of  his  best-known  songs  : — 

Als  ich  Abschied  nahm,  als  ich  Abschied  nahm, 

Waren  Kisten  und  Kasten  schwer ; 

Als  ich  wiederkam,  als  ich  wiederkam, 

War  Alles,  Alles  leer. 

It  is  remarkable  that  the  close  resemblance  of 
the  words  is  accompanied  by  a  difference  of  sound, 
strikingly  characteristic  of  the  notes  of  the  songsters 
to  which  these  words  are  respectively  attributed  ; 
for  whilst  the  English  lines,  with  their  rise  of  an 
octave  on  the  accented  words,  are  extremely  melli- 
fluous, those  of  the  German  version  of  the  swallow's 
song  excellently  imitate  the  twitter  of  that  bird. 
It  would  be  interesting  if  any  of  your  readers 
could  tell  us  if  one  of  the  above  versions  is  an 
adaptation  of  the  other,  or  whether  we  must 
assume  that  both,  much  changed,  it  may  be,  form 
part  of  the  common  stock  of  Saxon  speech,  and 
date  back  to  a  time  previous  to  the  settlement  of 
the  "  South  Saxons  "  in  England  ;  for  an  inde- 
pendent development  of  the  same  idea  in  almost 
identical  words  seems  highly  improbable. 

W.  B. 

Finchley  Road. 

author  of  a  Latin  poem  entitled  'Londinum  Heroico 
Carmine  Perlustratum,'  which  in  Allibone's  '  Dic- 
tionary of  English  Literature '  is  erroneously 
ascribed  to  John  Adams,  the  topographer  and 
author  of  'Index  Villaris.'  The  few  biograph- 
ical particulars  we  possess  about  him  are  contained 
in  a  letter  of  Dr.  Basire  to  Dr.  Barlow,  dated 
July  10,  1670.  The  writer  recommends  the 
"  bearer,  Mr.  Joannes  Adami,  an  Hungarian,  once 
my  boy,  when  I  had  the  Divinity  Chaire  in 
Transylvania  for  seven  years,"  to  his  friend's 
"wonted  <£iAo£en'a."  Dr.  Basire  also  informs 
us  that  he  has  procured  his  prot&ge,  "a  place 
among  the  King's  guards,  till  it  please  God  to 
open  to  him  a  door  of  hope  for  an  honest  post- 
liminium  into  his  own  country,  Transylvania, 
harassed  by  Turks  and  Tartars."  Lowndes,  too, 
calls  our  author  "John  Adams";  it  should  be 
"  A'dami,"  with  two  acute  accents.  I  am  glad  to 
see  that  the  new  'Dictionary  of  National  Bio- 
graphy '  has  not  copied  the  blunder.  L.  L.  K. 


FRANCE. — Parliamentary  trains  exist,  so  it  seems, 
in  France  as  well  as  in  England,  but  the  meaning 
is  very  different.  In  England  a  parliamentary 
train  is  a  train  established  by  Act  of  Parliament 
for  the  benefit  of  third-class  passengers,  and  by 
which  they  can  travel  at  the  rate  of  a  penny  a  mile 
(I  say  this  for  the  benefit  of  future  generations,  as 
the  expression  is  sure  to  lapse).  In  France  a  par- 
liamentary train  (traine  parlementaire)  is  a  train 
specially  reserved  for  the  use  of  members  of  both 
houses  of  Parliament,  or  chiefly  used  by  them. 
Thus,  in  the  Figaro  of  December  29  I  find  the 
special  trains  reserved  for  the  use  of  those  deputies 
and  senators  who  went  down  on  the  28th  to  Ver- 
sailles to  take  part  in  the  congress  convoked  for 
the  purpose  of  electing  a  new  president,  called 
"  traines  parlementaires  sp^ciaux." 


Sydenham  Hill. 

JAW. — Prof.  Skeat,  in  his  article  on  the  word 
jaw  in  the  '  Etyrn.  Diet./  gives  the  weight  of 
his  authority  to  the  view  that  the  word  is  of 
English  origin,  and  that  it  is  a  development  of 
the  word  chaw  (spelt  also  chtwe\  which  he  derives 
from  the  verb  chaw  or  chew.  This  account  of  tho 
relation  of  the  form  jaw  to  the  form  chaw  appears 
to  me  to  be  in  conflict  with  the  evidence  furnished 
by  the  history  of  the  words.  So  far  as  I  know, 
chaw,  mandibula,  is  a  word  unknown  to  Middle 
English;  it  is  not  to  be  found  in  Matzner; 
the  dictionaries  give  no  earlier  citation  for  the 
form  than  a  passage  from  Udall's  'Erasmus,' 
written  about  the  middle  of  the  sixteenth  cen- 
tury. See  Wright's  'Bible  Word  Book.'  The 
M.E.  forms  of  jaw  are  iowe,jawe,  also  geowe;  see 

7<»>  g.  I.  JAN.  23,  '86.] 



Skeat  (I.e.),  where  citations  are  given  from  the 
'  Prompt.  Parv.,'  Chaucer,  and  Trevisa.  How  can 
these  early  M.E.  forms  be  held  to  be  later  de- 
velopments of  the  Tudor  chaw  ?  I  believe  that 
the  word  jaw  is  not  of  English,  but  of  French 
origin,  and  that  it  is  identical  with  the  mod.  F. 
joue.  Two  very  common  forms  of  this  word  in 
O.F.  were  joe — as  in  the  '  Chanson  de  Roland,'  in 
'  Aucassin,'  and  in  the  Metz  Psalter — and  iowe  ; 
cp.  Ps.  cxviii.  103  of  the  same  Psalter.  From  the 
form  joe  would  come  the  M.E.  jawe  (found  in 
Trevisa),  just  as  paw  comes  from  an  O.F.  poe. 
The  O.F.  iowe  occurs  in  M.E. — in  the  '  Prompt. 
Parv.'  and  in  Chaucer's  'Boethius.'  For  the 
etymology  of  O.F.  joe  see  Brachet's  '  Dictionary.' 

A.  L.  MAYHEW. 

We  must  request  correspondents  desiring  information 
on  family  matters  of  only  private  interest,  to  affix  their 
names  and  addresses  to  their  queries,  in  order  that  the 
answers  may  be  addressed  to  them  direct. 

COLLEGIUM  GRASSINJEUM. — What,  and  where, 
and  when  was  this  institution  ?  The  name  is 
found  stamped  on  the  back  of  a  copy  of  the 
'  Noctes  Atticse '  of  Aulus  Gellius  (belonging  to 
my  father),  printed  "  Apud  Seb.  Gryphium, 
Lugduni,  1555."  On  the  title-page  is  written, 
by  an  eighteenth  century  hand,  "Tho.  Strat- 
ton."  The  book  is  a  small  octavo,  bound  in 
brown  leather,  stamped  with  fleurs-de-lys  within  a 
floriated  border.  In  the  centre  of  either  face  is  an 
oval  device  (occupying  about  a  third  of  the  area) 
consisting  of  a  shield  bearing  three  branches  of 
lily;  over  the  shield  is  a  label,  with  the  words 
"Lilium  inter  spinos";  and  below  it  is  another 
label  bearing  the  words  "Collegium  Grassinaeum." 
Round  the  shield  and  outside  the  labels  is  a  crown 
of  thorns.  I  should  be  glad  to  know  what  is  the 
explanation  of  this  device  as  illustrating  the  his 
tory  of  the  volume.  .  A.  F.  HERFORD. 


PLAYS. — I  have  an  eight-page  pamphlet  (sm.  4to.), 

1  A  Declaration  of  the  Lords  and  Commons .for 

the  appeasing  and  quietting  Unlawfull  Tumults 
and  Insurrections  in  the  Severall  Counties  of  Eng- 
land and  in  Wales.  Also  An  Ordinance  of  Both 
Houses  for  the  suppressing  of  Stage  Plays,'  signed 
by  John  Brown,  Clerk  Parliament,  dated  Sept.  3 
1642.  Donne  gives  the  date  as  1641.  Can  any 
of  your  readers  inform  me  if  this  was  issued  and 
printed  as  an  Order  of  Parliament  before  1642 ;  or 
is  my  copy  the  first  form  in  which  it  was  printed  ' 

J.  W.  JARVIS. 

Avon  House,  Manor  Road,  Holloway. 

*  CHOICE  NOTES.'— In  1858  '  Choice  Notes  from 
Notes  and  Queries,'  on  *  History,'  and  in  th< 

bllowing  year  a  companion  volume  on  '  Folk-lore,' 

were  published  by  Bell  &  Daldy,  similar  volumes 

n   biography,  literature,  proverbs,  ballads,   &c., 

being  stated  to  be  "in  preparation."     Were  any 

of  these  latter  volumes  ever  issued  ;  and,  if  not, 

why  was  the  publishing  of  them  discontinued? 

Dhe  two  above-mentioned  volumes  were  selected 

rom,  and  on  the  completion  of,  the  first  series  of 

N.  &  Q./  and  are  convenient  for  reference. 

[The  issue  was  confined  to  two  volumes.] 

STOCK. — Can  anything  be  learned  relative  to 
John  Stock,  a  painter  at  the  Royal  Dockyard  ?  He 
died  1781,  and  has  a  tablet  in  Christ  Church, 
Newgate  Street.  C.  A.  WARD. 

Haverstock  Hill. 

AUTHORSHIP  OF  STORY. — A  troop  of  cavalry 
was  charging  through  a  village  street,  and  there 
was  a  little  child  in  the  way,  who  would  have  been 
ridden  over  but  that  one  of  the  foremost  soldiers 
stooped  down,  caught  him  up,  placed  him  before 
him,  and  went  through  the  engagement  unhurt. 
I  have  read  of  the  incident  somewhere,  but  cannot 
remember  where.  A.  P.  D. 

24,  Penn  Road  Villas,  N. 

[We  fancy  we  read  this  in  a  poem  concerning  the 
American  Civil  War.] 

CAFFLING.— I  find  this  word,  which  is  new  to 
me,  in  a  letter  to  a  Lincolnshire  newspaper,  having 
reference  to  some  squabble  at  an  election  meeting. 
The  phrase  in  which  it  occurs  is  as  follows: — "Mr. 
W — ,  after  some  oaffling,  declared  he  did  not  say" 
so  and  so.  I  presume  that  it  is  used  in  the  sense 
of  "evasion,"  or  (colloquially)  "shuffling."  Pro- 
bably some  of  your  readers  may  know  more  about 
it.  '  C.  B.  S. 

JOHN  WILKES. — Information  is  wanted  concerning 
the  daughter  of  Dr.  Richard  Mead,  who  married 
the  celebrated  John  Wilkes.  There  was  one 
daughter  of  that  marriage.  Did  she  marry,  and 
whom  did  she  marry  ?  Had  she  a  family,  and  to 
whom  did  she  leave  her  property  ?  S.  W.  H. 


WELSH,  OR  GOOSEBERRY  FAIR,  held  near  the 
Spa  Fields,  is  mentioned,  according  to  Mr.  Thorn- 
bury  (ii.  302)— quoting  Pink,  'Camberwell/  p.  152, 
I  suppose,  though  he  does  not  say  so — as  early 
as  1744,  "about  which  time,"  he  adds,  "it  was 
removed  to  Barnet."  Now  in  what  way  was  it 
removed  ?.  What  kind  of  fair  was  Welsh  Fair  ? 
There  ought  to  be  some  mention  of  it  long  before 
1744,  when  it  was  on  the  point  of  removal  to 
Barnet.  There  was  a  fair  at  Chipping  Barnet 
granted  to  the  abbots  of  St.  Alban's  by  Henry  II., 
which  is  to  this  day  a  great  cattle  and  horse  fair. 
Was  the  Welsh  Fair  a  horse  fair  ?  Has  Pink  any 



I.  JAN.  23,  '36. 

authority  for  saying  it  went  to  Barnet  ?    Suffice 
it  to  say  he  gives  none.  C.  A.  WARD. 

Haveratock  Hill. 

WILLIAM  WOOLLETT. — This  famous  engraver  is 
said  to  have  been  born  at  Maidstone  in  1735.  Is 
this  certain  ?  I  ask  the  question  because  in  the 
registers  of  St.  Dunstan's,  Canterbury,  I  find  the 
following  entry  :  "  1736.  William,  son  of  William 
&  Eliz.  Woolett,  was  baptised  May  2."  If  there  is 
any  record  in  the  Maidstone  registers  relating  to 
him,  I  have  no  more  to  say ;  but  if  there  is  no 
record,  I  should  feel  inclined  to  claim  him  as  a 
Canterbury  man.  J.  M.  COWPER. 


THE  "TABARD"  INN.— I  should  like  to  put  a 
question  to  some  of  your  readers  concerning  the 
view  of  the  "  Tabard,"  in  Southwark,  prefixed  to 
Urry's  'Chaucer.'  I  think  it  can  scarcely  be 
received  as  a  picture  of  the  inn  of  1721.  Urry, 
however,  makes  no  mention  of  the  source  whence 
he  had  it.  My  supposition — it  is  nothing  more — 
is  that  perhaps  he  saw  some  sketch  of  the  "Tabard" 
as  it  existed  before  the  fire  of  1676,  and  adopted  it 
for  his  '  Chaucer.'  It  can  scarcely  be  a  mere  fancy 
sketch.  WM.  KENDLE. 

•  WENTWORTH  OF  GOSFIELD. — Sir  John  Went- 
worth,  Bart.,  of  Gosfield,  co.  Essex,  died  in  1631, 
s.p.m.,  having  dissipated  his  estate.  He  is  not 
buried  in  the  Wentworth  Chapel  of  Gosfield  Church. 
Does  any  reader  know  where  he  died,  and  where 
buried  ?  W.  L.  K. 

looking  over  some  corporation  records,  I  found  it 
stated  that  towards  the  end  of  the  reign  of  Queen 
Elizabeth  it  was  resolved  that  marriage  dinners 
should  not  in  future  be  held  at  the  Moot  Hall 
without  the  special  licence  of  the  bailiffs  and  the 
majority  of  the  portmen.  Was  it  usual  in  other 
towns  to  celebrate  marriage  festivals  at  the  Town 
Hall;  and,  if  so,  where  can  I  see  an  account  of  such 
a  custom  ?  G.  J.  H. 

STANGNI.— May  I  ask  an  explanation  and  the 
derivation  of  this  term  ?  It  occurs  in  a  charter, 
circa  1260  :  "  Et  de  dono  meo  ut  capiant  terrain 
ad  reparationem  stangni  molendini  inter  viam  de 
Buttriscote  et  molendinum  usque  ad  pontem  de 
Thame."  I  should  be  glad  also  to  know  the  pro- 
bable derivation  of  the  first  part  of  the  name 
Buttriscote.  In  1218  it  was  styled  Budescote,  in 
1524  Bitturscote,  and  has  now  become  Bitterscote. 

H.  N. 

[la  not  this  for  stagni=pool.  See  Ducange,  s.v. 
"  Stangnum."] 

STANDING  AT  PRAYERS.— In  our  parish  church, 
Sunday  morning,  January  10,  the  congregation  all 
with  one  accord  stood  up  during  the  reading  of 

the  Lord's  Prayer  in  the  second  lesson.  It  occurred 
to  me  it  would  have  been  more  reverent  had  we 
all  knelt  down,  as  we  do  when  the  prayer  occurs  in 
the  service.  There  must  be  some  reason  for  this. 
Is  it  a  relic  of  the  old  days  of  the  Commonwealth, 
when  the  Liturgy  now  in  use  was  suspended  ? 

BROWNE. — In  what  museum  is  the  skull  of  Sir 
Thomas  Browne  to  be  seen,  since  the  desecration 
of  1840?  C.  A.  WARD. 

Haverstock  Hill. 

FICTITIOUS  NAMES. — Mr.  Edward  Denham,  of 
Massachusetts,  U.S.,  has  asked  me  to  insert  in 
'  N.  &  Q.'  the  following  question:—"  In  the  '  New 
Kepublic,'  by  W.  H.  Mallock,  what  are  the  real 
names  of  the  fictitious  characters  introduced  ? " 
If  any  correspondent  will  answer  this  question,  he 
will  greatly  oblige  Mr.  Denham,  who  is  a  member 
of  fourteen  or  fifteen  historical  societies. 


SCOTCH  RELIGIOUS  HOUSES. — Can  any  corre- 
spondent inform  me  whether  Paisley  was  one  of 
the  Scotch  Benedictine  cells,  and  if  it  was  sup- 
pressed at  the  time  of  John  Knox  ?  W. 

OF  CHICHESTER. — Are  there  any  now  existing  ?  He 
was  son  of  John  King,  Bishop  of  London.  Henry 
King's  sister,  Elizabeth,  became  wife  of  Edward 
Holte,  of  Aston  (see  '  Extinct  Baronetage ').  Dr. 
Henry  King  was  executor  to  John  Donne,  Dean 
of  St.  Paul's  tempo  James  I.  C.  COITMORE. 

The  Lodge,  Yarpole,  Leominster. 

MANORS  IN  ENGLAND. — Is  there  any  printed 
book  or  MS.  which  gives  a  complete  list  of  them, 
showing  also  the  parish,  hundred,  and  county  in 
which  they  are  situated  ?  C.  M. 

BATTERY  WORK. — Can  any  of  your  readers  say 
where  the  ancient  records  of  this  company  now 
are?  X.  Y.  Z. 

A  "SHEPSTER"  IN  1552.  — An  indenture  of 
apprenticeship,  dated  1552,  is  thus  worded: — 
"  Hsec  Indentura  testatur  qd  ffranciscus  D— , 
filius  Richardi  D — ,  armigeri,  posuit  se  ipsam 
Apprent*  Rogero  Myners,  civi  et  Cloth  worker 
Lond'  et  Johanna  uxor'  eius  shepst'  ad  arteni 
ejusdem  Johanna  qua  utit'  erud', "  &c.,  from  the 
Feast  of  St.  James  the  Apostle  (July  25)  to  Ed- 
ward VI.  (1552),  for  the  term  of  seven  years. 
Does  "  shepster  "  here  mean  "  a  sheep-shearer,"  as 
given  by  Halliwell;  or  does  it  mean  "a  worker  in 
wool "  ?  and  is  it  not  unusual  for  a  man  to  bind 
himself  apprentice  to  a  woman  ?  Can  other  in- 
stances of  "  shepster  "  be  given  ?  J.  P.  E. 

MRS.  PARSONS.— In  1798  a  novel  in  three 
volumes  was  published  by  Longman,  Paternoster 

7*  S.  I.  JAN.  23,  '86.] 



Row,  entitled  "'  Anecdotes  of  Two  well-known 
Families/  Written  by  a  Descendant,  and  De- 
dicated to  the  First  Female  Pen  in  England. 
Prepared  for  the  Press  by  Mrs.  Parsons,  Author  of 
'An  Old  Friend  with  a  New  Face,'"  &c.  The 
principal  feature  of  the  story  is  that  a  nobleman  of 
large  property,  having  no  male  heir,  and  having 
two  children  born  to  him  at  the  same  time — one,  a 
son,  illegitimate,  and  the  other  a  daughter,  by  his 
own  wife — by  bribery  and  influence  effected  an 
exchange  of  the  infants.  The  son,  however,  dying 
before  the  father,  the  daughter  was  restored  to  her 
proper  rights  and  position.  Does  any  reader  of 
'  N.  &  Q.'  happen  to  know  what  families  ure  re- 
ferred to  ?  The  scene  appears  be  in  Scotland. 
And  who  was  Mrs.  Parsons  ?  J.  E.  J. 

BRISTOL  POTTERY,  including  Stoneware.  When 
and  by  whom  first  introduced  1 

F.  P.  H.  HUGHES. 

Where  shall  I  most  probably  find  the  literary 
remains  (manuscripts,  &c.)  of  the  Rev.  Wm. 
Symonds '  (died  1613?),  Eev.  Richard  Hakluyt 
(1616),  Rev.  Samuel  Purchas  (1628),  and  of  the 
Rev.  Peter  Peckard,  D.D.,  Master  of  Magdalen 
College,  Cambridge,  in  1790?  If  any  of  their 
remains  are  still  in  existence  I  shall  be  glad  to 
correspond  with  the  present  owner,  or  owners, 
with  especial  reference  to  early  Virginia  data. 

Norwood  P.O.,  Nelson  County,  Virginia,  TJ.S. 

VOLUME  OF  SERMONS.  —  In  the  library  of 
Harvard  College,  in  Cambridge,  Massachusetts, 
there  is  a  volume  containing  farewell  sermons 
preached  by  Nonconformists  after  the  passing  of 
the  Act  of  Uniformity  in  1662.  Only  a  fragment 
of  the  title-page  remains,  on  which  can  be  made 

out  the  following: — u [b]ein[g]  collection]  of 

farewel   sermo[ns]   preached    by   divers   non-con- 

formi[sts]  in  the  count [ry] "      The  names  of 

the  writers  have  been  filled  in  in  MS.  They  are 
Whitlock,  Barrett,  Hieron,  Cross,  Shaw,  and 
others.  In  Calamy's  *  Nonconformists'  Memorial ' 
the  book  is  referred  to  as  the  "Country  Collec- 
tion ";  but  the  full  title  is  not  given,  and  I  have 
not  been  able  to  find  it  in  bibliographical  sources, 
though  the  titles  of  similar  collections  are  given 
in  several  catalogues.  I  shall  be  much  obliged  to 
any  one  who  can  furnish  the  full  title,  with  imprint. 

W.  C.  LANE. 
Harvard  College  Library,  Cambridge,  Mass.,  U.S. 


—Can  any  reader  of  '  N.  &  Q.'  give  me  informa- 
tion regarding  the  following  extract  from  the 
Universal  Magazine  of  October,  1754  ? — "  Dun- 

stan  Borough  Castle now  in  ruins.     The  soil 

is  not  remarkably  fruitful,  nor  are  any  diamonds 
found  there,  as  has  been  lately  asserted."  It  is 

quoted  in  the  Gentleman's  Magazine  of  February, 
1756.  E.  R.  W. 

Bradford,  Yorka. 

HOOD'S  'BRIDGE  OF  SIGHS.' — Can  you  kindly 
inform  me,  through  the  medium  of  your  journal, 
in  what  magazine  or  periodical  Hood's  '  Bridge  of 
Sighs '  first  appeared,  and  the  date  of  the  year  and 
the  month  ?  A  BOOK  LOVER. 

BECKFORD'S  '  VATHEK.' — The  author  of  this 
most  remarkable  book  says,  in  the  preface  to  his 
(French)  edition,  published  in  June,  1815,  that  the 
translation  (in  English),  as  we  know,  appeared 
before  the  original ;  that  it  is  easy  to  believe  that 
this  had  not  been  his  intention  ;  and  that  it  was 
brought  about  by  "  circumstances  of  little  interest 
to  the  public."  What  were  those  circumstances? 
I  think  it  would  be  now  very  interesting  to  know 
their  nature.  In  the  case  of  a  wealthy  author 
like  Beckford,  it  is  not  probable  that  the  pressure 
of  a  publisher's  influence  or  obstinacy  can  have 
been  the  cause  of  such  a  departure  from  his  original 
plan.  The  English  translation  appeared  in  London, 
1786.  I  have  a  copy  of  the  French  (original) 
edition,  Paris,  1787,  8vo.  Beckford  says,  in  the 
1815  preface  quoted  above,  that  the  editions  of 
Paris  and  Lausanne  were  (already)  extremely 
rare.  Is  the  Lausanne  edition  the  same  book  as 
that  of  Paris,  with  a  different  title  ;  or  in  what 
respects  does  it  differ  ?  JULIAN  MARSHALL. 

GISTER.—Will  any  reader  of  '  N.  &  Q.'  kindly 
tell  me  (1)  the  date  of  Colquhoun's  birth  ;  (2)  the 
date  when  he  assumed  the  name  of  Colquhoun  in 
lieu  of  Campbell  ;  (3)  the  place  of  his  burial  ? 

G.  F.  R.  B. 

"LEAPS  AND  BOUNDS." — Mr.  Green,  in  his 
'  Short  History  of  the  English  People '  (chap.  x. 
section  iv.),  speaking  of  Pitt's  administration, 
says,  "  The  public  debt  rose  by  leaps  and  bounds." 
Is  not  this  mere  tautology  ?  Is  there  any  difference 
between  a  leap  and  a  bound  ?  J.  DIXON. 

CASTLES.— Can  any  reader  of  'N.  &  Q.'  give 
me  a  list  of  the  forty-eight  castles  built  in  Eng- 
land by  William  the  Conqueror  ?  Direct  answers 
will  greatly  oblige.  C.  H.  SANDERS. 

H.M.S.  Sultan,  Channel  Squadron. 

anxious  to  know  the  date  of  his  birth  and 
when  he  was  admitted  to  the  Privy  Council.  On 
this  latter  point  there  seems  to  be  a  considerable 
difference  of  opinion  amongst  the  authorities. 
Where  is  his  "  portrait  when  at  the  age  of  74,  in 
1590,"  which,  according  to  'Excursions  through 
Suffolk,',  used  to  hang  in  the  dining-room  of  old 
Brome  Hall?  G.  F.  R.  B. 



[7'b  S.  I.  JAN.  23,  '86. 

ORIGIN  OF  SATING. — What  is  the  rationale  of 
the  clause,  "If  the  worst  come  to  the  worst," 
meaning,  If  the  worst  thing  possible  should 
happen  ?  LESLIE  WAGGENER,  Prof,  of  Eng. 

University  of  Texas. 

This  prayer  is  well  known,  and  runs  as  follows : — 

O  Domine  Deus,  speravi  in  Te. 

O  care  mi  Jesu  nunc  libera  me. 

In  dura  catena,  in  misera  poena, 

Desidero  Te. 

Languendo,  gemendo,  et  genuflectendo 

Adoro,  imploro,  ut  liberes  me. 

Which  may  be  translated  :  — 

O  Lord  !  0  my  God  1  I  have  trusted  in  Thee. 

0  Jeau!  Beloved!  deliver  Thou  me. 
A  prisoner  friendless, 

In  misery  endless, 

1  weary  for  Thee. 

In  sighing,  in  crying,  before  Thy  throne  lying 
Adoring,  imploring — Deliver  Thou  me ! 

My  query  is,  Where  is  the  Latin  prayer  first 
found  ;  and  what  ground  is  there  for  believing 
that  it  was  written  by  Queen  Mary  ? 

St.  Dunstan's,  Regent's  Park. 

— Has  this  distinguished  Irishman  left  any  cor- 
respondence; and,  if  so,  in  whose  possession  istit? 
The  several  lives  of  O'Oonnell  are  mere  compila- 
tions from  Hansard  and  newspapers.  Your  con- 
tributor Mr.  Ross  O'Connell  may  be  able  to  give 
information  concerning  his  relative.  W.  T. 

ALMANAC. — Who  and  what  was  the  Murphy 
who  published  an  almanac  in  1838,  and  made  a 
decided  hit  in  foretelling  the  very  cold  day  on 
January  20, 1838  1  Did  he  continue  his  almanac? 
I  remember  that  his  successful  prophecy  was  cele- 
brated in  a  song  of  the  day,  "  Murphy  has  a 
weather  eye,"  a  parody,  I  suppose,  on  "  Lesbia  has 
a  beaming  eye."  T.  W.  K. 

PENTAMETERS.— It  is  Ovid,  I  think,  who  de- 
scribes Cupid  as  stealing  one  foot  from  the 
hexameter  line,  and  pentameter  verses  as  thus 
originating.  But  where  in  Ovid  can  I  find  this 
arch  story  of  a  witty  invention  ? 

Madison,  Wis.,  U.S. 

'  VALOR  ECCLESIASTICUS.' — In  what  county  his- 
tories or  other  works  are  portions  of  the  above 
printed  with  explanations  and  "  extended  "  ? 

T    T    ff 

Bp.  Hatfield'a  Hall,  Durham. 

Suspense,  dire  torturer  of  the  human  breast; 
Compared  with  thee  reality  were  rest. 

A.  E.  KEALY. 


(6th  S.  xii.  492 ;  7th  S.  i.  35.) 
The  incident  alluded  to  by  your  correspondent 
is  thus  described  by  Brand  ('  Popular  Antiquities/ 
Bohn's  ed.,  iii.  380)  in  his  list  of  "  Vulgar  Errors": 
"When  a  man  designs  to  marry  a  woman  who  is  in 
debt,  if  he  take  her  from  the  hands  of  the  priest,  clothed 
only  in  her  shift,  it  is  supposed  he  will  not  be  liable  to 
her  engagements." 

This  belief  appears  to  have  been  generally  pre- 
valent during  the  past  'century,  and  examples  are 
occasionally  met  with  in  old  newspapers,  e.g. — 

"  At  Ashton  Church,  in  Lancashire,  a  short  time  ago, 
a  woman  was  persuaded-  that  if  she  went  to  church 
naked,  her  intended  husband  would  not  be  burthened 
with  her  debts,  and  she  actually  went  as  a  bride  like 
mother  Eve,  but,  to  the  honour  of  the  clergyman,  he 
refused  the  damsel  the  honours  of  wedlock." — Chester 
Courant,  June  24, 1800. 

The  following  early  example  shows  a  slight  modifi- 
cation of  the  general  practice  : — 

"  An  extraordinary  method  was  adopted  by  a  brewer'a 
servant,  in  February,  1723,  to  prevent  his  liability  for  the 
payment  of  the  debts  of  a  Mrs.  Brittain,  whom  he  in- 
tended to  marry.  The  lady  made  her  appearance  at  the 
door  of  St.  Clement  Danes  habited  in  her  shift ;  hence 
her  enamorato  conveyed  the  modest  fair  to  a  neighbour- 
ing apothecary's,  where  she  was  completely  equipped 
with  clothing  purchased  by  him ;  and  in  these  Mrs. 
Brittain  changed  her  name  at  the  church."  —  J.  P. 
Malcolm,  '  Anecdotes,  &c.,  of  London,  Eighteenth  Cen- 
tury,' p.  233. 

The  next  example  is  remarkable,  as  it  illus- 
trates a  reversal  of  the  ordinary  vulgar  error,  the 
bride  presenting  herself  in  a  nude  condition  to 
prevent  her  liability  for  the  debts  of  her  new  hus- 
band :— 

[1766]  "June.  A  few  days  ago  a  handsome  and  well- 
dressed  young  woman  came  to  a  church  in  Whitehaven 
to  be  married  to  a  man  who  was  attending  there  with 
the  clergyman.  When  she  had  advanced  a  little  into 
the  church,  a  nymph,  her  bride-maid,  began  to  undress 
her,  and  by  degrees  stript  her  to  her  shift;  thus  was  she 
led  blooming  and  unadorned  to  the  altar,  where  the 
marriage  ceremony  was  performed.  It  seems  this  droll 
wedding  was  occasioned  by  an  embarrassment  in  the 
affairs  of  the  intended  husband,  upon  which  account  the 
girl  was  advised  to  do  this,  that  he  might  be  entitled  to 
no  other  marriage  portion  than  her  smock." — 'Annual 
Register '  for  1766,  p.  106. 

The  subject  has  been  noticed  in  the  First  Series  of 
'  N.  &  Q.,'  under  the  titles  of  "Smock- Marriages  " 
and  "Mariages  en  Chemise"  (vi.  485,561,  vii. 
17,  84),  and  is  remarked  upon  in  Jeaffreson's 
'  Brides  and  Bridals/  ii.  93-4. 

Salterton,  Devon. 

The  reference  to  2md  S.  iv.  489  in  Chambers'a 
'  Book  of  Days/  i.  259,  is  not  correct,  inasmuch 
as  it  concerns  the  marriage  of  a  deaf  man.  The 

r*  S.  I.  JAN.  23, '86.] 



vague  reference  lower  in  the  page  to  '  N.  &  Q.'  is, 
I  presume,  to  1st  S.  vi.  485,  561;  vii.  17,  84. 


"  IFS  AND  ANDS"  (7th  S.  i.  5).— The  use  of  this 
is  much  older  than  MR.  TERRY  appears  to  be  aware 
of.  It  occurs  in  the  famous  account  of  the  'Be- 
heading of  Lord  Hastings ;  by  Sir  T.  More.  See 
his  '  Works/  1577,  pp.  53-55. 

"  The  said  the  protectour  :  ye  shal  al  se  in  what  wise 
that  sorceres  and  that  other  witch  of  her  counsel  shoria 
wife  w'  their  affynite,  haue  by  their  sorcery  &  witch- 
craft wasted  my  body.  And  ther  wl  he  plucked  vp  hys 
doublet  sleue  to  his  elbow  vpon  his  left  arme,  where  he 
shewed  a  werish  withered  arme  and  small,  as  it  was 
neuer  other.  And  thereupon  euery  manes  mind  sore 
misgaue  the,  well  perceiuing  that  this  matter  was  but  a 
quarel.  For  wel  thei  wist,  that  ye  quene  was  to  wise  to 
go  aboute  any  such  folye.  And  also  if  she  would,  yet 
wold  she  of  all  folke  leste  make  Shoris  wife  of  counsaile, 
who  of  al  women  she  most  hated,  as  that  cocubine  who 
the  king  her  husbad  had  most  loued.  And  also  no  ma 
was  there  preset,  but  wel  knew  that  his  harme  was  euer 
such  since  his  birth.  Natheles  the  lorde  Chamberlen 
(which  fro  ye  death  of  king  Edward  kept  Shoris  wife,  on 
whoe  he  sowhat  doted  in  the  kinge's  life,  sauing  as  it  is 
eayd  he  that  while  forbare  her  of  reuerence  towarde  hys 
king,  or  els  of  a  certaine  kinde  of  fidelite  to  hys  frende) 
aunswered  &  sayd :  certainly  my  lorde  if  they  haue  so 
heinously  done,  thei  be  worthy  heinouse  punishement. 
What  quod  the  protectour  thou  seruest  me  1  wene  wl 
iffes  &  with  andes,  I  tel  the  thei  haue  BO  done,  &  that  I 
will  make  good  on  thy  body  traituor.  And  therw*  aa  in 
a  great  anger,  he  clapped  his  fist  vpon  ye  borde  a  great 
rappe.  At  which  token  giuen,  one  cried  treason  without 
the  cabre.  Therwith  a  dore  clapped,  and  in  come  there 
rushing  men  in  barneys  as  many  as  ye  chambre  might 

This  account  is  supposed  to  have  been  written 
about  1513,  and  describes  incidents  which  took 
place  in  1432.  It  is  one  of  the  best-known  and 
most  graphic  descriptions  in  the  English  language, 
and  has  been  copied  times  innumerable.  See 
Hall,  1550,  'Kyng  Edwarde  The  fyft,'  f  14; 
Grafton,  1569,  p.  779  ;  Holinshed,  1577,  vol.  ii. 
pp.  1372-3  ;  Fox,  various  editions,  in  loco.  When 
Richard  III.  used  it  it  was  evidently  a  familiar 
saying,  perhaps  old  even  then.  There  is  also  the 
old  doggerel — 

If  ifs  and  anda 

Were  pots  and  pans 

Where  would  be  the  work  for  Tinkers'  hands? 

R.  R. 
Boston,  Lincolnshire. 

MUST  (7^8.  i.  47). —See  "Must"  in  my 
'  Etym.  Dictionary.'  The  true  answer  to  this 
question  would  fill  many  pages  of  '  N.  &  Q.'  It 
should  be  sought  in  the  historical  use  of  the  M.E. 
mot  and  moste  in  old  authors.  Such  an  expression 
as  "  Can  he  have  forgotten  it "  is  unknown  in 
our  oldest  writers.  The  gradual  rise  of  this 
idiom  depends  on  the  historical  form  of  such 
sentences,  and  requires  profound  acquaintance 
with  old  authors  and  immense  research.  Of  course, 

the  M.E.  moste  can  be  found  as  a  past  tense,  for 
the  simple  reason  that  it  never  was  anything  else  in 
the  earliest  period.  It  is  a  great  pity  that  musted 
never  came  into  use.  The  word  ought  has  like- 
wise lost  its  old  present  form  owe ;  and  the  in- 
vention of  a  new  past  tense  oughted  would  have 
been  a  great  boon.  Such  forms  are  not  more 
anomalous  than  the  familiar  wonted  (for  won-ed-ed). 
The  infinitive  of  can,  viz.,  connen,  is  extremely 
common  in  M.E.,  and  is  used  both  by  Chaucer  and 
Langland.  It  is  worth  remembering,  too,  that 
English  has  nothing  whatever  to  do  with  modern 
High  German,  except  that  the  languages  happen  to 
be  cognate.  English  often  preserves  old  forms 
that  are  lost  in  German.  WALTER  W.  SKEAT. 

"SEPELIVIT  NUPTAM,"  &c.  (6th  S.  xii.  448,  504; 
7th  S.  i.  37). — Mr.  E.  J.  Walker  has  done  so  much 
for  the  history  of  Halifax  in  publishing,  week  after 
week,  for  many  years,  his  contributions  in  the 
local  newspaper,  that  I  am  sorry  they  have  not 
been  reprinted  under  a  competent  editor.  Un- 
fortunately his  knowledge  of  Latin  was  so  scanty 
that  his  extracts  from  the  parish  registers  are  full 
of  the  grossest  blunders.  I  do  not  remember 
having  seen  in  his  collections  the  quotation  some 
correspondent  has  brought  forward,  but  I  happen 
to  know  that  it  is  so  inaccurately  quoted  that 
there  is  no  ground  for  the  inference  drawn  from 
it.  Though  difficult  to  read,  it  is,  "— uielmus 
Scolefeild  sepelivit  nupta  et  Virgine  3  Octob.  1572." 
On  referring  to  the  burial  entries  just  above,  the 
reader  would  find,  under  Oct.  3,  that  there  were 
buried  on  that  day  a  "Sibella  uxor,"  and  a 
"  Sibella  filia."  This  accounts  for  the  statement, 
which  is  in  itself,  like  many  others,  but  idle 
scribble.  A  remarkable  instance  of  "  Parturiunt 
montes,"  &c.  After  this  I  have  nothing  to  do 
with  the  translation.  T.  C. 

GOLDEN  BOTTLE  (6th  S.  xii.  365).— Is  there  not 
the  sign  of  a  peddler's  pack  over  the  entrance  of 
Hoare'a  bank  in  Fleet  Street,  London  1  Old  Mr. 
Hoare,  the  founder  of  the  bank,  was  said  to  have 
been  originally  a  peddler,  and  to  have  adopted  the 

In  Ireland  the  sign  of  a  golden  bottle  (spherical) 
was  used  by  druggists  who  bought  and  sold  drugs 
without  compounding  or  preparing.  A  leathern 
bottle  is  said  to  have  been  adopted  by  a  London 
bank  as  the  type  of  a  secure,  safe  bank — it  will 
not  break.  E.  H. 

Beau  Street,  Waterford. 

CONQUER  (7th  S.  i.  27).— I  am  glad  to  see 
CUTHBBRT  BEDE'S  question  as  to  the  correct  pro- 
nunciation of  this  word.  My  experience  is  the 
same  as  his ;  and  I  have  often  seen  a  well-earned 
rap  on  the  knuckles  administered  by  my  old  domi- 
nie to  boys  who  pronounced,  or  mispronounced, 
the  word  as  conker.  In  those  days  "  the  punish- 


[7*  S.  I.  JAN.  23,  '86. 

ment  fitted  the  crime"  very  promptly,  and  pain 
inflicted  on  the  teacher's  sensitive  ear  was  very 
rapidly  followed  by  pain  distributed  over  tender 
parts  of  the  scholar.  But  I  fear  that  the  pronun- 
ciation which  was  thirty  years  ago  a  misdemeanour 
has  now  become  the  most  ordinary  and  prevailing. 
Stormonth  gives  it  boldly,  kong'-ker,  as  the  only 
possible  pronunciation.  Why,  then,  if  this  be 
right,  is  not  conquest  to  be  pronounced  kong'-kest  ? 
We  shall  be  told,  I  doubt  not,  that  the  change  is 
due  to  natural  causes,  which  infallibly  bring  about 
the  softening  of  language,  here  as  elsewhere.  This, 
however,  is  poor  consolation.  We  can  only  note 
the  change  with  sorrow,  and  try  to  think  of  some- 
thing else.  JULIAN  MARSHALL. 

HOUSK  (6th  S.  xii.  495;  7th  S.  i.  37).— This  seeming 
puzzle  was  doubtless  intended  as  an  inscription, 
similar  to  those  found  on  early  sepulchral  brasses, 
the  parties  mentioned  therein  having  probably  died 
within  the  castle  walls  and  been  buried  near  the 
stone  on  which  it  is  cut ;  and  it  should,  I  think, 
read  thus  :  "  Al[l]  that  [pray]  for  Roger  |  Cham- 
byrleyn  I  &  for  hys  wyf  God  I  gef  'hem  al[l]  go[o]de 
|  lyf."  W.  I.  JR.  V. 

BELL  OF  THE  HOP  (7th  S.  i.  7,  54).— Please  let 
me  point  out  that  the  expression  "Belle  on  the 
Hoop  "  is  certainly  "  bell  on  the  hoop  (or  garland) "; 
see  Larwood's  '  History  of  Signs.'  It  has  nothing 
whatever  to  do  with  "bell  (or  fruit)  of  the  hop." 
Such  confusion  may  be  avoided  by  noticing  that 
old  English  spelling  is  phonetic,  so  that  the  oo  in 
hoop  or  hope  must  be  long,  and  totally  unlike  the  o 
in  hoppe  (old  spelling  of  hop).  A  knowledge  of  old 
English  vowels  would  save  hundreds  of  mistakes  ; 
but  I  suppose  there  is  no  subject  so  generally 
neglected.  WALTER  W.  SKEAT. 

FREEMASONRY  (6th  S.  xii.  494).— The  book  re- 
ferred to  by  your  correspondent  is  complete  in 
itself,  and  was  the  first  Book  of  Constitutions 
issued  after  the  "  Union "  of  December,  1814. 
An  edition  in  octavo,  with  a  similar  title,  was 
issued  in  1827.  The  first  part  alluded  to  was 
never  issued,  if  printed.  Query:  as  the  compiler 
probably  had  a  quantity  of  material  collected, 
what  became  of  it  1  T.  F. 


DUNCAN  I.  AND  DUNCAN  II.  (6th  S.  v.  408  ; 
vi.  17,  218,  376;  vii.  377).— MR.  CARMICHAEL 
seems  to  forget  that  those  who  ask  queries  about 
the  ancient  royal  and  noble  houses  are  not  always 
able  to  consult  the  "  trustworthy  and  scholarly 
histories  of  Scotland,"  and  must  depend  upon  the 
courtesy  of  those  who,  like  himself,  are  familiar 
with  historical  and  genealogical  facts.  What  the 
reader  of  '  N.  &  Q.'  wants  to  know  is — if  it  be 
authoritatively  settled — the  names  of  Malcolm  II. 's 
wife  or  wives,  and  the  names  of  his  children  and 

their  husbands  or  wives,  and  a  positive  statement 
about  the  legitimacy  of  Duncan  II.  It  would  be  a 
great  satisfaction  to  know  that  the  best  authorities 
agree  that  Beatrix,  daughter  of  Malcolm  II.,  married 
Crinan  or  Cronan,  Abbot  of  Dunkeld,  not  Grimus 
nor  Albanach,  Lord  of  the  Isles,  and  that  Beatrix 
had  by  Crinan,  Duncan  and  Maldred.  The 
average  reader  cares  nothing  for  opinions  or  pro- 
babilities basedupongrounds  he  cannot  understand; 
all  he  wants  is  the  result  of  the  latest  evidence 
upon  disputed  genealogical  points.  J. 


LYM  :  STORTH  :  SNAITHING  (6th  S.  xii.  267, 
377).— It  may  interest  MR.  ADDY  to  know  that  at 
Snaith,  in  Yorkshire,  there  was  formerly  a  chantry 
dedicated  to  Seta.  Scytha  (S.  Osyth),  evidently  a 
play  upon  the  connexion  cf  the  words  snaith  and 
scythe,  to  which  the  above  reference  has  regard. 

K.  H.  H. 



(6ta  S.  xii.  466). — '  Modern  Accomplishments,  on 
the  March  of  Intellect.'  By  Catherine  Sinclair. 

71,  Brecknock  Road. 

ARMS  OF  OXFORD  HALLS  (6th  S.  xii.  445,  520). 
— Is  MR.  PICKFORD  correct  in  saying  that  eccle- 
siastics should  not  use  mottoes  ?  Some  very  old 
English  families  have  never  used  these,  e.g., 
Plowden  of  Plowden,  co.  Salop,  and  Stanley  of 
Hooton,  co.  Chester.  GEORGE  ANGUS. 

St.  Andrew's,  N.B. 

VELVET  AND  FUSTIAN  (6th  S.  xii.  406,  523).— 
No  doubt  BETULA  is  correct  as  to  his  governess  at 
school  wearing  generally  a  cotton  print  bedgown 
over  an  outer  petticoat  of  black  or  brown  fustian  ; 
but  I  doubt  if  anybody  else  wore  so  extraordinary 
a  dress  about  the  year  1840.  P.  P. 

(6th  S.  xii.  367, 499).— Will  the  absurd  Bermudean 
theory  never  become  a  thing  of  the  past  ?  How 
thoughtful  minds  can  accept  such  a  glaring  mis- 
apprehension of  the  controverted  passage  has  always 
been  a  puzzle  to  me.  A  less  obscure  meaning 
rarely  occurs  in  Shakespeare.  Ariel  reports  to 
Prospero  that  the  king's  ship  lies  securely  in  the 
rocky  nook  of  his  island,  whence  he  once  called 
him  up  at  midnight  and  despatched  him  to 

Fetch  dew 
From  the  still-vexed  Bermoothes. 

Can  anything  establish  more  clearly  a  difference 
of  locality  between  the  two  isles  1  Moore's  ad- 
hesion to  the  once  common  but  erroneous  opinion 
is  quite  in  harmony  with  a  poet's  topographical 
inaccuracy.  With  regard  to  the  site  of  Prospero's 
island,  the  drift  of  the  story — of  essentially  Italian 
mould — leads  us  to  look  for  it  in  the  Mediterranean 

7"  3. 1.  JAS.  2S,  '86.] 



in  preference  to  any  other  waters.  Hunter's  sug 
gestion  as  to  Lampedusa  being  the  island  in  the 
poet's  mind  must  commend  itself  to  every  carefu 
student  of  Shakspeare.  Lying  midway  between 
Sicily  and  the  African  coast,  its  shores  indentec 
by  a  number  of  troglodytic  caves  and  grottoes 
Lampedusa  is  the  most  likely  scene  of  "The 
Tempest,"  apart  from  its  enchanted  reputation. 

Touching  the  date  of  this  play,  I  am  inclined 
from  its  apparent  immaturity,  to  ascribe  it  to  its 
author's  earlier  years.  Though  printed  for  the 
first  time  in  1623,  it  was  probably  written  about 
1596,  and  was  thus  one  of  Shakespeare's  first 
dramatic  compositions.  Campbell's  theory  as  to 
'  The  Tempest '  being  "  the  last  work  of  the  mighty 
workman,"  and  Monte"gut's  appellation  of  "  testa- 
ment dramatique  "  are  more  poetic  than  exact. 

J.  B.  S. 

SCOTCH  NAMES  OF  FISHES  (7th  S.  i.  8,  55).— 
Please  let  me  make  a  correction  in  my  last  com- 
munication (7th  S.  i.  55).  My  suggestion  that 
pellat  is  for  pollack,  a  whiting,  is  possible  ;  but 
the  suggestion  that  it  is  for  pellock,  a  porpoise,  is, 
of  course,  far  better.  The  new  edition  of  Jamieson 
has  "sture,  a  sturgeon."  As  to  pellock,  the  word 
was  known  to  me,  but  I  had  forgotten  it.  It 
occurs  in  Duncan's  '  Appendix  Etymologise,'  1595, 
reprinted  in  my  '  Reprinted  Glossaries,'  Eng.  Dial. 
Soc.,  1874.  At  p.  68  is  the  entry:  " Ddphin, 
a  pellock."  In  the  index  (made  by  myself),  at 
p.  81,  is  :  "  Pellock,  a  dolphin  (rather  a  porpoise)." 

WHARTON  (6th  S.  xii.  447;  7th  S.  i.  15).— Per- 
haps the  following  extracts  from  the  Caius  College 
admission  book  may  interest  your  correspondent: — 

"Jan.  17,  1595-6.  George  Wharton  ;  son  of  Philip, 
Baron  Wharton.  Born  at  Brougham  Castle.  Educated 
at  Wharton.  Age  12.  Admitted  fellow-commoner. 

"  April  28,  1602.  Thomas  Wharton ;  son  of  Philip, 
Baron  Wharton.  Born  at  Wharton.  Educated  at  Well, 
Yorkshire,  under  Mr.  Anderson.  Age  14.  Admitted 
fellow-commoner.' ' 

In  modern  spelling  "Wharton"  is,  I  presume, 
Whorlton;  and  "  Well,"  Wells.  J.  VENN. 

Caius  College^ambridge. 

"OUR    FRIEND    THE   ENEMY"   (6th    S.    xii.    167, 

"  Paris,  April  1st  [1814].  '  C'est  un  fait  accompli,'  my 
dear  mother.  We  are  here  at  last;  have  entered  in 
triumph,  and  are  in  possession.  The  entrance  of  the 
conquerors  into  their  capital  was  turned  by  the  Parisians 

into  a .great  fete Deafening  were  their  acclamations; 

the  vivas  for  '  TEmpereur  Alexandre  '  were  shouted  far 
more  vociferously  and  frequently  than  for  '  le  Roi  de 

Prusse.' As  a  specimen  of  Parisian  wit  I  heard  passed 

along  a  viva  for  '  nos  amis,  nos  ennernis.'  "—Sir  George 
Jackson,  in  '  The  Bath  Archives,'  edited  by  Lady  Jack- 
son, 1873,  vol.  ii. 

34,  St.  Petersburg  Place,  W. 

Two  QUAINT  EPITAPHS  (6th  S.  xii.  490).— I 
copied  the  former  of  the  two  epitaphs  some  years 
ago  from  a  stone  in  the  chancel  of  Herne  Church, 
Kent,  with  an  alteration  and  addition  to  that  given 
by  your  correspondent,  viz.,  instead  of  "  Shall 
feast  the  just,"  it  was  "  Shall  feed  the  just ";  and 
to  this  was  added — 

Approved  by  all,  &  lov'd  so  well, 

Though  young,  like  fruit  that '»  ripe,  he  fell. 

The  last  two  lines  might  be  added  to  suit  the 
person  here  interred  only;  they  have  not  the  ring 
of  the  other  lines.  H.  E.  WILKINSON. 

Anerley,  S.E. 

HIGHLAND  KILT  (7th  S.  i.  8,  51). — Apropos  of 
SIR  HERBERT  MAXWELL'S  letter  re  the  Highland 
kilt  and  plaid,  in  which  he  refers  to  a  suggestion 
of  his  made  some  time  ago,  namely,  that  the  scrap 
of  plaid  worn  by  those  in  the  army  who  wear  the 
belted  plaid  be  abolished,  I  would  like  to  make  a 
few  remarks. 

The  belted  plaid  as  worn  by  the  regulars  is  not 
ample  enough.  It  comes  nearer  to  the  pocket- 
handkerchief  than  the  plaid.  Again,  it  is  far 
from  useless  if  justice  is  done  to  it  and  sufficient 
cloth  allowed  (vide  Logan's  'Gael'  for  proper 
allowance).  Any  of  the  volunteers  using  this 
plaid,  as  do  the  London  Scottish,  know  the  value 
of  the  same  in  rain  or  stormy  weather,  for  it  not 
only  serves  to  protect  the  rifle,  but  acts  like  a 

And  now  for  an  attack  on  the  men  in  the  army 
who  wear  the  long  plaid.  I  may  safely  say  that 
not  an  officer — not  one  in  fifty — knows  the  old 
rule  for  putting  on  the  plaid.  Decidedly  the 
pipers  of  the  Scots  Guards  do  not  adhere  to  the 
old  rules— if,  indeed,  they  know  them,  which  is 
scarcely  possible.  Though  it  may  appear  strange 
that  a  civilian  should  suggest  such  a  thing,  I 
fancy  I  know  more  than  one  Highlander  in  London 
who  would  in  two  minutes  instruct  the  men  in  the 
wearing  of  the  plaid,  and  drill  them  by  the  ancient 
Highland  rule  into  wearing  this  part  of  their  equip- 
ment. Logan  does  not  give  instructions  as  to  this 
most  beautiful  portion  of  the  dress— the  completing 
portion,  which  ought  to  hang  in  beautiful  folds, 
and  not  be  put  on  in  a  wild  bundle. 


P.S.— I  beg  the  officers'  pardons  if  I  have 
naligned  them.  There  may  be  exceptions  to  what 
'.  state  ;  but  I  state  what  1  see. 

WHEN  WAS  BURNS  BORN  ?  (6th  S.  xii.  387,473; 

7th  S.  i.  15).— My  attention  has  just  been  called 
o  the  recent  correspondence  in  your  columns  on 
his  subject.  In  the  "  big  ha'  Bible  "  which  be- 
onged  to  the  poet's  father,  and  which  was  first 
hown  to  me  at  Cheltenham  by  Col.  Burns,  the 

irst  entry  on  the  "birth- leaf"  is:  "  Had  a  son 

Robert 25th  January  1759."  Such  an  entry 

'  >y  the  male  parent  is  the  highest  testimony  to  the 



[7*  S.  I.  JAN.  23,  '86. 

authenticity  of  the  universally  accepted  date  of 
the  poet's  birth,  even  had  not  the  latter  endorsed 
the  same  by  his  reference  thereto  in  "  There  was 
a  lad  was  born  in  Kyle." 

COLIN  RAE  BROWN,  President. 
London  Burns  Club. 

If  any  doubt  remains  on  this,  let  me  call  atten- 
tion to  the  centenary  celebration  of  the  birth  of 
Robert  Burns,  which  was  held  at  the  Crystal 
Palace  on  January  25,  1859,  when  a  prize  poem 
in  honour  of  Burns  was  recited  by  the  late  Mr. 


GARTER  BRASSES  (7th  S.  i.  29).— 

"  Five  brasses  only  remain  of  knights  belonging  to 
the  order  of  the  Garter:  Sir  Peter  Courtenay,  1409, 
much  defaced,  Exeter  Cathedral ;  Sir  .Simon  de  Fel- 
brigge,  1416,  Felbrigg,  Norfolk  ;  and  Sir  Thomas  Camoys, 
1424,  Trotton,  Sussex :  who  wear  the  garter  simply, 
Henry  Bourchier,  Earl  of  Essex,  1483,  Little  Easton, 
Essex,  who  has  also  the  mantle  ;  and  Sir  Thomas  Bullen, 
1538,  Hever,  who  is  attired  in  the  full  insignia  of  the 
order.  The  effigy  of  Thomas  de  Woodstock,  1397,  for- 
merly at  Westminster  Abbey,  resembled  the  last,  but 
was  not  in  armour.  It  is  engraved  in  Sandford's  '  Genea- 
logical History  of  England,'  p.  230."— Haines's  '  Manual 
of  Monumental  Brasses,'  p.  cxvii. 


Digs  Rectory. 

Haines  gives  the  following : — 

1.  Sir  Peter  Courtenay,  1409  (almost  defaced), 
Exeter  Cathedral,  Devon.     Engraved  in  Hewett's 
4  Exeter  Oath.,'  and  Trans,  of  Exeter  Soc.,  vol.  iii. 

2.  Sir  Simon  Felbrigge,   1416,  Felbrigg,  Nor- 
folk.    Engraved  in  Boutell's  Series  ;    Gough,  ii. 
pi.  xlvii. ;  Cotman,  i.  pi.  xv. 

3.  Sir  Thomas  Camoys,  1424,  Trotton,  Sussex. 
Engraved  in  Boutell's   '  Mon.   Br.;;  Dallaway,  i. 

4.  Henry  Bourchier,  Earl  of  Essex,  1483,  Little 
Easton,  Essex.     Engraved  in  Waller,  pt.  xiv. 

5.  Sir  Thomas  Bullen,    "earl  of  Wiltscher  & 
Ormunde,"   1538,    Hever,    Kent.      Engraved    in 
Waller,  pt.  xii. ;    Thorpe's  «  Cast.  Roff.,1  pi.  xix. 
p.  115. 

The  first  three  have  the  garter  simply,  4  has 
the  garter  and  mantle,  and  5  the  full  insignia. 

3,  Plowden  Buildings,  Temple. 

Four  garter-bearing  effigies  on  brass  plates  (not 
statues)  in  England  are  (1)  that  of  Sir  Simon  de 
Felbrigge,  1413,  at  Felbrigg,  Norfolk;  (2)  Thomas 
Baron  Oamoys,  1424,  at  Trotton,  Sussex  ;  (3)  Mar- 
garet, Lady  Harcourt,  1471,  at  Stanton-Harcourt, 
Oxfordshire;  and  (4)  Sir  Thomas  Bullen,  1538,  at 
Hever,  Kent.  The  lady,  whose  husband  was  the 
196th  K.G.,  wears  his  Garter  round  her  left  arm 
ensigned  with  the  motto  of  the  order.  F.  G.  S. 

GENERAL  ARMSTRONG  (7th  S.  i.  28). — The  group 
by  Kneller  representing  John,  Duke  of  Marl 

trough,  and  General  John  Armstrong,  which  the  late 
Duke  of  Marlborough  lent  to  the  National  Portrait 
Exhibition  of  1867,  No.  87,  consists  of  full-length, 
ife-size  figures,  on  a  canvas  measuring  95  in.  by 
'9  in.  MR.  M.  H.  WHITE  knows,  of  course,  the 
nezzotint  portrait  of  this  commander  which  was 
executed  by  McArdell  in  1753  (J.  C.  Smith's 
McArdell,"'  No.  3).  F.  G.  S. 

WASHINGTONS  ANCESTORS  (6th  S.  vii.  368). — 
Who  is  "Albert  Welles  (1879),  President  of  the 
American  College  of  Arms,"  and  where  is  this 
college  situated1?  If  its  authority  for  pedigrees  is 
no  better  than  Phillipe  and  others  of  that  ilk,  its 
work  in  that  line  will  soon  cease.  London  is 
"amous  for  bogus  pedigrees  and  pedigree-makers. 
The  plan  of  the  latter  appears  to  be  this :  Genea- 
iogical  publications  are  searched  for  the  names  of 
families  desiring  information,  and  suitable  pedi- 
grees are  constructed  for  them  out  of  the  visita- 
tions and  county  histories,  and  are  duplicated  by 
photography  or  the  "  blue  print  "  process.  Copies 
of  these  are  sent  to  the  interested  parties,  and 
there  is  just  enough  truth  in  them  to  excite  ambi- 
tion or  an  interest  in  further  research,  which,  of 
course,  is  undertaken  for  a  consideration.  The 
late  Col.  Chester  possessed  one  of  these  "  blue 
pedigrees,"  and  the  way  in  which  the  Seymours  and 
Danbys,  Fitz-Hughs  and  others  are  tacked  on  to 
royal  and  baronial  houses  (of  whom  even  the  best  of 
our  genealogists  know  but  little)  would  be  amusing 
were  it  less  costly  and  aggravating  to  the  victims. 

F.  C.  WRAY. 


AUTHOR  OF  POEM  WANTED  (6th  S.  xii.  408).— 
A  reference  to  Poole's  '  Index  of  Periodical  Litera- 
ture/ reveals  the  fact  that  *  The  Greenwood  Shrift ' 
appeared  in  Blackwood's  Magazine,  vol.  xlii.  p.  208, 
and  that  its  author  was  C.  Bowles. 


ESQUIRE  (6th  S.  xii.  495;  7th  S.  i.  34).— Thank- 
ing  your  correspondents — and  among  them  MR. 
J.  STANDISH  HALY — for  setting  my  mind  at  rest, 
and  this  I  do  most  heartily,  I  would  say  also  to 
that  gentleman  that  though  I  have,  I  believe,  care- 
fully read  ray  Shakespeare,  I  am  obliged  to  con- 
fess that  he  has  read  it  more  intelligently,  since 
he  has  concluded,  as  I  had  thought  no  one  could 
have  concluded,  viz.,  that  Robert  Shallow  owed 
his  title  of  esquire  to  his  being  a  justice  of  the 
peace.  I  confess,  also,  that  I  am  still  unable  to 
connect  this  conclusion  with  the  premises,  but  this 
may  be  due  to  my  want  of  genealogical  knowledge. 


Surely  MR.  E.  H.  MARSHALL  cannot  have  re- 
ferred to  the  case  which  he  cites  from  1  Taunt.,  510, 
on  this  question.  If  Talbot  v.  Eagle  be  the  leading 
case  on  the  point,  then  the  authorities  on  the 
subject  are  meagre  indeed,  for  all  that  was  there 

7'h  S.  I.  JAN.  23,  '86.] 



decided  was  that  "A  commission  of  captain  of 
volunteers,  signed  by  the  lord-lieutenant  of  a 
county,  does  not  confer  the  degree  of  esquire" 
even  though  such  commission  style  the  gentleman 
an  esquire,  and  the  Gazette  announcing  the  appoint- 
ment follow  suit.  This  is  an  important  modifica- 
tion of  the  assumed  rule  ;  but  the  judicial  or 
legislative  statement  of  the  rule  itself  has  not  yet 
(so  fur  as  I  have  seen)  been  vouched.  Q.  V. 

The  late  J.  F.  Maclennan,  author  of  *  Primitive 
Marriage,'  told  me  many  years  ago,  that  Masters 
of  Arts  of  Aberdeen  University  are  esquires  by 
charter  of  one  of  the  Scottish  kings.  T. 

426;  7tb  S.  i.  11). — Can  any  reader  inform  me  if 
the  Lords  Scales  owned  property  in  the  Furness 
district ;  and  whether  any  of  their  descendants  or 
immediate  kinsmen  are  known  to  have  taken  up 
their  residence  in  the  north  about  1600  "or  1650? 
I  am  most  anxious  to  connect  several  branches  of 
this  interesting  family;  but  the  links  are  rather 
unapproachable.  I  atn  convinced,  however,  that 
the  aforesaid  information,  if  forthcoming,  will  go 
a  long  way  towards  the  removal  of  the  difficulties. 

1  should  also  be  very  pleased  to  learn  the  origin 
the  word  "  Scales  "  in  personal  nomenclature.     It 
is  a  place-name,  and  I  may  point  out  two  words  to 
which  it  forms  the  suffix,  viz.,  Winscales  and  Sea- 
scale,  two  Cambrian  villages.     JOHN  WALKER. 


DOCKET  :  DOQUET  :  DOCQUET  (6th  S.  xii.  515). 
— The  first  of  these  spellings  seems  to  be  the 
correct  form.  The  word  is  spelt  docket,  as  also 
docked,  in  Minsheu's  'Ductor  in  Linguas,'  1617. 
He  says  : — "  Docket  is  a  breife  in  writing  ^  anno 

2  &  3  Phil,    et  Mariae,  c.  6.     f  West :  writeth 
it  (dogget)  by  whom  it  seemeth  to  be  some  small 
piece  of  paper,  or  parchment  conteining  the  effect 
of  a  large  writinge."     His  derivation  of  the  word, 
suo  more,  is  from  L.   documentum.     Wedgwood 
and  Skeat  suggest  W.  tocyn,  a  small  piece,  ticket, 
&c.     Richardson  quotes  Clarendon's  '  Civil  War,' 
where    the   word   is   spelt   docquet ;    also   '  State 
Trials,'  1640,  where  it  is  docket.     On  the  analogy 
of  pocketed,   the  p.  participle    ought  to  be  spelfc 
docketed.  F.  C.  BIRKBECK  TERRY. 

All  three  forms  of  the  word  will  be  found 
in  the  *  Encyclopaedic  Dictionary,'  where  docketed 
is  given  as  the  past  participle  or  adjective.  The 
first  spelling  is  given  both  in  Blount's  *  Law  Dic- 
tionary and  Glossary'  (1717)  and  in  Cowel's  '  Law 
Dictionary '(1727).  G.  F.  R.  B. 

"SPEECH  is  SILVER"  (6th  S.  xii.  515).— The 
first  appearance  of  this  saying  in  Carlyle's  writings 
was  in  1837,  in  'Sartor  Resartus,'  ch.  iii.  :— 

"  Speech  too  is  great,  but  not  the  greatest.     As  the 
wiss  Inscription  says  :  Sprechen  ist  eilbern,  Schweigen 

ist  polden  (Speech  is  silvern,  Silence  is  golden)  ;  or  as  I 
might  rather  express  it :  Speech  is  of  Time,  Silence  is  of 



This  is  met  with  as  a  quotation  in  Carlyle's 
essay  on  Boswell's  *  Life  of  Johnson'  in  the  'Mis- 
cellaneous Essays,'  vol.  iii.  p.  66.  It  is  given  thus  : 
"  Speech  is  silvern,  Silence  is  golden  ;  Speech  is 
human,  Silence  is  divine."  GEORGE  RAVEN. 


This  is  found  in  the  following  form  in  Herder's 
'  Zerstreute  Blatter,'  Vierte  Sammlung,  whence 
most  likely  Carlyle  borrowed  it : — 

Lerne  schweigen  0  Freund.    Dem  Silber  gleichet  die 

Aber  zu  rechter  Zeit  schweigen  ist  lauteres  Gold. 

In  his  preface  the  author  thus  describes  the  con- 
tents of  this  part  of  his  work  :  — 

"  Zuerst  finden  Sie  abermals  eine  Bluraenlese  aus 
morgenlaridischen  Dichtern.  Der  Titel  wird  Ihnen 
keine  Ziererei  scheinen,  wenn  Ich  bemerke,  dass  ein 
grosser  Theil  dieser  Lehrspruclie  aus  Sadi's  Blumen- 
garten  oder  Rosenthal  und  ahnlichen  Sammlungen 
genommen  ist." 

W.  B. 

This  proverb  corresponds  to  the  German  "  Reden 
ist  Silber,  Schweigen  aber  Gold."  It  is  said  to  be 
of  Persian  origin.  W.  E.  F. 

[It  is  well  understood  in  Germany  that  the  above 
saying  is  of  Oriental,  and  not  German  origin.  It  is,  we 
believe,  popularly  ascribed  to  Hafiz.] 

STILT  =  CRUTCH  (6tb  S.  xii.  490).— Crutches  are 
commonly  called  stilts  in  this  part  of  Kent,  and 
have  been  for  many  years.  In  1668  the  overseers 
of  Holy  Cross,  Canterbury,  paid  threepence  '*  For 
a  paire  of  Stilts  for  the  Tanner." 

J.  M.  COWPER. 


Prof.  Skeat,  in  his  *  Etymological  Dictionary,' 
remarks  that  "  the  original  sense  of  stilt  is  a  high 
post  or  upright  pole  ;  hence  a  stilt,  a  crutch,  or 
a  prop,  according  to  the  use  to  which  it  is  put." 
Forby's  *  Vocabulary  of  East  Anglia '  gives,  "  Stilts, 
s.  pi.  crutches.  A  lame  man  is  said  to  walk  with 
stilts,  which,  in  the  general  sense  of  this  word, 
must  be  dreadfully  dangerous,  if  it  be  at  all 
practicable.  But  that  sense  is  not  the  original 
one."  Jamieson's  '  Scottish  Dictionary/  has  stilt, 
to  go  on  crutches,  and  stilts  =  crutches. 


CORONATION  STONE  (6th  S.  xii.  449 ;  7th  S.  i. 
9). — There  has  always  been  a  great  and  needless 
expenditure  of  time  and  research  on  this  Stone  of 
Tara,  especially  as  to  whether  it  was  carried  to 
Argyllshire  and  Perthshire,  thence  to  Westmin- 
ster. This  is  owing  to  European  inquirers  not 
knowing,  or  forgetting,  that  every  ancient  tribe 
used  to  carry  away  their  Palla-diums  with  them  to 



.  I.  JAN.  23,  '86. 

their  new  home,  which,  of  course,  was  a  mere  fiction 
of  their  priests  and  leaders.  No  people  would  part 
with  their  Pallas,  Lingam,  sacred  fire,  &c.,  but  a  new 
one  was  set  up  in  the  centre  of  the  new  home,  and 
the  tribe  were  told  that  it  was  the  original,  or  a 
part  thereof.  As  when  the  Parsis,  Pur-sis,  or  fire- 
worshippers,  left  their  Persian  home,  they  set  up 
their  sacred  fire  near  Surat,  and  said  it  was  lighted 
from  the  highland  home  of  their  fathers,  so  Arkites 
travelled  about  with  their  holy  fire,  their  "  Testi- 
mony "  or  Eduth,  which  they  averred  they  got 
from  the  home  of  their  first  god — their  II,  Ilius, 
Al,  Allah,  or  OM,  as  Syrians  usually  call  him. 
Meka  lost  its  Al  for,  it  is  said,  four  hundred  years, 
and  the  present  "  Black  stone  "  is  believed  to  be  a 
fragment  of  it — always  as  holy,  and  often  more 
revered  than  the  original.  India  yields  hundreds 
of  such  instances,  as  mentioned  in  '  Rivers  of  Life,' 
where  every  detail  will  be  found  regarding  the 
Lia  Fial,  Fe-al,  F'Al,  Falan,  and  St.  Fillan's 
Palla-dium,  and  other  Fa-las,  and,  if  I  may  be 
excused  a  truthful  pun,  some  other  fallacies  con- 
cerning these.  There  is  no  reasonable  doubt  that 
the  Westminster  stone  is  a  fragment  of  the  Lingam 
of  u  the  Mut  hill  of  Skone,"  but  not  necessarily  of 
that  which  Dalrydian  Skots  brought  over  from 
Ireland  to  either  lona  or  Dunstaffinage,  though 
the  leaders  would  tell  their  tribe  that  such  came 
from  Tara,  nay,  said  some,  from  Egypt  and 

All  such  stones  are  symbols  of  the  "  God  of 
Fate,"  the  Father-Creator  and  support  of  his 
creatures.  He  is  the  "  Om  mani  padmi  hun,"  or 
the  Om,  the  gem,  or  germ  of  the  Padmi— the 
lotus,  or  receptive  principle,  the  Hebrew  Ruch,  or 
Spirit,  of  Gen.  i.  2,  which  lies  on  the  waters,  and 
represents  the  nymphean  or  watery  principle  on 
which  the  Om  broods.  J.  G.  K.  FORLONG. 

I  am  particularly  anxious  to  know  why  Earl 
Russell  objected  to  excavation  under  the  Hill  of 
Tara.  F.S.A.Scot. 

TOUCH  (6th  S.  xii.  407,  519).— Although,  no 
doubt,  all  those  who  now  bear  the  name  of  La 
Touche  are  descended  from  Huguenot  refugees,  it 
was  not  unknown  in  England  long  before  the  Re- 
vocation of  the  Edict  of  Nantes.  Roger,  son  of 
Sir  Roger  Touche  (so,  and  not  De  Touche)  gave, 
"  on  the  day  I  tooke  my  journey  towards  the  Holy 
Land  with  king  Richard,"  lands  in  Over  Shitling- 
ton,  co.  York,  with  Maud,  his  daughter,  in  frank 
marriage  to  Roger  de  Birkin,  &c.  The  original 
deed  was,  of  course,  in  Latin,  but  Mr.  Tillotson, 
the  compiler  of  Harl.  MS.  803,  translated  his  notes 
from  Dodsworth's  'Collections'  (Yorks.  Archceol. 
Journal,  vol.  viii.  p.  26).  A.  S.  ELLIS. 

The  family  of  De  la  Touche  is  of  very  ancient 
descent,  and  came  originally  from  the  neighbour- 
hood of  Blois.  At  the  revocation  of  the  Edict  of 

Nantes,  the  La  Touches — they  dropped  the  nobiliary 
title— fled  to  Holland,  and  thence,  about  1740, 
emigrated  to  Ireland.  I  knew  very  well  Mr.  C. 
Digues  de  la  Touche,  who  became  a  Catholic  at 
the  time  of  the  Tractarian  movement,  resumed  the 
'  de,"  although  remaining  an  English  subject,  and 
died  at  St.  Symphorien,  near  Tours,  about  a  year 
since.  EDWARD  R.  VYVYAN. 

JANE  CLERMONT  (6th  S.  xii.  468,  503  ;  7th  S. 

37). — While  thanking  MR.  WALFORD  for  his 
courteous  reply,  I  am  persuaded  that  he  is  mis- 
taken in  supposing  that  the  mother  of  Allegra 
died  in  London.  According  to  the  Aihenceum, 
published  at  the  time,  Jane  Clermont  died  at 
Florence,  "  after  some  years  of  complete  retire- 
ment," on  March  19,  1879,  aged  about  eighty-one. 
As  regards  the  name,  we  have  it  on  the  authority 
of  Col.  Chester  that  at  the  baptism  of  Allegra 
the  mother's  names  were  given  as  "Clara  Mary 
Jane."  A  statement  to  that  effect  was  made  in 
the  Athenceum  at  the  period  of  Claire's  death. 
Since  I  began  this  inquiry  I  have  spoken  to 
Edward  Trelawny's  daughter  on  this  subject,  and, 
although  we  are  still  in  want  of  data,  we  are  both 
persuaded  that  Jane  Clermont  did  not  die  in  Eng- 
land. A  strange  old  lady  died,  about  two  years 
ago,  at  Geneva,  the  details  of  whose  life  were  wrapt 
in  mystery.  This  old  lady  left  behind  her  a  large 
bundle  of  Byron  letters.  Many  people  supposed 
her  to  have  been  Jane  Clermont,  but  I  feel  toler- 
ably certain  that  she  was  not  the  mother  of  Allegra. 

33,  Tedworth  Square,  Chelsea. 

"FiLiys  POPULI"  (7th  S.  i.  6).— Mr.  Chester 
Waters,  in  his  'Parish  Registers' (p.  38,  ed.  1883), 
has  this  entry: — "Petersham,  Surrey.  '1633. 
Nicolas  the  sonne  of  Rebecca  Cock,  filius  populi, 
bapt.  28  Jan.'"  On  p.  37  he  has  :— "  Croydon. 
'1567.  Alice,  filia  vulgi,  bapt.  Aug.  14'";  and 
"  <  1582.  William,  filius  terra,  christened  May  4.' " 
These  designations  are  for  illegitimate  children. 

Mention  has  recently  been  made  in  *N.  &  Q.' 
of  this  expression  as  applied  to  an  illegitimate 
child.  A  few  weeks  ago  I  saw  it  in  the  register 
of  the  parish  church  of  Wednesbury  in  the  follow- 
ing form  :  "A.  B.,  filius  C.  D.  [the  mother's  name] 
et  populi."  W.  D.  L. 

VENETIAN  GLASS  IN  ENGLAND  (6th  S.  xii.  88, 
138,  311 ;  7th  S.  i.  11).— If  R.  P.  will  look  into 
the  introduction  to  the  '  Catalogue  of  Glass  in 
the  South  Kensington  Museum,'  he  will  find 
that  a  party  of  Murano  glass-workers  had  been 
brought  over  to  England  before  1550,  and  that 
from  this  period  until  about  1670  attempts  were 
made  in  this  or  that  place  to  manufacture  glass  in 
imitation  of  Venetian.  Many  of  the  pieces  made 
at  this  time  are  no  doubt  still  in  existence,  but  it 

7th  S.  I.  JAN.  23,  '86.] 



is  difficult  or  impossible  to  distinguish  between 
those  made  in  England  and  those  produced  in  the 
Low  Countries  or  elsewhere.  This  pseudo- Venetian 
manufacture  was  in  England  apparently  extin- 
guished by  the  invention,  or  perhaps  rather  the 
bringing  to  a  very  high  pitch  of  excellence,  of  the 
so-called  "flint  glass"  (the  French  cristal).  This 
took  place  about  1670.  N. 

"  HE   KEPT   THROWING   THE  THIRTEENS  "  (6th  S. 

xii.  386,  452). — F.  A.  M.  is  doubtless  chrono- 
logically correct  as  to  the  shilling  in  Ireland  having 
been  worth  thirteen  pence  previous  to  1825-6,  but 
colloquially  it  continued  to  be  called  a  "  thirteen  " 
to  a  considerably  later  period — so  late  as  1835  to 
my  knowledge.  I  have  in  mind  the  Leinster 
counties  particularly. 

As  to  "  throwing  the  thirteens  about,"  the 
practice  of  chairing  the  successful  candidate  at 
parliamentary  elections  was  very  much  more  usual 
in  Ireland  in  the  first  quarter  of  the  century  than 
it  has  been  since,  and  on  such  occasions  it  was  not 
unusual  for  the  member-elect  to  throw  handfuls  of 
silver  to  the  crowd  over  whose  heads  he  was  being 
triumphantly  carried  aloft.  I  well  remember, 
when  I  was  a  boy,  hearing  the  country  folk  tell  of 
the  chairing  of  Sir  Henry  Parnell,  and  of  his  lavish 
scattering  of  the  coins  right  and  left  from  the 
great  bag  he  carried  with  him  in  the  chair.  The 
event  was  then  still  fresh  in  the  minds  of  the 
narrators,  and  was  probably  the  last  occasion  of 
their  seeing  the  thirteens  flung  about  in  that 
fashion.  The  Sir  Henry  Parnell  of  the  story 
(created  Lord  Congleton  in  1840)  represented  the 
Queen's  County  in  the  House  of  Commons,  and 
the  election  in  which  his  liberality  with  the 
thirteens  left  so  vivid  an  impression  on  the  bene- 
ficiaries would  probably  have  taken  place  between 
the  years  1820  and  1824.  W.  SHANLY. 


THE  ACT  OF  UNION  (6th  S.  xii.  468;  7th  S.  i. 
17). — I  beg  to  draw  attention  to  the  following 
note  by  the  late  Mr.  Joseph  Eobertson,  to  be 
found  at  p.  93  of  the  '  History  of  the  Town  and 
Palace  of  Linlithgow,'  by  George  Waldie  (and  sold 
at  the  palace): — 

"  There  is  no  stipulation  in  the  Treaty  of  Union  as  to 
the  maintenance  of  any  fortresses.  How  the  popular 
belief  to  the  contrary  arose  I  cannot  say,  but  it  is 
universal  although  quite  groundless." 

Perhaps  MR.  TAYLOR  and  A.  W.  B.  will  look 
up  the  Act  and  let  us  know  from  actual  personal 
inspection  what  we  are  to  believe  on  this  subject. 

THOMAS  Eoss. 

THE  IRISH  PARLIAMENT  (7th  S.  i.  8).— With  the 
exception  of  the  period  of  the  Commonwealth, 
neither  Scotland  nor  Ireland  sent  representatives 
to  the  English  Parliament  before  the  union  of  the 
respective  kingdoms  with  England.  The  second 

Parliament  of  Anne  was,  by  proclamation  dated 
April  29,  1707,  declared  to  be  the  first  Parliament 
of  Great  Britain,  and  the  seventh  Parliament  of 
George  III.  was,  by  a  similar  proclamation,  dated 
Nov.  5,  1800,  declared  to  be  the  first  Parliament 
of  the  United  Kingdom  of  Great  Britain  and  Ire- 
land. G.  F.  E.  B. 

With  reference  to  the  query  in  your  issue  of  the 
2nd  inst.,  Did  members  of  the  Irish  House  of 
Commons  ever  sit  in  the  English  House  of  Com- 
mons ?  the  answer  is  that  they  did  not.  The  fol- 
lowing extract  from,  a  speech  by  Mr.  Thomas 
Sheridan,  quoted  from  the  '  Irish  Debates  '  of  last 
century,  vol.  xiii.,  in  Mr.  J.  Swift  Macneill's 
'  Irish  Parliament,'  shows  the  extent  of  the  pri- 
vilege accorded  Irish  members  by  the  English 
House  of  Commons  :  — 

"  By  a  courtesy  of  the  House  of  Commons  in  England 
members  of  the  Irish  Parliament  are  admitted  to  hear 
the  debates.  A  friend  of  mine,  then  a  member,  wishing 
to  avail  himself  of  the  privilege,  desired  admittance. 
The  doorkeeper  desired  to  know  what  place  he  repre- 
sented. 'What  place?  Why,  I  am  an  Irish  member.' 
'  0,  dear,  sir,  we  are  obliged  to  be  extremely  cautious, 
for  a  few  days  ago  Barrington,  the  pickpocket,  passed  in 
as  an  Irish  member.'  '  Why,  then,  upon  my  soul  I  forget 
the  borough  I  represent,  but  if  you  get  me  Watson's 
almanac  I  will  find  it  for  you.'  " 

F.  J.  EWING. 


COMMONPLACE  BOOK  (7th  S.  i.  26).  —  The  poem 
entitled  '  Off  ane  Contented  Mind'  is  undoubtedly 
Sir  Edward  Dyer's  well-known  lyric,  the  usual 
heading  of  which  is  identical  with  the  first  line, 
"  My  mind  to  me  a  kingdom  is."  See  Ward's 
1  English  Poets,'  i.  377.  THOMAS  BAYNE. 

Helensburgh.  N.B. 

(6th  S.  xii.  466).  —  After  a  long  and  fruitless  search 
for  the  notes  referred  to  by  M.  K.  M.,  I  made  the 
fortunate  discovery  that  by  "Cunningham's  reprint 
of  Gifford's  *  Jonson  '  "  he  meant  the  cheap  three- 
volume  edition,  whereas  I  was  searching  in  the 
nine-volume  edition,  the  one  usually  consulted  and 
employed  by  scholars.  How  easy  it  would  have 
been  for  M.  K.  M.  to  add  "n.  d.,"  or  to  prefix  the 
word  "smaller"  to  "reprint,"  and  so  to  save  a 
waste  of  valuable  time.  To  save  others  a  like 
waste  I  beg  to  add  the  equivalents  :  — 

1875,  9  vola.  N.D.,  3  vols. 

'  The  Devil  is  an  Ass,'  II.  i.,  )          y  j   i}       230 

vol.  v.  p.  47.  > 

I  ought  to  explain  that  the  search  in  the  nine- 
volume  edition  was  complicated  by  there  being 
two  sets  of  notes  to  each  play,  viz.,  foot-notes  and 
supplementary  notes. 

I  have  a  vast  collection  of  like  "  omitted  refer- 
ences >;  and  omitted  poems  —  mostly  made  by 



[7*  S.  I,  JAN.  23,  '86. 

Cunningham,  some  by  myself;  but  I  greatly  doubt 
if  the  Editor  of  « N.  &  Q.'  would  thank  me  for 
throwing  so  large  a  mass  of  MS.  into  his  hands. 

0.  M.  I. 
Athenaeum  Club. 

ST.  ALKELDA  (6th  S.  xii.  269,  293,  338,  396, 
473).— See  also  <  N.  &  Q.,J  4th  S.  iv.  297,  349, 
420  ;  v.  52  ;  xi.  28  ;  5th  S.  vi.  449  ;  vii.  17.  ' 

L.  L.  K. 


CROMWELL  (7th  S.  i.  9). — Thurloe  married  twice. 
His  first  wife  was  "  a  lady  of  the  family  of  Peyton, 
who  lived  with  him  but  three  or  four  years,  and 
had  two  sons  by  him,  who  died  before  her."  His 
second  wife  was  Anne,  the  third  daughter  of  Sir 
John  Lytcott,  of  East  Moulsey,  and  niece  of  Sir 
Thomas  Overbury.  She  was  born  August  31, 
1620.  There  were  six  children  of  the  second 
marriage,  viz.  (1)  John,  admitted  to  Lincoln's 
Inn,  1665  ;  (2)  Oliver  ;  (3)  Thomas,  born  1650-1, 
"  Governor  of  James  Island  in  the  river  Gambia  "; 
(4)  Nicholas  ;  (5)  Mary,  who  married  Thomas 
Ligoe,  of  Burcott,  co.  Bucks  ;  and  (6)  Anne,  who 
married  Francis  Brace,  of  Bedford.  Thurloe  died 
at  his  chambers  in  Lincoln's  Inn  February  21, 
1667/8.  He  was  buried  under  the  chapel  of  the 
Inn,  where  the  body  of  his  grandson  Francis  Brace 
also  lies.  See  Birch's  '  Life  of  Thurloe/  prefixed 
to  the  '  Collection  of  State  Papers '  (1742). 

G.  F.  R.  B. 

CHURCH  IN  DANGER  (6th  S.  xii.  409,  525).— 
It  may  be  worth  while  to  note  that,  on  Dec.  6, 
1705,  the  House  of  Lords,  by  61  Noes  to 
30  Yeas,  answered  in  the  negative  the  ques- 
tion "whether  the  Church  of  England  was  in 
danger  or  not."  On  the  7th  the  Commons 
agreed  to  the  resolution,  after  a  debate,  by  212 
to  160.  An  address  was  accordingly  presented  to 
the  Queen  on  the  19th,  and  a  royal  proclamation 
issued  on  the  following  day.  Several  lords,  fear 
ing  for  the  Protestant  succession  to  the  throne 
entered  protests  against  the  resolution. 



BRIAN  WALTON  (6th  S.  xii.  517).— There  is  a 
fairly  long  account  of  him  and  of  his  labours  upon 
the  Polyglot  Bible  in  Chalmers's  '  Biographica1 
Dictionary.'  References  are  there  given  to  *  Bio 
graphia  Britannica,'  Wood's  '  Athene,'  Lloyd's 
'  Memoirs,'  and  Walker's  '  Sufferings  of  th~ 
Clergy.'  EDWARD  H.  MARSHALL,  M.A. 


CAMPLESHON  FAMILY  (6th  S.  xii.  428,  505).— 
Thomas  Campleshon,  tailor,  of  York,  was  one  o 
the  City  chamberlains  in  1612.  In  1624  either  h< 
or  another  of  like  name  sold  a  house  in  "  Plox 
waingate,  otherwise  called  Blossom  Gate  [and  now 

Blossom  Street],  without  Micklegate  Bar."  Cam- 
leshon  Lane  was  a  means  of  communication 
etween  Bishopthorpe  Road  and  Knavesmire 
ntil  five  years  ago,  and  "if  it's  not  gone,  it  is 
here  still."  I  gather  these  particulars  from  Mr. 

Davies's  *  Walks  through  the  City  of  York/  p.  107. 


HORNER  (7th  S.  i.  27).— I  have  before  me  "  '  A 
kief  Account  of  the  Colosseum  in  the  Regent's 
'ark,  London,'  &c.,  printed  for  the  proprietors  and 
old  at  the  Exhibition  and  by  all  booksellers, 
829,"  by  J.  B.  (John  Britton  ?),  with  a  plan  of 
he  panorama  of  London,  which  says  :  lt  Mr. 
Jorner,  the  projector  of  this  work,  finished  the 
ketches  for  its  execution  in  1824.  From  1824  to 
he  present  time  the  buildings,  picture,  and  gar- 
dens have  been  in  progress."  And  in  '  A  Cata- 
ogue  of  the  Several  Departments  of  the  Colos- 
eum,'  &c.,  1840,  the  same  statement  is  repeated, 
n  the  *  Grand  Panorama  of  London  painted  by 
Mr.  E.  T.  Parris '  is  a  footnote  :  "  This  extra- 
ordinary and,  in  its  peculiar  style,  unequalled 
effort  of  human  ingenuity  and  perseverance  was 
>rojected  and  commenced  by  Mr.  Homer,  and 
completed  by  Mr.  E.  T.  Parris  and  assistants, 
under  the  latter  gentleman's  direction."  The 
Illustrated  London  News,  May  3,  1845, '  Reopen- 
ng  of  the  Colosseum,  Regent's  Park/  says,  "  We 
lave  only  space  to  mention  that  the  grand  pano- 
rama of  the  metropolis,  which  covers  the  interior 
walls  of  the  great  polygonal  building,  has  been 
almost  entirely  repainted  by  Mr.  Parris,  who  in 
1829  completed  the  picture  projected  by  Mr. 
Homer."  In  '  A  Description  of  the  Royal  Colos- 
seum, reopened  in  M.D.CCCXLV.,'  &c.,  is  an  account 
of  "  The  Moving  Cyclorama  of  Lisbon,  designed 
and  produced  under  the  direction  of  Mr.  W.  Brad- 
well,  and  painted  by  Messrs.  Danson  and  Son." 

Amedee  Villa,  Crouch  End. 

In  '  Old  and  New  London,'  vol.  v.  p.  272,  Mr. 
Walford  states  that  Mr.  Homer's  panorama 
"  retained  its  popularity  so  long  that  in  1845  it  was  re- 
painted by  Mr.  Parris,  when  a  second  exhibition— the 
earne,  of  course,  mutatis  mutandis — '  London  by  Night,' 

was  exhibited  in  front  of   the  other In  1848  the 

panorama  of  Paris,  painted  by  Danson,  of  the  same  si*e 
as  the  night  view  of  London,  was  exhibited  there." 
This  Danson  was  probably  the  same  artist  who, 
with  Teibin,  painted  "  the  grand  pictorial  model 
of  London  in  the  olden  time  previous  to  the  Great 
Fire  in  1666,"  which  was  exhibited  at  the  Royal 
Surrey  Zoological  Gardens.  G.  F.  R.  B. 

FOURTEENTH  CENTURY  LEASE  (6th  S.  xii.  264, 
355).— MR.  PEACOCK  speaks  of  lepe  as  "an  old 
word  for  basket."  I  have  heard  the  word  seed-lepe 
used  by  labourers  in  Oxfordshire  for  the  basket  in 
which  the  sower  carries  his  seed. 


,  I.  JAN.  23,  '86.] 



SON  OF  A  SEA  COOTE  (6th  S.  xii.  493).— This 
may  possibly  not  be  a  clerical  error,  as  Admiral 
Smyth,  in  his  '  Sailor's  Word  Book '  (1867),  s.  n. 
"  coot,"  remarks  that "  the  name  is  sometimes  used 
for  the  guillemot  (Una  troile),  and  often  applied 
to  a  stupid  person."  G.  F.  R.  B. 

[MR.  EVERARD  HOME  COLEMAN  supplies  the  same 

FILIUS  DEI  (6th  S.  xii.  308,  335,  416,  502).— 
I  beg  to  send  you  another  instance  of  a  name  of 
this  class,  this  time  very  quaint  and  of  the  type 
before  referred  to.  Upon  a  Cheshire  signature  to 
a  deed  at  Dulwich  College,  John  Godsendhimus, 
Mr.  Warner,  'Cat.,'  p.  xlix,  remarks,  "Perhaps 
what  is  euphemistically  called  a  love-child." 



349,  399).— 

The  gardener  said,  &c. 

A  correspondent  of  the  Literary  World  of  January  8 
quotes  the  following,  from  the  '  Memorials  of  Caroline 
Fox'  (1882),  p.  182:— "Went  to  Budock  Churchyard. 
Capt.  Croke  has  such  a  pretty,  simple  epitaph  on  his 
little  boy :  '  And  he  asked,  "  Who  gathered  this  flower  ] " 
And  the  gardener  answered,  "  The  Master  !  "  And 
fellow  servant  held  his  peace.'  " 

Another  correspondent  gives  the  following  epitaph  on 
two  infants  in  the  churchyard  of  Cottingham,  Cam 
bridgeshire : — 

"Who  pluck'd  these  flowers]"  the  careful  gardener  cried; 
"  These  lovely  flowers,  which  graced  the  border  side  ?  " 
"  His  lordship,"  said  the  labourer,  at  the  door — 
The  gardener  silent  bowed,  and  said  no  more. 


(6th  s.  xii.  517.) 
Rocking  on  a  lazy  billow,  &c. 

In  the  edition  of  Lord  Iddesleigh'a  address  on  '  Desul 
tory  Reading,'  published  by  Kegan  Paul,  Trench  &  Co. 
there  is  a  note  stating  that  the  above  quotation  is  from 
Prof.  Stuart  Blackie.  N.  H.  HUNTER. 

The  lines  beginning — 

She  who  comes  to  me  and  pleadeth, 
were  written  by  Longfellow  in  a  private  album.    So  far 
as  I  am  aware,  the  only  reference  to  them  in  print  is  in 
the  Century  Illustrated  Magazine,  vol.  xxv.  p.  160. 

(7th  S.  i.30.) 

To  catch  the  eel  of  science  by  the  tail. 
This  being  only  assigned  to  a  "  poet,"  and  being  also 
inaccurately  quoted,  I  presume  that  the  lines  from  th 
'  Dunciad '  may  be  cited  : — 

How  index-learning  turns  no  student  pale, 
Yet  holds  the  eel  of  science  by  the  tail.— i.  275-6 
There  is  a  Latin  and  Greek  proverb,  "Cauda  tenes 
anguillam,"  which  Erasmus  explains  : — 

"  'ATT'  ovpac.  rr}v  lyxiXui/  !x«C,  id  est,  Cauda  tene 
anguillam.     In  eos  apte  dicetur,  quibus  res  est  cum 
hominibus  lubrica  fide,  perfi disque,  aut  qui  rem  fugitivam 
atque  incertam  aliquam  habent,  quam  tueri  diu  non  pos 
sint."—'  Adagia,'  typ.  Wechel,  fol.,  1629,  p.  324. 

Pierius  Valentinus  (1.  19,  p.  273c  of  his  'Hiero 
glyphica')  notices  the  emblematic  character  of  th 
action.  But  it  is  so  familiar  that  Pope  may  well  hav 
found  it  come  into  his  mind  spontaneously  in  referenc 
to  the  idea  which  he  intended  to  express. 


(7th  S.  i.  60.) 
"  Bloody  with  spurring,  fiery-red  with  haste." 

'  Richard  II.,'  II.  ill. 
W.  H. 


nitials  and  Pseudonyms  ;    a  Dictionary  of  Literary 
Disguises.   By  W.  Gushing,  B.A.   (  Sampson  Lo  w  &  Co.) 
N  a  handsome  volume  of  six  hundred  pages,  containing, 
n  double  columns,  on  a  rough  estimate,  eighteen  thousand 
eferences,  Mr.  Gushing  supplies  what  he  calls  a  *  Die- 
ionary  of  Literary  Disguises,'  and   what  might,  with 
qual  appropriateness,  be  called  a  catalogue  of  literary 
•evelations.    A  work  of  this  class,  intended  to  supply  a 
ist  of  all  the  initials  and  pseudonyms  borne  by  English 
and  American  writers  since  the  year  17uO,  can  never  be 
complete.    That  this  is  the  case  a  mere  glance  at  the 
olumns  of  *  N.  &  Q.'  will  suffice  to  prove,  since  therein 
may  be   found  as  many  pseudonyms  and   initials,  the 
secrecy  of  which  is  not  likely  to  be  violated,  as  would  in 
themselves  constitute   an   important  supplement.      In 
newspapers,  again,  a  signature  once  adopted  is  often 
employed  by  several  writers  in  succession,  and,  strictly 
speaking,  belongs  to  none.     Mr.  Gushing  is  an  American, 
,nd  was  for  some  years  in    the   Harvard  University 
Library.      American  newspaper-writers  occupy,  accord- 
ngly,  a  considerable  share,  while  English  journalism  is 
ess  amply  represented.    This  was,  of  course,  to  be  ex- 
pected, and  the  mention  of  the  fact  is  not  intended  as 
censure.     It  would  be  easy,  however,  to  supply  instan- 
baneously  a  large  number  of  pseudonyms  employed  on 
the  London  press  which  have  an  interest  fully  equal  to  most 
of  those  which  are  mentioned.    In  the  case  of  a  work  of 
this  kind  criticism  is  scarcely  challenged.  Mr.  Cushing's 
book  appeals  to  two  classes:  to  the  scholar  first,  whose 
duty  it  is  in  editorial  work  to  trace  every  line  of  a  de- 
ceased writer,  and  to  that  portion  of  the  general  public 
which  is  curious  to  be  behind  the  scenes  of  literary  life. 
Here  is  a  large  constituency  to  which  to  appeal,  and  there 
is  little  doubt  that  the  new  volume  will  have  a  good  cir- 
culation.   Attention  is  called,  with  justifiable  pride,  to 
the  article  on  Junius  by  Mr.  Albert  R.  Frey,  whose  col- 
lections have  come  into  Mr.  Cushing's  possession.    In 
many  cases  the  information  supplied  extends  far  beyond 
the  mere  name  of  an  author.   The  volume  is  divided  into 
two  portions.     The  earlier  gives  the  initial  or  pseudonym 
first,  and  then  supplies   the  name  of  the  bearer,  as  : 
"Owen  Meredith,  the  Right  Hon.  Edward  Robert  Bulwer 
Lytton,  Earl  Lytton  ";   the  later  the  name  of  a  writer, 
followed  by  all  his  known  aliases,  as  :  "  Buchanan,  Robert, 
Caliban,  Thomas  Maitland."      To  some  names  a  long 
list  is  appended.      Sir  Walter  Scott  is  one  of  these. 
Surely,  however,  the  author  of  'Waverley  '  should  appear 
in  both  parts  of  the  volume.  The  same  name  is,  of  course, 
borne  by  many  people.    How  difficult  it  is  to  keep  up 
to  the  day  is  shown  in  the  fact  that  the  name  "  Friend 
of  the  People,"  which  four  individuals  have  assumed,  is 
now  to  be  seen  on  the  portrait  of  a  lady  prominently 
known  in  connexion  with  the  law  courts.    Mr.  Gushing 
has  accomplished  assiduously  and  well  an  arduous  task. 
He  will  be  able  to  make  large  additions  in  a  second 
edition.    The  work,  however,  will  be  warmly  welcomed, 
and  must  form  a  portion  of  every  library  of  reference. 

The  Dawn  of  the  Nineteenth  Century  in  England,    By 

John  Ashton.    2  vols.    (Fisher  Unwin.) 
MR.  ASHTON'S  sketches  of  social  life  rapidly  multiply, 
In  the  latest  of  these  he  gives  from  various  sources—  the 
principal  among  which  are  newspapers  and  caricatures 
—a  series  of  pictures  of  English  life  in  the  first  decade 



[7*8. 1.  JAN.  23, '8«. 

of  the  present  century.  Leaving  to  the  historian  the 
task  of  showing  the  graver  side  of  politics,  Mr.  Ashton 
contents  himself  with  describing  changing  fashions  of 
dress  and  manners,  the  events  by  which  the  people  were 
temporarily  stirred,  the  "sensations"  of  the  day,  and  the 
picturesque  aspects  of  street  and  road.  For  a  task  so 
unambitious  Mr.  Ashton  has  shown  previously  his  quali- 
fication. His  letterpress  may  be  'easily  skimmed  in  a 
few  hours,  and  the  chief  entertainment  of  the  reader  is 
derived  from  the  abundant  illustrations  with  which  it  is 
accompanied.  To  collectors  these  plates  are  doubtless 
familiar.  There  is  a  world,  however,  which  likes  to 
blend  with  its  amusement  a  certain  measure,  far  from 
oppressive,  of  information.  To  this  world  these  volumes 
appeal.  In  the  early  years  of  the  century  the  English 
people  was  occupied  with  the  scare  of  a  French  invasion. 
Mr.  Ashton  supplies,  accordingly,  pictorial  designs,  with 
accompanying  letterpress,  of  the  volunteers  with  which 
the  country  swarmed.  He  shows  also  the  funeral  car  of 
Nelson  drawn  by  sailors,  the  watchmen  going  on  duty, 
Vauxhall  Gardens,  the  condemned  sermon  at  Newgate, 
and  reproduces  a  number  of  caricatures,  social  and  poli- 
tical. His  volumes  are  gossipping  and  entertaining. 
That  they  contain  much  information  new  to  students  of 
'N.  &  Q.'  cannot  be  said.  In  an  unpretentious  way, 
however,  they  supply  pictures  of  the  life  of  our  grand- 
fathers, and  they  may  be  read  without  fear  of  weariness. 

The  Golden  Gates  and  Silver  Steps.  By  Shirley  Hibberd. 


LIKE  many  other  books  expressly  designed  for  children, 
'  'The  Golden  Gates'  of  Mr.  Shirley  Hibberd  will  find  its 
warmest  admirers  among  readers  of  riper  growth. 
In  the  wild  and  fantastic  stories  and  sketches  which  are 
supplied  much  curious  information  is  given,  and  there  is 
a  vein  of  gentle  satire  which  is  not  unworthy  of  Ander- 
sen. This  book  constitutes,  so  far  as  we  know,  a  new 
departure  of  Mr.  Hibberd.  The  line  he  adopts  in  his 
less  occupied  moments  is  worth  continuing. 

The  English  Historical  Review.    No.  I.    (Longmans  & 


UNDER  the  editorship  of  Dr.  Creighton  this  new  candi- 
date for  the  favour  of  the  literary  world  makes  a  pro- 
mising start.  Its  object,  briefly  stated  in  an  opening 
address,  is  to  supply  historical  articles  written  in  a  philo- 
sophical spirit,  including  the  last  results  of  modern 
discovery,  avoiding  "personal  controversy,"  and  appeal- 
ing directly  to  the  professional  student  of  history,  but 
making  also  some  appeal  to  the  general  reader.  Dr. 
Freeman's  essay  on  '  The  Tyrants  of  Britain,  Gaul,  and 
Spain,'  which  gives  an  animated  account  of  some  of  the 
difficulties  of  the  Western  Empire  during  a  period  of 
barbarian  aggression,  is  perhaps  typical  of  the  best  kind 
of  work  the  Review  is  likely  to  obtain.  The  Provost  of 
Oriel  sends  also  a  valuable  contribution  on  '  Homer  and 
the  Early  History  of  Greece,'  Lord  Acton  has  a  thought- 
ful and  suggestive  paper  on  'German  Schools  of 
History,'  and  Prof.  Seeley  writes  on  'The  House  of 
Bourbon.'  Notes  and  documents,  some  of  much  interest, 
and  a  large  number  of  reviews  of  books  are  included 
in  the  number. 

Le  Lime  for  January  3  0, 1886,  will  have  to  be  included 
in  all  Dickens  collections  pretending  to  completeness. 
Its  opening  article  consists  of  '  Charles  Dickens  a  Paris  : 
d'apres  sa  Correspondence  et  des  Documents  Inedits.' 
There  are,  as  might  have  been  expected,  some  mis- 
takes in  the  notes,  as  when  the  name  Sampson 
Brass,  applied  to  one  of  his  children  by  Dickens,  is 
said  to  be  that  of  a  giant  in  a  fairy  tale ;  but 
the  article  has  abundant  interest.  It  deals  only  with 
the  life  in  the  Rue  de  Courcelles,  1846-7,  and  has  two 
full-page  portraits  of  the  novelist,  A  further  instal- 

ment will  deal  with  Paris  revisited  by  Dickens.  A  por* 
trait  of  Alexandre  Dumas  is  also  affixed  to  a  notice  of 
'  La  Tour  de  Nesle.'  M.;0ctave  Uzanne's  '  Causerie  de 
Nouvel  An '  gives  an  interesting  account  of  the  establish- 
ment of  Le  Lime. 

THE  February  number  of  Watford's  Antiquarian  will 
contain  the  first  of  a  series  of  papers  on  •  Our  Early 
Antiquaries.'  It  deals  with  Elias  Ashmole.  Mr.  H.  R. 
Forrest  will  give  an  account  of  how  his  Shakspearian 
collection  arose,  and  Mr.  Greenstreet  will  contribute  a 
further  instalment  of  4  The  Ordinary  from  Mr.  Thomas 
Jenyns's  "  Booke  of  Armes."  ' 

MR.  ROUND  has  at  press  a  critical  essay  on  '  The  Early 
Life  of  Anne  Boleyn,'  dealing  with  the  points  in  the 
controversy  between  Mr.  Friedmann,  Mr.  Gairdner,  and 
Mr.  Brewer.  Mr.  Elliot  Stock  will  be  the  publisher. 

FRANCIS  CAPPER  BROOKE,  of  Ufford  Place,  Suffolk, 
under  the  initials  F.  C.  B.  one  of  the  earliest  contri- 
butors to  '  N.  &  Q.,'  died  suddenly  on  Wednesday,  the  13th 
inst.  Born  in  1810,  he  was  educated  at  Harrow  and 
Christ  Christ,  Oxford,  where  he  graduated  in  classical 
honours  in  1831.  He  subsequently  held  a  commission  in 
the  Grenadier  Guards,  serving  also  the  office  of  high 
sheriff  of  his  native  county  in  1869.  A  glance  at  an  old 
Oxford  Calendar  shows  amongst  his  undergraduate  con- 
temporaries who  were  at  that  date  students  on  the 
foundation  of  the  house  the  honoured  names  of  W.  K. 
Hamilton,  Sutherland,  W.  E.  Gladstone,  the  Hon.  C.  J. 
Canning,  H.  G.  Liddell,  Montagu  Villiers,  and  Robert 
Scott;  whilst  amongst  independent  members  are  Ramsay 
and  Bruce,  afterwards  Lords  Dalhousie  and  Elgin.  For 
a  number  of  years  Mr.  Brooke  devoted  much  time  and 
money  to  the  collection  of  a  noble  library  at  Ufford, 
numbering  more  than  twenty  thousand  volumes.  In 
this  he  took  great  delight,  knowing  intimately  its  trea- 
sures. In  fact,  it  was  said  he  could  find  any  book  in  it 
in  the  dark.  One  of  its  chief  features  was  the  collection 
of  pamphlets  and  leaflets.  The  library  is  strictly  en- 
tailed as  an  heirloom,  and  will  not,  therefore,  meet  with 
the  usual  fate  of  fine  collections  in  the  auction-room. 

$otire*  to  Carretfpan&ent*. 

We  must  call  special  attention  to  the  following  notices : 

ON  all  communications  must  be  written  the  name  and 
address  of  the  sender,  not  necessarily  for  publication,  but 
as  a  guarantee  of  good  faith. 

WE  cannot  undertake  to  answer  queries  privately. 

To  secure  insertion  of  communications  correspondents 
must  observe  the  following  rule.  Let  each  note,  query, 
or  reply  be  written  on  a  separate  slip  of  paper,  with  the 
signature  of  the  writer  and  such  address  as  he  wishes  to 
appear.  Correspondents  who  repeat  queries  are  requested 
to  head  the  second  communication  "  Duplicate." 

B.  B.  ("Bannerman  Family  ").— By  referring  to  the 
notice  to  correspondents  at  the  head  of  our  queries,  you 
will  see  it  is  impossible  for  us  to  insert  your  communi- 

M.  H.  WHITE  ("General  Armstrong ").— Your  first 
query  on  this  subject  has  been  inserted,  ante,  p.  48,  and 
a  second  has  been  sent  with  no  mark  of  being  a  duplicate. 

Editorial  Communications  should  be  addressed  to  "  The 
Editor  of  '  Notes  and  Queries '  " — Advertisements  and 
Business  Letters  to  "  The  Publisher  "—at  the  Office,  22, 
Took's  Court,  Cursitor  Street,  Chancery  Lane,  B.C. 

We  beg  leave  to  state  that  we  decline  to  return  com- 
munications which,  for  any  reason,  we  do  not  print*;  and 
to  this  rule  we  can  make  no  exception. 

7">  S.  I.  Jin.  30,  '86.] 




CONTENTS.— N°  5. 

NOTES :— History  of  the  Thames,  81—'  Dictionary  of  National 
Biography,'  82  — Shakspeariana,  84  —  Brief = Spell  —  Hog- 
manay, 85— Suez  Canal  — Lubbock  — Straw  Bear  of  the 
Plough- Witchers— Chester  Bells,  86. 

QUERIES  :— "  Magna  est  veritas,"  86— Campbell  of  New 
Grange— Cantankerous— Lewis  Way— Leonellus  Ducatus — 
Person— Henri  IV.  and  Beliegarde,  87— Kibbe  Family- Sir 
W.  Raleigh— Lines  under  a  Crucifix — Thomas  a  Kempis — 
'  Lyra  Urbanica  '—Indexed  Editions— Sitting  Bull  -  Them— 
Literary  Queries  —  Italian  MS.,  88  —  "  A gorsequerdere " — 
Philosopher's  Stone— Kalendar— Portrait  on  Panel — "Im- 
mortall  Cracke  "—Bradford  Family— Earldom  of  Plymouth 
—Lord  Whitworth's  'Russia  in  1710 '—Robinson  Cruso— 
Sidley  Baronetcy,  89— Poems,  90. 

REPLIES  :—"  Hang  sorrow,"  90  — Caligraphy  — Sbepster  — 
Ordinance  for  Stage  Plays— Feet  of  Fines— Seventh  Daughter 
Superstition  —  Curran's  Historical  Fleas  — W.  Wopllett  — 
Apostate  Nuns,  91— Tombstone  of  Gundrada— Messiah  and 
Moses— St.  Thomas  a  Becket,  92— Simulation  in  Art,  93 — 
'Snap  Apple  Night '—Rhyming  Charters— N.  Cotton,  94  — 
How  to  find  a  Drowned  Corpse— Brown— Old  St.  Pancras— 
'  Hours  of  Idleness '— T.  Pringle— Effigy  of  Robert  of  Nor- 
mandy, 95— Bed  staff-"  Pull  Devil  pull  Baker  "—A  Cornish 
Carol,  96— Anglo- Irish  Ballads— Pigeons  and  Sick  People— 
Pyewipe  Inn— Toot  Hill— Trapp— A  Sheaf  of  Misprints,  97— 
Vegetable  Butter— '  Valor  Ecclesiasticus '— Eton  Montem, 
9S-Seal  of  Inquisitor,  99. 

NOTES  ON  BOOKS  :— Cox's  '  First  Century  of  Christianity  ' 
— Dall's  '  What  we  really  know  about  Shakespeare  '—Stone's 
'Christianity  before  Christ'— De  Morgan's  'Newton,  his 
Friend,  and  his  Niece  '— '  A  Woman  possessed  by  the  Devil.' 

Notices  to  Correspondents,  &c. 



In  the  foregoing  "  contributions"!  observe  that 
I  have  shot  a  martyr  with  arrows  in  the  valley  of  the 
East  Anglian  Waveney,  stalked  down  a  mammoth 
on  stilts  in  the  valley  of  the  Ehine,  and  lassoed  a 
magnificent  antiquarian  hobby-horse  in  the  valley 
of  the  Somme.  But  if  the  benevolent  reader 
thinks  that  in  so  doing  I  have  in  any  wise  gone 
astray  from  my  subject,  the  history  of  the  Thames, 
he  labours  under  a  mistake.  At  the  time  when 
the  flint  which  John  Conyers  found  opposite  Black 
Mary's  was  chipped  into  its  present  shape  the 
Waveney,  the  Rhine,  the  Somme,  and  fifty  other 
rivers,  great  and  small,  on  both  sides  of  the 
Channel,  were  all  of  them  tributaries  of  the 
Thames.  It  may  perhaps  be  objected  that  if  the 
Thames  and  the  Rhine  were  ever  united,  the 
Thames  ought  rather  to  be  considered  as  a  tribu- 
tary of  the  Rhine  than  the  Rhine  of  the  Thames. 
I  notice  this  objection  merely  to  set  it  aside.  In 
spite  of  all  temptations  to  belong  to  other  nations, 
I  am  a  son  of  the  English  mother-country,  and 
object  on  principle  to  allowing  the  German  father- 
land any  superiority,  even  in  the  matter  of  rivers. 
Dray  ton  was  of  the  same  way  of  thinking : — 

The  Scbeld,  the  goodly  Meuse,  the  rich  and  viny  Rhine, 
Shall  come  to  meet  the  Thames  in  Neptune's  \vafry 

And  all  the  Belgian  streams  and  neighbouring  floods  of 

Of  him  shall  stand  in  awe,  his  tributaries  all. 

'  Pol.,'  xv. 

And  here  I  note  that  both  Spenser  and  Drayton 
have  something  so  say  about  a  time  when  the 
British  Isles  still  formed  part  of  the  European 
mainland — 

For  Albion  the  son  of  Neptune  we 8, 

Who  for  the  proof  of  his  great  puissance 

Out  of  his  Albion  did  on  dry-foot  pass 
Into  old  Gaul  that  now  is  cleped  France 

To  fight  with  Hercules.—'  F.  Q.,'  iv.  ii.  16. 

The  later  poet  enters  into  further  details,  which 
place   the   domestic   character    of   Albion    in  an 
amiable  light.     The  Isle  of  Thanet,  it  seems,  was 
his  eldest  daughter,  and  her  present  geographical 
position  is  due  to  the  fact  that  she  was  there 
By  mighty  Albion  plac'd  till  his  return  again 
From  Gaul,  where  after  he  by  Hercules  was  slain. 
For  earth-born  Albion,  then  great  Neptune's  eldest  son, 
Ambitious  of  the  fame  by  stern  Alcides  won, 
Would  over,  needs,  to  Gaul,  with  him  to  hazard  fight. 

When  her  papa  was  just  starting  on  this  ill- 
omened  enterprise,  Thanet,  like  a  loving  and  duti- 
ful daughter,  "  raught "  at  him  to  embrace  him,  a 
circumstance,  fortunately, 

Which  was  perceiv'd  by  chance, 

The  loving  isle  would  else  have  followed  him  to  France. 
To  make  the  channel  wide  that  then  he  forced  was 
Whereas,  some  say,  before  he  us'd  on  foot  to  pass. 

Drayton,  'Pol.,'  xviii. 

I  do  not  know  whence  the  poets  derived  that  part 
of  the  myth  which  refers  to  Albion's  crossing  the 
Channel  dry-shod ;  but  obviously  it  cannot  belong 
to  the  original  story,  because  if  Albion  had  not 
been  geographically  an  island  it  would  never  have 
figured  allegorically  as  a  son  of  Neptune.  The 
immediate  source  from  which  Spenser  drew  the 
rest  of  the  legend  was  probably  William  Harrison's 
introduction  to  Holinshed's  *  Chronicle,'  where  it 
is  thus  given  (ed.  1577,  p.  5),  on  the  authority  of 
"  Nicholaus  Perottus,  Rigmanus  Philesius,  Aris- 
totle, and  Humfrey  Llhuyd,  with  diuers  other." 
Albion  the  Giant,  it  seems,  was  the  fourth  son  of 
Neptune,  sixth  son  of  Osiris,  and  brother  of  Her- 
cules, by  a  lady  called  Amphitrita,  and  was  put 
by  his  father  in  possession  of  the  Isle  of  Britain, 
where  he  speedily  subdued  the  Samotheans, 
the  first  inhabitants. 

"  As  Albion  held  Britayn  in  subiection,  so  his  brother 
Bergion  kepte  Irelandeand  the  Orkeneys  under  his  rule 
and  dominion,  and  hearing  that  their  cousin  Hercules 
Libicus,  hauing  finished  his  Conquestes  in  Spayri,  ment 
to  passe  through  Galliainto  Italye,  against  their  brother 
Lestrigo,  that  oppressed  Italy,  under  subiection  of 
him  and  other  of  his  brethren  :  the  sons  also  of  Neptune, 
as  well  Albion  as  Bergion,  assembling  their  powers 
togither,  passed  ouer  into  Gallia,  to  stoppe  the  passage 
of  Hercules." 

Hercules,  "whome  Moyses  calleth  Laabin,"  had 



L7*  S.  I.  JAN.  30,  '86. 

sworn  revenge  against  the  children  of  Neptune  for 
having  killed  his  father  Osiris,  and  after  having 
slain  Tryphon  and  Busyris  in  Egypt,  Anteua  in 
Mauritania,  and  "  the  Gerions  in  Spayne  "  led  his 
army  towards  Italy,  "and  by  the  waye  passeth 
through  a  part  of  Gallia,  where  Albion  and  Ber- 
gion  hauing  united  their  powers  togither,  were 
ready  to  receyue  him  with  bataile,  and  so  nere  to 
the  mouth  of  the  riuer  called  Rhosne,  in  latin 
Rhodanus,  they  met  and  fought."  At  first  victory 
"  beganne  outrighte  to  turne  unto  Albion  and  to 
his  brother  Bergion,"  and  Hercules,  seeing  that  he 
was  being  worsted, 

"  specially  for  that  his  men  had  wasted  their  weapons, 
caused  those  that  stood  stil  and  were  not  otherwyse 
occupied,  to  stoupe  down  and  to  gather  up  stones  wherof 
in  that  place  there  was  plentie,  whyche  by  his  com- 
maundemente  they  bestowed  so  freely  upon  theyre 
enimies  that  in  the  ende  hee  obteyned  the  victorie," 

slaying  Albion  and  Bergion  with  most  of  their  men. 
This,  then,  is  the  legend  in  its  latest  form, 
rustling  in  Elizabethan  farthingale  and  ruff,  radiant 
in  roses  of  paint  and  lilies  of  powder.  Who  would 
have  dreamed  that  two  thousand  years  before,  the 
same  tradition,  even  then  of  immemorial  anti- 
quity, had  swept  across  the  stage  of  Attic  tragedy 
at  the  bidding  of  ^Eschylus  ?  Yet  so  it  is.  The 
costume  is  changed.  The  myth  wears  chiton  and 
peplum  instead  of  hoop  and  buckram,  but  it  is 
the  same  myth.  "The  ' Prometheus  Unbound' 
of  ^Eachylus,"  says  Shelley,  in  the  preface  to  his 
own  poem  under  the  same  title, 

"  supposed  the  reconciliation  of  Jupiter  with  his  victim 
as  the  price  of  the  disclosure  of  the  danger  threatened 
to  his  empire  by  the  consummation  of  his  marriage 
with  Thetis.  Thetis,  according  to  this  view  of  the  sub- 
ject, was  given  in  marriage  to  Peleus,  and  Prometheus, 
by  the  permission  of  Jupiter,  delr 

by  Hercules."* 

delivered  from  his  captivity 

Unhappily,  although  the  outline  of  the  plot  is 
preserved,  the  drama  itself  only  survives  in  a  few 
fragments,  embedded,  like  fossils,  in  the  works  of 
later  authors.  Among  these  extracts  the  longest 
and  most  important  is  given  by  Strabo  in  de- 
scribing what  is  now  the  plain  of  La  Crau, 
between  Marseilles  and  the  mouths  of  the  Rhone. 
Here,  says  the  geographer,  about  a  hundred  fur- 
longs from  the  sea  and  about  the  same  distance  in 
diameter,  is  a  waste  called  the  Stony,  from  the 
number  of  loose  stones  there  ;  and  after  stating 
sundry  theories  which  had  been  broached  to 
account  for  their  origin,  he  proceeds  : — 

"  But  JEschylus,  evidently  puzzled  to  account  for  the 
phenomenon,  either  invented  or  adopted  a  myth  to  ex- 
plain it.  For,  according  to  him,  when  Prometheus  was 
telling  Hercules  the  line  of  travel  he  would  have  to  take 
to  get  from  Caucasus  to  the  Hesperides,  he  said  : — 

*  "  I,"  he  adds,  in  justification  of  his  own  departure 
rom  the  precedent  laid  down  by  ^Eschylus,  "  was  averse 
rom  a  catastrophe  so  feeble  as  that  of  reconciling  the 
hampion  with  the  Oppressor  of  mankind." 

Thence  to  the  Ligyans'  dauntless  host  thou  'It  come, 
When,  puissant  as  thou  art,  full  well  I  wot 
Thou  'It  'plain  thee  of  the  fight,  for  'tis  ordained 
Thy  shafts  shall  there  be  spent,  and  not  a  stone 
Shall  earth  afford,  for  all  the  soil  is  loam. 
But  Zeus  shall  see  thee  weaponless,  and  send 
In  pity  a  cloud  that  shall  make  dark  the  earth 
With  hail-storm  of  round  stones,  hurling  the  which 
With  ease  thou  'It  bring  to  naught  the  Ligyan  host."* 

Here,  then,  is  evidently  the  same  tradition,  asso- 
ciated not  with  the  names  of  Albion  and  Bergios, 
but  with  a  certain  Ligyan  (  =  Ligurian)  host,  in  a 
play  of  ^Eschylus  which,  together  with  the  others 
•making  up  the  Promethean  trilogy,  was  acted  at 
Athens  some  time  between  B.C.  472  and  B.C.  458. 
It  is  quite  possible,  moreover,  and  indeed  probable, 
that  it'  the  context  of  this  tantalizing  fragment  were 
still  in  existence,  the  names  of  the  giants  would  be 
found  mentioned  in  it.  At  all  events,  Pomponius 
Mela,  early  in  the  first  century  A.D.,  in  describing 
the  same  "  Stony  Waste,"  speaks  of  it  as  the  spot 
"  where  Hercules  fought  Albion  and  Bergios,  the 
sons  of  Neptune,  "t  The  connexion  between  the 
giant  children  of  Poseidon  and  the  "  Ligyan  host " 
is  still  further  proved  by  the  name  Ligys  being 
substituted  for  that  of  Bergios  in  the  version  of 
the  story  preserved  by  Isaac  Tzetzes,  or  whoever 
else  the  scholiast  on  Lycophron  may  have  been. 
(To  le  continued.) 



(See  6'h  S.  xi.  105,  443;   xii.  3'Jl.) 

Vol.  V. 

P.  20,  Johrf  Bigland.  This  article  is  lamentably 
imperfect,  chiefly  because  the  writer  of  it  was 
unaware  of  Bigland's  '  Memoirs  written  by  Him- 
self,' an  8vo.  vol.  of  255  pp. ,  published  at  Don- 
caster,  1830.  He  died  at  Finningley  ;  Poulson 
does  not  say  that  he  died  at  Aldbrough,  but  that 
he  was  born  there,  which  is  equally  wrong. 

P.  22  a,  for  "  for  Grace  "  read  of  Grace. 

P.  34,  John  Billingsley,  senior.  Fox's '  Mystery 
of  the  great  Whore'  was  a  reply  to  many  writers 
besides  B. ;  Smith,  'Bibl.  Anti-Quak.,'  1872, 
pp.  74-5;  'Life  of  John  Hierom,'  1691,  p.  52. 
Hey  wood  says  he  died  in  1683,  aged  fifty-six,  and 
was  buried  at  Mansfield  May  29, '  Nonconf.  Keg. ,' 
by  Heywood  and  Dickinson,  1881,  p.  68 ;  Heywood's 
« Diaries,'  1881,  ii.  147. 

P.  35,  John  Billingsley,  junior.  "  He  does  not 
appear  to  have  published  anything."  Yet  at  the 
end  of  Harris's  '  Funeral  Sermon '  (named  as  one 
of  the  works  consulted)  is  a  list  of  ten  things 
published  by  him,  beginning  with  '  The  Believer's 

*  Strabo,  iv.  1;  Dionysiug  Halic.,  i.  41.  Cf.  also 
Diod.  Sic.,  iv.  19. 

f  «  De  Situ  Orbis,'  ii.  5.  Apollodorus,  ii.  5,  §  10,  calls 
Bergios,  Dercynua. 

7'h  s.  i.  JAN.  30,  '86.] 



Daily  Exercise,'  1690,  which  is  here,  35  a,  given  to 
his  father.  Moreover  this  list  is  not  complete. 
He  became  a  pupil  of  Richard  Frankland,  Sept.  1, 
1679,  and  was  "  ordained"  at  Mansfield,  Sept.  28, 
1681,  by  his  father  and  others.  He  married 
Dorcas  Jordan,  of  Mansfield,  Aug.  22,  1682,  who 
died  Dec.  29,  1717,  Dr.  Harris  preaching  her 
funeral  sermon.  He  was  one  of  those  who 
signed  '  An  Authentick  Account  of  Things 
agreed  upon  by  the  Dissenting  Ministers,'  8vo. 
Lond.,  1719.  '  Nouconf.  Keg. ,' by  Hey  wood  and 
Dickinson,  1881,  p.  45  ;  Heywood's  '  Diaries,' 
1881,  ii.  10,  201  ;  *  Hist,  of  Chesterfield,'  1839, 
p.  115n.;  Miall,  'Congreg.  in  Yorksh.,'  1868, 
p.  291 ;  Thoresby, 4  Corresp.,'  i.  152.  A  pedigree 
of  the  issue  of  John  Billingsley,  jun.,  is  given  in 
Dr.  Howard's  ' Misc.  Gen.  et  Her.,'  1868,  i.  299, 
and  see  '  N.  &  Q.,'  6th  S.  xi.  513-4. 

P.  36  b,  for  "  Belshanger  "  read  Betteshanger. 

P.  37  a,  for  "  Lantmartine  "  read  Leintwardine ; 
for  "  Baynes  "  read  Reyner. 

P.  37  b,  for  "  nonjurist "  read  nonjuror  (?). 

P.  43  b,  for  "  sacramentaries  "  read  sacramen- 
tarians  (?). 

P.  46,  Francis  Bindon.  Accounts  of  him  in 
Nichols,  'Lit.  Anecd.,' viii.,  1814,  p.  2n.;  Nichols, 
*  Illust.  Lit.  Hist.,'  v.,  1828,  p.  384-6,  with  a  poem 
up'>n  him  by  D^ane  Swift,  E"q  ,  printed  by  Faulkner 
of  Dublin  in  1744.  His  p  >nrait  of  Abp.  Boulter  has 
been  engraved  by  Brooks,  Gent.  Mag.,  1786,  p.  420, 
1787,  p.  593,  and  it  was  the  subject  of  a  poem 
addressed  to  the  painter  by  Delamayne,  Gent. 
Mag.,  1742,  p.  664 ;  '  N.  &  Q.,'  6th  S.  viii.  105, 

P.  46  b,  for  "  Chicheliana"  read  Chicheleana. 

P.  71  b,  1.  18,  for  "  1634  "  read  1635. 

Pp.  71,  72,  Mr.  Bird's {  Autobiog.'  should  have 
been  more  precisely  mentioned. 

P.  72 a,  1.  29,  for  "Bell"  read  Bird. 

P.  89  b.  One  of  the  latest  writers  on  the  Acts, 
the  Rev.  W.  Denton,  1874,  i.  2,  places  Biscoe  first 
in  a  list  of  eight  English  commentators  from  whose 
writings  the  student  of  Holy  Scripture  will  learn 
far  more  than  he  will  gather  from  the  pages  of  all 
the  writers  of  the  critical  school  of  Germany. 

P.  96  a,  On  the  popularity  of  some  of  Bishop's 
verses  see  '  N.  &  Q.,'  3rd  S.  xi.  247  ;  'Elegant 
Extracts,'  bk.  iv.  §  196. 

P.  98  b,  '  Remarks  upon  a  small  Treatise,  en- 
titled, "The  Beauty  of  Holiness  in  the  Common 
Prayer,"  written  and  published  by  Dr.  Bisse,  1732.' 

P.  100  b,  Bisset  of  Birmingham.  Many  details 
in  <  N.  &  Q.,'  V*  S.  Hi.  v.  vi. 

P.  126  b,  for  "  Tunstill"  read  Tunstall 

P.  157  a,  A  description  of  Bbgrave's  'Mathe- 
matical Jewel '  is  one  of  the  treatises  comprised  in 
Blundevile's  '  Exercises,'  third  edition,  1606.  John 
Palmer's  '  Description  '  of  the  same,  4to.,  1658, 
mentioned  under  Joseph  Blagrave  (158  a),  should 
have  been  noticed  here. 

P.  169,  Charles  Blake.  He  was  born  Oct.  31. 
The  dates  of  his  degrees  do  not  tally  with  those 
printed  in  '  Catal.  Grad.,'  1772.  He  did  not  hold 
the  living  of  St.  Mary's,  Hull.  Gent's  *  Ripon,' 
ii.  3;  Gent's  '  Hull/ 63-5  ;  Wilson's  «  Merch. 
Taylors'  Sch.';  his  MSS.,  &c.,  Robinson's  'Snaith,' 
1861,  pp.  99,  100. 

P.  169  b,  for  "  Hessy  "  read  Eessey. 

P.  18 1  a,  for  "  Wollett "  read  Woollett. 

P.  198  b.  Mrs.  Bland  was  born  at  Caen,  Nor- 
mandy ;  her  husband's  name  was  George  ;  Maun- 
der's  '  Biog.  Treas.,'  third  edition,  1841,  p.  844. 

P.  236-7,  Robert  Bloomfield.  Much  has  been 
collected  about  him  and  his  writings  in  '  N.  &  Q.,' 
4th  S.  vi.;  see  also  Brayley's  'Vipws  Illu<  of 
Bloomfield,  with  Memoir,'  1806  ;  People's  Mag., 
1867,  i.  pp.  9,  272.  In  an  advertisement  to  the 
eighth  edition  of  the  '  Farmer's  Boy,'  1805,  dated 
March  2,  1805,  the  author  corrects  some  of  the 
dates  in  Mr.  Lofft's  preface.  His  first  appearances 
in  print  were  in  Say's  '  Gazetteer,'  and  in  Almon's 
Gen.  Advert.,  May- Nov.,  1786,  and  not  at  an 
earlier  date  in  the  Lond.  Mag.,  as  stated  236  b. 

P.  243  a.  John  Owen  has  a  characteristic  epi- 
gram, "  In  obitum  Caroli  Blunt  Comitis  Deuoniae, 
1606."  First  collection,  lib.  iii.  n.  206. 

P.  244,  Charles  Blount.  Notice  should,  in 
fairness,  be  taken  of  what  Christians  thought  of 
his  *  Apollonius'  and  of  his  suicide;  see  Leslie's 
'Short  Method,'  edition  1815,  p.  52. 

P.  256  a.  The  pref.  to  '  Les  Termes  de  la  Ley,' 
1667,  is  signed  "  T.  B.,  Inner  Temple,  April  23, 
1667";  for  "Chancy"  read  Chauncy. 

Pp.  273-4,  J.  H.  Blunt.  Both  his  degrees  of 
M.A.  and  D.D.  were  honorary  ;  he  was  elected 
F.S.A.  1866.  A  detailed  account  of  his  life  was 
given  by  a  friend  in  the  Church  Times,  April  18, 
1884,  p.  303. 

P.  276  a,  for  "  Kynnesley  "  read  Kynnersley. 

P.  286,  Bobart,  jun.  In  a  copy  of  Lonicerus, 
'De  Hist.  Nat.,'  fol.  1551  (in  my  possession), 
"  Liber  Jacobi  Bobart.  Ex  dono  Doctissimi  Viri 
D.  Doctoris  Hudson,  Proto-bibliothecarij  Oxoni- 
ensis,  Clariasimi."  Much  about  the  Bobarts  in 
'  N.  &  Q.';  see  the  general  indexes. 

P.  291  a,  J.  E.  Bode.  Memoir  in  Miller, 
'Singers and  Songs,' second  edition,  1869,  p.  513. 

P.  350  a,  for  "  T.  Gregory  Smith,"  read  I. 
Gregory  Smith. 

P.  354  a.  A  Series  of  Subjects  from  the  Works 
of  R.  P.  Bonington,  drawn  on  stone  by  J.  D. 
Harding,  port.,  and  twenty  plates,  fol.,  1829.  His 
port,  by  Mrs.  Carpenter  was  exhibited  at  S.  Ken- 
sington, 18f?8,  No.  344  in  the  'Catal.  Nat.  Port. 
Exhib.  III.,'  where  is  a  brief  biography,  slightly 

P.  357  a,  for  "  Lechmore  "  read  Lechmere  ; 
Bledon  may  more  naturally  represent  Bredon, 
which  joins  Ripple. 

P.  357  b,  Bonner's  pref.  to  Bp,  Gardiner's  book 



[7th  S.  I.  JAN.  30,  '86. 

was  reprinted  in  1832  in  a  *  Mem.  of  John  Brad- 
ford,' by  Wm.  Stevens. 

P.  359  b.  Bale's  *  Declaration  of  Edmonde  Bon- 
ner's  Articles'  was  published  at  London,  1561  ; 
he  had  previously  written  under  the  name  of 
Johan  Harryson  'Yet  a  Course  at  the  Romyshe  Fox,' 
Zurik,  1543,  another  attack  on  Bonner.  Hannah 
More  wrote  a  poem,  'Bishop  Bonner's  Ghost.' 

P.  389  b,  for  "  Oxendon  "  read  Oxenden. 

P.  392  b,  for  "North  Howram"  read  North 

P.  392,  Boothroyd.  See  Miall,  '  Congreg.  in 
Yorksb.,'  1868,  pp.  193-4. 

P.  402  a,  for  "  Berwick  "  [in  list  of  authorities] 
read  Kipon. 

P.  427,  Bosville.  Gunthwaite  is  in  the  parish 
of  Penistone,  Yorkshire.  Bosville  also  had  a  seat 
(now  belonging  to  the  family  of  Lord  Macdonald) 
at  Thorpe,  in  the  parish  of  Rudstone,  in  the  East 
Riding  of  Yorkshire,  where  Boswell  visited  him  in 
May,  1778,  and  whence  he  wrote  to  Dr.  Johnson  ; 
see  the  '  Life,'  under  that  year. 

P.  442.  Edward  Boteler  belonged  to  the Botelers 
of  Sudeley,  Gloucestershire,  and  was  Rector  of  Win- 
tringham  from  1650  to  his  death  in  1669.  Much 
has  been  collected  about  him  in  the  notes  to  the 
three  editions  of  John  Shawe's  *  Memoirs,'  Broadley, 
1824,  pp.  100-5,  Surtees  Soc.,  vol.  Ixv.,  pp.  437-9  ; 
Boyle,  1882,  pp.  276-80.  See  also  Calamy,  '  Ac- 
count/85  ;  Rennet's  'Register';  Hadley's  'Hull,' 
887  ;  Andrew's  '  Winterton,'  107  ;  Westoby,  '  Life 
of  T.  Adam,'  169;  Wilford's  '  Memorials,'  1741, 
pp.  183,  237. 

The  notice  of  Bp.  Bilson  (pp.  43,  44)  is  very 
inadequate  and  most  disappointing.  Surely  the 
editor  would  act  more  wisely  if  he  gave  to  English 
churchmen  the  task  of  writing  about  English 
churchmen.  When  he  has  Canons  Overton, 
Creighton,  Venables,  Stephens,  and  others  on  his 
staff,  he  should  have  no  need  to  turn  to  outsiders, 
who,  even  if  unprejudiced,  cannot  realize  and 
present  the  bearing  on  his  own  times  of  the  life 
of  such  a  man  as  Bilson.  Neither  is  there  in  this 
instance  any  special  acquaintance  with  his  writings 
which  can  be  set  off  against  a  poor  grasp  of  his  life. 
His  book  on  Church  Government  is  contemptuously 
dismissed  with  the  brief  notice  "  superfluously 
learned  and  unattractive."  Yet  Canon  Perry,  in 
his  'History  of  the  English  Church,'  1878  (a  small 
book  for  students)  can  afford  to  give  up  nearly 
a  page  to  this  very  book,  concluding  that  "  the 
learning  and  ability  with  which  Bilson"  wrote 
'  constitute  this  work  one  of  the  most  effective  of 
English  theological  controversy,  and  certainly  the 
most  complete  and  useful  which  this  particular  strife 
produced."  Nothing  is  said  about  his  presence 
at  the  Hampton  Court  Conference.  John  Owen, 
fellow  of  New  College,  had  Bilson  for  his  preceptor, 
and  has  left  one  of  his  epigrams  in  grateful  memory 
of  him  who  taught  him  to  write  them. 

The  writers  show  great  unevenness  in  their 
knowledge  and  use  of  books  of  reference,  which 
might  have  been  prevented  by  a  process  of  exhaus- 
tion, just  as  Dr.  Murray  and  his  staff  have  pre- 
cautiously  drawn  dry  every  English  dictionary. 

The  '  Dictionary  of  National  Biography '  owes 
much— perhaps  more  than  it  acknowledges — to 
'  N.  &  Q.';  but  a  short  acquaintance  with  the 
seventy-two  volumes  of  our  valuable  periodical, 
made  by  means  of  the  indexes,  will  show  that  it 
might  profitably  owe  very  much  more. 

W.  C.  B. 

'  1  HENRY  IV.,'  II.  iv.  (6th  S.  xii.  203):— 

This  pitch,  as  ancient  writers  do  report,  doth  defile. 
"  The  quotation  is  from  the  apocryphal  book 
of  Ecclesiasticus,  xii.  1 .,  'He  that  toucheth  pitch 
shall  be  defiled  therewith ' "  (Harris's  '  Malone's 
Shakspere').  This  appropriation  from  Scripture 
seemed  common  enough  in  those  days,  as  many 
writers  had  used  it,  therefore  making  good  what 
Falstaff,  or  Shakespere,  said.  Shakespere  may 
have  known  it  from  them  as  much  as  from  the 
Bible.  The  saying  had  become  proverbial  before 
Shakespere  (see  Boswell's  '  Malont's  Shakspere,' 
where  the  pointing  out  the  passage  in  Ecclesiasticus 
is  assigned  to  Harris).  The  use  by  others  is  as 
follows  : — "  Alluding  to  an  ancient  ballad  begin- 
ning, 'Who  toucheth  pitch  must  be  defiled'" 
(Steevens);  or  perhaps  to  Lyly's  '  Euphues.' 
"He  that  toucheth  pitch  shall  be  defiled"  (Holt 
White).  Dr.  Farmer  has  pointed  out  another 
passage  exhibiting  the  same  observation,  but 
omitted  to  specify  the  work  to  which  it  belongs  : 
"  It  is  harde  for  a  man  to  touch  pitch  and  not  to 
be  defiled  with  it  "  (Steevens). 

In  the  next  speech  given  to  Falstaff  there  is  an 
appeal  to  the  New  Testament:  "If,  then,  the 
tree  may  be  known  by  the  fruit,  as  the  fruit  by 
the  tree*"  &c.  Steevens  says  :  "  I  am  afraid  here 
is  a  profane  allusion  to  the  thirty-third  verse  of 
the  twelfth  chapter  of  St.  Matthew." 

In  the  same  dialogue  the  vein  of  irreverence 
may  be  thought  to  be  continued.  The  Prince 
plays  the  part  of  the  king  his  father,  Falstaff  the 
son  :  — 

P.  Hen.  The  complaints  I  hear  of  thee  are  grievous. 

Fal.  'Sblood,  my  lord,  they  are  false  :  nay,  I  'il  tickle 
thee  for  a  young  prince,  i' faith. 

P.  Hen.  Swearest  thou,  ungracious  boy?  Henceforth 
ne'er  look  on  me.  Thou  art  violently  carried  away 
from  grace  :  there  ia  a  devil  haunts  thee,  in  the  likeness 
of  a  fat  old  man,  &c. 

Under  James  I.  an  Act  was  passed  commanding 
all  these  oaths  to  be  expunged  from  plays, 
sblood,"  "  i' faith,"  the  name  of  God,  and  "  'slid  " 
and  "  'slight."  "  Grace  "  is  often  in  Shakespere's 
plays  directed  against  the  doctrine  of  the  Puritans. 
In  a  few  lines  the  Prince  proceeds  to  the  moralities, 

7'h  S.  I.  JAN.  30,  '86.] 



and  speaks  of  Falstaff  as  u  that  reverend  vice," 
"  that  grey  iniquity,"  "  that  father  ruffian,"  "  that 
vanity  in  years."  Malone  says  :  "  The  Vice, 
Iniquity,  and  Vanity  were  personages  exhibited 
in  the  old  moralities."  Prince  Hal  says  :  "  Fal- 
staff  that  old  white-bearded  Satan."  Falstaff 
answers  :  "  If  pack  and  sugar  be  a  fault,  God  help 
the  wicked."  Falstaff  goes  on  about  the  damned 
and  Pharaoh's  lean  kine.  Same  expressions  follow. 
It  would,  therefore,  be  useless  to  continue  what 
Shakespere  terms  "  damnable  iterations." 

W.  J.  BIRCH. 

'CYMBELINE,'  V.  i.  16  (6th  S.  xii.  342 ;  7th  S.  i. 
22). — It  was  by  an  unaccountable  slip  of  the  pen 
— unaccountable  unless  upon  a  liberal  estimate  of 
human  fallibility — that  I  wrote  Pisanio  twice  in- 
stead of"  Posthumus  "  in  my  note  on  *  Cymbeline,' 
V.  i.  16.  I  am  surprised  that  DR.  INGLEBY, 
familiar  as  he  must  be  with  the  lapses  of  Shake- 
spearean critics,  did  not  divine  this  explanation  of 
so  monstrous  a  mistake.  As  regards  the  text 
under  discussion  I  have  nothing  to  add,  and  am 
willing  that  the  two  arguments  should  go  to  the 
jury  as  they  stand.  W.  WATKISS  LLOYD. 

'ALL'S  WELL/  V.  iii.  216  (6th  S.  xi.  82, 183,  244, 
361;  xii.  105,  201).— Notwithstanding  all  that  has 
been  written  by  recent  critics  on  this  crux,  by  Sir 
P.  Perring  in  *  Hard  Knots  in  Shakspeare,'  p.  123 
(whose  modesty,  though  mingled  with  too  much 
self-complacency,  other  critics  would  do  well  to 
emulate),  by  Mr.  W.  E.  BUCKLEY  and  other  bolters 
of  camming  taken  as  the  participle  of  come,  I  beg 
to  reiterate,  in  the  strongest  manner,  that  no  in- 
terpretation or  conjectural  emendation  will  meet 
the  case  which  does  not  either  take  camming  as  an 
adjective  or  as  a  misprint.  It  is  wise,  amid  the 
multitude  of  cruces  under  consideration,  to  econo- 
mize our  critical  resources  ;  and  on  the  matter  of 
"  insuite  camming  "  (where  the  latter  word  is,  if 
possible,  a  greater  crux  than  the  former)  a  great 
saving  of  time,  pains,  and  brains  would  be  effected 
by  frankly  admitting  that  nothing  deserving  of  the 
name  of  sense  can  be  made  of  this  passage  (or,  for 
matter  of  that,  of  "camming  in  dumbness"  in 
'Troilus  and  Cressida')  if  camming  is  taken  as  a 
participle.  I  have  really  nothing  to  retract  or  to 
add  to  my  reply  at  pp.  104-106  of  the  last  volume; 
and  no  one  who  knows  me  would  impute  to  me,  as 
MR.  BUCKLEY  does,  the  adoption  of  Parthian 
tactics.  C.  M.  INGLEBY. 

Athenaeum  Club. 

BRIEF  =  SPELL,  CHARM.— Three  times  within 
the  last  four  months,  in  three  different  languages, 
have  I  quite  accidentally  met  with  this  word 
(either  so  spelled  or  in  an  equivalent  form)  in  this 
meaning.  This  shows  that  the  word  was  at  one 
time  widely  spread;  and  as  I  believe  it  is  little 
known,  I  call  attention  to  it.  The  first  place  I 

met  with  it  in  was  Grimm's  '  Gramm.,'  ii.  961,  in 
the  compound  word  Zete-brief,  which  he  explains, 
"einer  der  briefe  auszettelt,  wahrsager"  (and  see 
also  Miiller  and  Zarncke,  s.v.}.  The  second  place 
was  in  Boccaccio  (ninth  day,  fifth  story).  Here  it 
is  called  brieve,  and  consisted  of  certain  unmean- 
ing words  and  pretended  magical  characters,* 
written  for  a  joke  upon  a  piece  of  paper.  The 
last  place  was  Jamieson's  'Diet.'  (with  the 
variants  breif  and  breef),  where  I  came  across  it 
while  looking  for  another  word.  He  shows  that 
it  was  also  used  in  O.-Fr.  (Roquefort,  bref,  brief, 
&n'esf)  and  in  Low  Lat.  brtvia  (Ducange).  I  cannot 
discover,  however,  that  the  word  was  ever  used  in 
this  meaning  in  Mid.  Eng.  Are  we  to  conclude 
that  all  charms  and  spells  were  brief  or  short? 
Modern  ones  certainly  are  not  always  so,  for  I  have 
a  photograph  of  a  charmj  found  on  a  German 
soldier,  killed,  in  spite  of  it,  in  the  late  Franco- 
German  war,  and  it  covers  three  closely  written 
pages.  F.  CHANCE. 

Sydenham  Hill. 

HOGMANAY.  —  In  the  Saturday  Review  of 
January  9,  p.  37,  a  writer  on  *  Positivists  and 
Politics '  has  this  sentence  : — "  That  which  is 
called  New  Year's  Day  in  England,  and,  accord- 
ing to  some  unknown  etymology,  Hogmanay  in 
Scotland,  appears  in  Fetter  Lane  as  the  Festival  of 
Humanity."  This  may  be  all  very  well  as  regards 
England  and  Fetter  Lane,  but  it  is  inaccurate  in 
so  far  as  it  concerns  Scotland.  Hogmanay  is  some- 
times used  as  a  descriptive  name  of  the  last  day  of 
the  year— a  day  still  known  in  many  rural  dis- 
tricts by  the  vernacular  term  of  "  cake-day,"  as 
children  on  that  day  keep  up  the  traditional  prac- 
tice of  going  from  house  to  house  and  singing  for 
their  cakes.  It  is  true  that  the  etymology  of 
Hogmanay  is  unsettled,  and  the  suggestion  that  it 
may  be  a  corruption  of  the  French  "  au  gui  menez  " 

*  "Scrisse  in  su  quella  carta  certe  sue  fraeche  con 
alquante  cateratte."  This  last  word,  cateratte,  is  interest- 
ing. It  is  interpreted  by  Italian  lexicographers  "carat- 
teri  magici  "  (magical  characters),  and  would  seem  to  be 
a  kind  of  irregular  and  imperfect  transposition  of 
"caratteri"— unless,  indeed,  it  has  something  to  do  with 
the  "  cataractse  S.  Petri,"  two  railings  which  surrounded 
the  tomb  of  St.  Peter  (see  Ducange).  nnd  to  which  possibly 
charms  may  have  been  brought  with  the  idea  of  giving 
them  greater  efficacy.  Can  anybody  throw  light  upon 
this  matter? 

f  Erie's  (or  bries,  as  it  is  written  by  Godefroy)  is  the 
plural  (cf.  brevia  in  text,  and  cateratte  in  note  *)  of 
brief.  See  Godefroy. 

t  A  textual  copy  of  this  charm  will  be  found  in 
'  N.  &  Q..' 4th  S.  ix.  10, 11.  It  is  throughout  cnlled  a 
Brief,  although  I  cannot  find  the  meaning  of  charm 
given  to  this  word  in  either  Grimm  or  Sanders.  It  may 
have  been  called  Brief,  however,  simply  because  it  was 
in  the  form  of  a  letter  or  document.  But  see  Gnmm's 
explanation  of  the  word  Zete-brief,  given  above;  for 
there  the  word  briefe  must  probably  be  taken  to  mean 
"  charms,"  or  something  similar, 



S.  I.  JAN.  30,  '86. 

= "  lead  to  the  misletoe,"  has  hardly  more  than 
tentative  value.  THOMAS  BAYNE. 

Helensburgh,  N.B. 

SUEZ  CANAL. — It  may  interest  your  readers  to 
note  that  Sir  Walter  Scott  in  1832  foresaw  the 
profitable  and  political  character  of  this  under- 
taking, for,  in  writing  in  that  year,  he  makes  one 
of  his  characters  observe  : — 

"  '  No  person  ever  made  a  confidant  of  me  who  repented 
it.  Think  what  the  Pacha  might  have  made  of  it,  had 
lie  taken  my  advice,  and  cut  through  the  Isthmus  of 
Suez.'  Turk  and  Christian,  men  of  all  tongues  and 
countries,  used  to  consult  old  Touchwood,  from  the 
building  of  a  mosque  down  to  the  settling  of  an  agio." — 
'St.  Ronan'sWell,'  p.  311,  centenary  edition. 


Park  Place,  St.  James's,  S.W. 

LUBBOCK. — This  patronymic  has  often  been 
queried,  and  I  have  understood  that  Sir  John  is 
himself  a  querist.  I  offer  the  following  suggestion, 
being  equally  unaware  of  its  value  or  originality. 
Suppose  an  inhabitant  of  North  Germany  left  his 
native  town  of  Lubeck,  he  would  be  called  a 
Lubecker,  like  the  names  Posener,  Pilsener,  Darm- 
stetter,  &c.  On  reaching  our  Eastern  Counties  the 
third  syllable  would  be  shed,  and  the  surviving 
"Lubeck"  might  well  become  Lubbock  by 
assimilation.  A.  H. 

— Twenty-six  years  ago  I  made  a  note  in  these 
pages  on  the  Huntingdonshire  plough-witchers  on 
Plough  Monday — the  first  Monday  after  the 
Epiphany  (2nd  S.  ix.  381) — and  the  reference  to 
this  note  of  mine  is  given  by  Mr.  T.  F.  Thiselton 
Dyer  in  his  'British  Popular  Customs '  (1876, 
p.  40).  But  neither  in  that  work  nor  in  Cham- 
bers's  '  Book  of  Days '  and  other  similar  volumes, 
such  as  Hone  and  the  '  Popular  Year-Book,'  in 
Sharpe's  London  Magazine  (1846)  do  I  see  any 
reference  to  one  of  the  plough-witchers  appearing 
as  a  straw  bear.  Nor  did  I  ever  see  such  a  repre- 
sentation during  the  sixteen  years  that  I  lived  in 
Huntingdonshire.  One  of  the  plough-witchers  often 
wore  a  cow's  skin  ;  and  Washington  Irving,  in  his 
account  of  the  Plough  Monday  observances  at 
Newstead  Abbey,  says  that  the  clown  or  fool  of 
the  party  "  was  in  a  rough  garb  of  frieze  with  his 
head  muffled  in  a  bear- skin— probably  a  traditional 
representative  of  the  ancient  satyr."  It  seems 
worth  while,  then,  to  quote  the  following  para- 
graph, under  the  heading  u  Ramsey,"  Huntingdon- 
shire, from  the  Peterborough  Advertiser,  January 
16,  1886  :— 

"  Plough  Monday. — The  day  was  observed  here  by  the 
customary  exhibition  of  blackened  faces,  and  not  over 
modest  petitions  for  'just  one,'  emphasized  with  in- 
genious clattering  instruments  of  torture,  and  promoted 
with  much  clamorous  importunity.  The  '  straw  bear  ' 
also  favoured  us  with  a  visit,  capering  to  a  dulcet  accom- 
paniment on  the  concertina,  and  showing  his  affinity  to 

the  shaggy  creature  impersonated  by  an  ursine  grunt  of 
satisfaction  for  a  small  contribution." 

Perhaps  some  Ramsey  correspondent  can  give 
a  few  more  particulars  concerning  the  straw  bear 
and  his  costume.  Plough  Monday — as  an  excuse 
for  begging— appears  to  have  been  well  observed 
this  year  in  Huntingdonshire  and  neighbouring 
counties.  Seven  companies  of  plough-witchers 
waited  upon  me  in  my  South  Lincolnshire  home  ; 
and  some  of  the  performers — B^ssy,  the  Doctor, 
the  Valiant  Soldier,  &c. — went  through  the  recital 
of  their  little  play.  But  I  did  not  see  a  straw  bear. 


CHESTER  CATHEDRAL  BELLS. — I  recently  had 
the  pleasure  of  being  invited  to  a  close  inspection 
of  the  bells  of  Chester  Cathedral.     On  the  fifth  of 
these  bells  is  the  following  inscription  : — 
"  Sweetly  toling  men  do  call 

To  taste  on  meats  that  feed  the  soole. 
Refusum  A.D.  1604.    Denuo  refusum  A.D.  1827.    Ope- 
rante  J.  Rudhall." 

In  the  above  couplet  it  will  be  acknowledged,  to 
use  the  words  of  the  '  Misanthrope,'  that 

La  rime  n'est  pas  riche  et  le  style  en  est  vieux. 
The  misspelt  word  "  toling  "•  is  not  specially  note- 
worthy. Is  there,  however,  any  authority  for 
spelling  the  last  word  in  the  couplet  after  the 
fashion  quoted  1  In  contemporary  impressions, 
editions  of  the  great  dramatists,  Breeches  Bibles, 
and  other  works,  I  find  soul  printed  soule.  I  can- 
not discover  the  form  soole  in  any  local  glossary. 
On  the  sixth  bell  there  is  the  following  inscrip- 
tion (with  a  very  pronounced  w  in  the  second 
word),  "  Ad  lawdem  Domini  sumus  nos  con- 
servati.  Decanus  et  capitulum  Cestriae  me  effece- 
runt.  Anno  Domini,  1606."  Taking  into  view 
the  thanksgiving  form  of  the  first  part  of  this  in- 
scription, together  with  the  date,  I  have  little 
hesitation  in  suggesting  that  this  particular  bell 
may  have  been  founded  by  the  loyal  cathedral 
authorities  in  1606  to  commemorate  the  preserva- 
tion of  the  kingdom  from  the  Gunpowder  Plot  of 
the  previous  year.  A  smaller  bell  than  either  of 
those  referred  to  is  the  "  Sanctus "  bell,  which 
bears  the  date  "  1626,"  and  which  is  made  to  ex- 
claim, with  praiseworthy  enthusiasm  but  with 
decidedly  objectionable  Latinity,  "Gloria  in  ex- 
cels-us  Deo."  JAMES  GRAHAM. 

White  Friars,  Chester. 

We  must  request  correspondents  desiring  information 
on  family  matters  of  only  private  interest,  to  affix  their 
names  and  addresses  to  their  queries,  in  order  that  the 
answers  may  be  addressed  to  them  direct. 

1st  S.  viii.  77;  4th  S.  iii.  261,  404.)— At  the  first 
of  the  above  references  the  origin  of  this  saying 
was  rightly  carried  back  to  the  First— or,  accord. 

S.  I.  JAN.  30,  '88.] 



ing  to  some,  the  Third — Book  of  Esdras,  iv.  41, 
where  it  appears  as  jueyaA?;  f)  dA^tfeia  KCU 
vTrepicrxvei,  "magna  est  veritas  et  prsevalet." 
The  question,  however,  still  remains  unanswered 
as  to  the  first  appearance  of  the  saying  in  the 
future  tense.  The  late  Edward  Greswell,  Fellow 
of  Corpus  Christi,  Oxford,  one  of  the  most  learned 
men  of  this  century,  and  one  not  likely  to  make  a 
misquotation,  in  the  preliminary  address  of  the 
1  Ongines  Kalendariae  Italicse,'  Oxford,  1854,  says: 
"  Often  in  the  course  of  my  own  inquiries  have  I 
been  reminded  of  those  well-known  words  MeyaA?; 
t]  aA??#eia  /cat  KarLo-xvarei"  ("Advertisement  to 
the  Reader,"  p.  vi).  Now  whence  did  he  derive 
this  form  of  the  saying,  where  both  the  verb  and 
the  tense  are  changed  from  the  reading  of  the 
verse  in  Esdras  ?  When,  too,  was  prcevalebit  in- 
troduced ?  Or,  if  these  may  be  considered  as  only 
popular  and  unauthorized  variations  of  the  original, 
what  is  the  earliest  instance  of  their  use,  either  in 
the  Greek  or  Latin  ?  W.  E.  BUCKLEY. 

AND  SKKLDON,  co.  AYR.— I  shall  be  glad  if  any 
ot  your  readers  can  give  me  any  information  re- 
specting the  family  of  the  Eight  Hon.  Charles 
Campbell,  of  New  Grange,  co.  Meath,  M.P.  for 
Newtownards,  co.  Down.  He  died  at  his  house  in 
Capel  Street,  Dublin,  in  Oct.,  1725.  He  is  said  to 
have  been  the  son  of  a  Mr.  Campbell,  of  Skeldon, 
in  Ayrshire,  who  sold  his  estate  in  Scotland  and 
settled  at  Donaghadee,  co.  Down,  in  1679.  I 
find  that  a  Charles  Campbell,  of  Donaghadee  and 
Dublin,  was  M.P.  for  Newtownards  in  1661,  and 
he  and  his  brother  Hugh  Campbell  attended  the 
funeral  of  their  cousin,  the  first  Earl  of  Mount 
Alexander,  in  1663. 

Their  relationship  to  the  Mount  Alexander 
family  was  through  their  grandmother,  Marion 
Shaw,  sister  of  Elizabeth,  Viscountess  Mont- 
gomery. Campbell,  who  married  Marion  Shaw, 
is  described  as  of  "  Dovecoathall,  near  Saltcoats,  of 
the  Loudoun  Family."  Upon  referring  to  such 
printed  pedigrees  of  the  Loudoun  family  as  are  by 
me,  I  find  no  mention  of  a  Dovecoathall  branch  ; 
but  I  see  that  Charles  Campbell,  Junior  de 
Skeldoun,  is  ranked  fourth  in  a  deed  of  entail 
which  Hugh,  first  Lord  Loudoun,  executed  in 

The  Charles  Campbell,  M.P.  for  Newtownards  in 
1661,  was  probably  the  father  of  the  abovenamed 
Charles,  of  New  Grange,  but  I  shall  be  exceedingly 
obliged  to  any  one  who  can  throw  any  light  on  the 

Fixby,  near  Huddersfield,  Yorks. 

CANTANKEROUS. — This  word  is  now  in  very 
common  colloquial  use,  but  its  origin  remains,  J 
believe,  uncertain.  Prof.  Skeat  does  not  mention 
it  in  his  '  Etymological  Dictionary.'  It  is  founc 
in  the  form  cantankerous,  and  in  the  'Encyclopeedi 

dictionary '  it  is  suggested  that  it  is  possibly  de- 

ived  from  the  Old  English  word  contek  =  strife, 

quarrel.      Ogilvie,    on    the   other   hand,  suggests 

ome   connexion   with   the   French   word   tancer, 

aking  the  con  or  can  simply  as  a  prefix.     The 

itymology  of  the  word  is  discussed  editorially  in 

N.  &  Q.,'  2nd  S.  viii.  188.     Reference  is  made  to 

he  forms  tankerous  and  tankersome  (meaning  fret- 

ul,  cross)   given    by  Halliwell,  and   also   to  the 

imilar  word  tanglesome.      It   is   then  suggested 

.hat  tankerous  is  a  nautical  term,  and  originally 

French.     "  Tangage  is  in  French  the  pitching  of  a 

hip;   tanguer,  to  pitch,  and  tangueux,  applied  to 

he  ship  itself,  one  that  pitches  too   much."     I 

hould  like  to  ask  whether  any  further  light  can 

now  be  thrown  upon   the  origin  of  the  word,  and 

particularly  whether  it  can   be  shown  that  it  is 

really  in  any  special  sense  nautical.      It  is  not 

iven   (with   or   without   the   prefix)  in   Smyth's 

Sailor's   Word-Book,'   a  dictionary  which   is,    I 

Delieve,  tolerably  complete  in  nautical  words. 

W.  T.  LYNN. 

LEWIS  WAY.— In  Mr.  G.  0.  Trevelyan's  '  Life  ' 
of  his  uncle,  Lord  Macaulay,  reference  is  made  to 
an  early  burlesque  poem  communicated  by  Macau- 
lay  to  Prof.  Maiden  on  the  subject  of  Anthony 
Babington.  The  first  stanza  runs: — 

Each,  says  the  proverb,  has  his  taste.     'Tis  true. 

Marsh  loves  a  controversy ;  Coates  a  play; 
Bennet  a  felon ;  Lewis  Way  a  Jew ; 

The  Jew  the  silver  spoons  of  Lewis  Way. 

Who  was  Lewis  Way,  and  to  what  incident  does 
Macaulay  refer?  T.  CANN-HUGHES,  B.A. 


LEONELLUS  DUCATUS. — I  have  a  volume  of  old 
Protestant  theology,  which  bears  on  the  fly-leaf  the 
autograph  u  Leonellus  Ducatus,  1687."  I  should 
be  glad  to  know  who  he  was.  V.H.I.L.I.C.l.V. 

ANECDOTE  OF  PORSON. — In  the  '  Greville  Me- 
moirs '  there  is  a  story  of  Porson  being  referred  to 
as  to  "  whether  a  certain  English  word  had  ever 
been  used  by  any  good  authority.  It  is  stated 
that  he  at  once  replied,  "I  only  know  of  one  in- 
stance, and  that  is  in  Fisher's  funeral  sermon  on 
the  death  of  Margaret  of  Richmond,  the  mother 
of  Henry  VII.,  and  you  will  find  it  about  the 
third  or  fourth  page  on  the  riyht  hand  side." 
Charles  Greville  adds,  "  And  there  accordingly 
they  did  find  it."  What  is  the.  word  ?  I  should 
be  glad  to  know,  presuming  it  is  a  decent  one. 


HENRI  IV.  AND  BELLEGARDE.  —  A  picture 
was  painted  for  Prince  Eugene  de  Beauharnais  by 
F.  F.  Richard,  and  it  has  been  engraved  by  J.  M. 
Gaillard.  It  represents  the  king  at  supper  with 
Gabrielle  d'Estre"es,  and  throwing  sweetmeats  to 
Bellegarde,  whom  he  suspects  to  be  under  the 



[7th  S.  I.  JAN.  30,  '86. 

bed,  with  these  words,  "  II  faut  que  tout  le  monde 
vive."  I  shall  be  much  obliged  to  any  corre- 
spondent who  will  kindly  tell  me  where  I  can  find 
the  original  authority  for  the  anecdote  illustrated 
in  this  picture.  I  do  not  want  a  reference  to 
any  modern  story-book.  JULIAN  MARSHALL. 

— Wanted  to  find  the  ancestry  of  Edward  Kibbe 

and  his  wife  Deborah   ,  who  were  living  in 

Exeter,  Devonshire,  England,  previous  to  1(511, 
and  whose  son  Edward  Kibbe  came  to  Boston, 
Massachusetts,  with  his  wife  Mary  Partridge,  in 
1640.  Also  wanted  the  ancestry  of  the  said  Mary 
Partridge.  Where  can  the  families  now  be  found, 
and  their  ancestry  and  arms  ascertained  ? 


1834,  De  Lancey  Place,  Philadelphia,  U.S. 

SIR  WALTER  KALEIGH.— Is  there  a  better  life 
of  him  than  that  by  Edward  Edwards  ?  Is  there 
any  published  bibliography  both  of  Raleigh's  own 
works  and  of  works  relating  to  him  ?  CELT. 

LINES  UNDER  A  CRUCIFIX. — Would  you  oblige 
by  referring  me  to  the  number  of  *  N.  &  Q.'  in 
which  some  lines,  said  to  have  been  written  under 
a  crucifix,  are  quoted,  and  reference  given  to  original 
authority  ?  I  only  remember  the  last  line, — 
Te  teneam  moriens  deficiente  manu. 

A.  Z. 

[The  only  reference  to  lines  under  a  crucifix  we  can 
trace  appears  2nd  S.  x.  307.  The  verses  are  not  those 
you  seek.  The  line  you  quote  is  from  '  Tibullua,'  I.  i.] 

THOMAS  A  KEMPIS. — Could  any  of  your  corre- 
spondents inform  me  which  are  the  best  editions 
of  the  *  Imitation  '  of  Thomas  a  Kempis,  illustrated 
by  woodcuts  only,  in  either  the  Latin  or  in  the 
English  translation?  Either  old  or  modern  edi- 
tions; mediaeval  illustrations  preferred.  Please 
name  publishers.  A.  M.  T. 

C.  MORRIS'S  'LYRA  URBANICA.'  — I  hope 
I  may  be  allowed  to  repeat  a  question  which  I 
asked  some  time  ago  in  *  N.  &  Q.,'  but  to  which 
I  have  never  had  any  answer.  Who  was  the 
"  Hon.  Mrs.  L******  "  to  whom  Charles  Morris 
dedicated  his  '  Lyra  Urbanica '  in  1840  ?  I  should 
be  much  obliged  for  the  information,  if  it  is  to  be 

INDEXED  EDITIONS  WANTED. — Can  any  of  your 
readers  refer  me  to  fully  indexed  editions  of  Scott's 
'  Minstrelsy  of  the  Scottish  Border '  and  Percy's 
'  Eeliques  '  ?  Bohn's  library  edition  (1875)  of  the 
latter  work  announces  in  its  "Advertisement," 
with  a  sort  of  nourish,  that  "a  comprehensive 
index  has  also  been  prepared."  If  it  has  been  pre- 
pared, it  has  been  left  out  in  my  copy,  at  any  rate. 
All  that  I  can  find  there  is  a  meagre  index  to  the 
titles  of  the  ballads.  There  is  no  index  at  all  in 

the  1873  edition  of  the  *  Border  Minstrelsy,'  which 
is  said  to  be  the  best  published.  Surely  it  is  high 
time  that  both  these  books,  of  constant  reference 
to  many  a  student  of  manners  and  history,  should 
be  properly  indexed,  with  an  entry  for  every  name, 
whether  in  the  ballads  or  the  notes.  Q.  V. 

SITTING  BULL.  —  Can  you  or  any  of  your 
readers  tell  me  where  to  find  a  history  of  the 
Indian  war  against  the  chief  Sitting  Bull,  waged 
by  the  United  States  of  America  about  ten  years 
ago?  I  should  be  very  grateful  for  the  information. 

[The  only  accessible  information  you  are  likely  to  find 
is  in  the  American  Catholic  Quarterly  Review,  ii.  665, 
and  the  Canadian  Monthly,  xviii.  66.] 

THEM. — What  is  the  meaning  of  them  in  the 
second  clause  of  the  second  commandment  ?  The 
Greek  of  the  Septuagint  is  not  in  accordance  with 
the  popular  acceptation  of  it.  K.  C.  A.  P. 

LITERARY  QUERIES. — 1.  Who  is  the  author  of 
the  following  passage  V — 

"  0  admirandara  potius  quam  ennarrandam  laudem  vir- 
tutemque  Crucia.  0  pretiosum  et  admirabile  lignum 
Angelico  et  humano  prseconio  dignum.  0  crux  Sacra 
et  venerabilis,  cui  ut  debitus  honor  exhiberetur,  a 

cunctis  prseconia ex    vivia    et    testimonium  et  de- 


In  the  margin  the  reference  is  given  "  Aureal ien sis," 
which  I  take  to  be  a  native  of  Aurelia,  i.e.,  Orleans. 
Who  is  he  ?  Where  is  the  passage  to  be  found  ? 

2.  Who  was  Tuchman  ?     I  find  the  name  men- 
tioned in  a  book   published  in  1640  as  a  com- 
mentator on  Scripture,  but  no  biographical  dic- 
tionary that  I  know  of  gives  any  account  of  him. 

3.  Who  was  Baron  Nevill,  or  Newill,  who  had 
property   in   the   county   Wexford    about    1600  ? 
Neither  Crossley  nor  Archdall  makes  mention  of 

4.  Perhaps  some  of  your  Irish  readers  may  be 
able  to  tell  me  where  the  following  places  are  : — 
Achadbronagh,  Ballaycroin,  Bally  maguir,  Castle- 
more   (not   that   in   Mayo),   Duninny,  Kilholkin, 
Killeenfaughna,  Tauchonarchie.     I  want  not  only 
the  county,  but  the  parish,  if  possible.     I  may  add 
that  these  names  are  not  given  in  the  very  copious 
index  to  the  Ordnance  Survey  maps.         D.  M. 

ITALIAN  MS. — Can  any  one  give  me  any  infor- 
mation about  a  book  in  my  possession  ?  It  is  a 
MS.,  bound  in  4to.,  with  the  title  : — 

'Comentario  [  della  Spedizione  in  Iscozia  eseguita 
da  |  Carlo  Odoardo  Stuart  |  Principe  di  Galles  |  Scritto 

|  Dal  Padre  ^Giulio  Cesare  Cordara  |  della  Compagnia 
di  Gesu  |  finche  existette  +  |  tradotto  in  Volgar  Toscano 

|  DalP  Exgesuita  [1]  N.  N.' 

There  is  a  dedicatory  letter  addressed,  "A   Sua 
Eccellenza  |  II     Sigr    Don    Francesco    Caetani  j 
Duca,"  and  dated  "  12  9bre  1804."     Below  is  a 
signature,  apparently  in  the  translator's  own  hand- 

7'b  S.  I.  JAN.  30,  '86.] 



writing,  "  VinceDzo  Fugo."  The  rest  of  the  book 
is  written  out  in  a  clerkly  hand.  I  should  be 
glad  of  any  information  about  the  original  book, 
its  author,  its  translator,  or  his  version.  Was  it, 
for  instance,  ever  published  ?  S.  G.  H. 

[The  original  work  is  by  the  Pere  Cordara,  a  learned 
Italian  priest,  son  of  the  Count  Antonio  de  Calaman- 
drana,  b.  Alexandria  Dec.  17,  1704,  d.  May  6,  1785. 
He  entered  the  Society  of  Jesuits  at  the  age  of  fourteen  ; 
was  twenty  years  professor  at  Viterbo,  whence  he  went 
to  Ferrno,  Aricona,  and  lastly  Rome.  He  was  best  known 
by  his  satires ;  was  historiographer  of  the  society;  and 
wrote  many  works  in  Latin,  among  which  is  the  original 
of  the  MS.  concerning  which  you  inquire.  This  was 
published  in  Rome  in  1752.  He  also  wrote  a  poem  in 
Latin  in  praise  of  the  Princess  Clementina  Sobieski,  the 
wife  of  James  the  Pretender.] 

"  AGORSEQUERDERE." — "A  traveller  in  Wales, 
near  Ferryside,  seeing  a  sign  over  the  door  with 
this  one  word,  '  Agorsequerdere,'  asked  the  woman 
what  she  sold,  when  she  said  that  she  did  not  sell 
anything,  but  that  agues  was  cured  here."  The 
foregoing  is  a  cutting  from  a  newspaper,  presum- 
ably the  Court  Journal.  Is  there  such  a  sign  ; 
and  what  is  the  exact  place  where  the  above  pho- 
netically-spelt sign  is  to  be  seen,  if  any  such  there 
be  ?  ALPHA. 

PHILOSOPHER'S  STONE. — Dr.  Campbell,  in  his 
English  rendering  of  Cohausen's  4  Hermippus  Redi- 
vivus,'  p.  vi,  says  he  has  been  favoured  by  a  German 
adept  with  a  history  of  the  philosopher's  stone, 
and  that  if  the  public  show  a  desire  for  it  they 
may  hear  more  of  it  in  time  to  come.  Dr.  John 
Campbell  was  an  immensely  voluminous  writer, 
and  died  in  London  (where?)  1775.  But  I  think 
he  published  nothing  on  the  subject.  Are  the 
MSS.  remaining  at  his  death  still  traceable  ? 

C.  A.  WARD. 

Haverstock  Hill. 

KALENDAR. — Whence  come  the  verses  at  the 
bottom  of  early  printed  kalendars  of  the  breviary 
and  missal?  EVERARD  GREEN,  F.S.A. 

Reform  Club. 

PORTRAIT  ON  PANEL. — A  portrait  on  panel, 
about  twenty-four  inches  square,  representing  a 
youth  in  the  costume  of  the  sixteenth  century 
holding  a  small  dog  in  his  arms,  has  the  following 
coat  of  arms  in  a  corner:  Quarterly  1  and  4,  Argent, 
a  griffin's  head  erased  sable  ;  2,  Sable,  three  cres- 
cents argent  ;  3,  Argent,  on  a  bend  sable  three 
spear- heads  of  the  field.  I  give  the  colours  so  far 
as  I  am  able  to  conjecture  them.  Can  any  of  your 
readers  identify  the  picture  ? 

A.  E.  MADDISON,  F.S.A. 

Vicar's  Court.  Lincoln. 

"IMMORTALL  CRACKE." —  In  the  December 
number  of  the  Antiquary  is  quoted  a  verse  from  a 
ballad  on  the  destruction  of  books  by  the  London 
prentices  at  the  Cockpit  Playhouse  in  Drury  Lane, 

1617,  taken  from  vol.  i.  p.  94,  of  the  Percy 
Society's  collection,  in  which,  after  mentioning 
various  writers  whose  works  were  destroyed,  it  is 
stated  :— 

And  what  still  more  amazes, 
Immortall  Cracke  was  burnt  all  blacke, 

Which  every  bodie  praises. 

Mr.  Collier,  it  seems,  confessed  that  "  Regarding 
this  person  or  play,  whichever  it  might  be,  I  can 
give  no  information."  Now,  in  •'  N.  &  Q.,'  6th  S. 
xii.  424,  we  are  told  that  in  the  Sheffield  dialect 
shak  is  often  used  in  the  same  sense  as  to  crack  or 
break — in  this  sense  Shakespeare  is  equivalent  to 
Breakspeare.  May  not,  therefore,  this  enigmatical 
name  Cracke  have  been  some  nickname  or  slang 
term  for  Shakespeare  among  his  contemporaries  ? 
Does  any  other  trace  of  it  exist  ?  D.  S. 

BRADFORD  FAMILY. — I  should  be  very  much 
obliged  for  any  genealogical  information  regarding 
Bradford,  originally  of  Yorkshire,  bearing  Arg.,  on 
a  fess  sa.  three  stags'  heads  erased  or,  and  the  de- 
scendants of  John  Button,  town  clerk  of  Queens- 
ferry,  N.B. ,  c.  1680,  who  were,  I  think,  found  at 
Inverkeithing,  in  Fifeshire,  early  in  the  eighteenth 
century.  J.  G.  BRADFORD. 

157,  Dalston  Lane,  E. 

THE  EARLDOM  OF  PLYMOUTH. — Can  you  inform 
me  when  this  peerage  became  extinct  ?  I  find  the 
arms  given  in  an  old  book  of  1811,  and  the  state- 
ment is  there  made  that  they  were  borne  by  "  Other 
Archer  Windsor,  Earl  of  Plymouth  and  Baron 
Windsor."  Can  you  say,  also,  fur  what  reason  the 
Baron  Windsor  of  1682  received  the  Earldom  of 
Plymouth  ?  W.  S.  B.  H. 

was  the  editor  of  '  An  Account  of  Russia  as  it  was 
in  the  Year  1710,'  by  Charles,  Lord  Whitworth, 
which  was  printed  at  Strawberry  Hill,  1758,  just 
thirty-three  years  after  the  death  of  Lord  Whit- 
worth.  W.  F.  MARSH  JACKSON. 

ROBINSON  CRUSO.  —  There  has  lately  died  at 
King's  Lynn  the  descendant  of  an  old  Lynn  family 
of  the  name  of  Robinson  Cruso.  The  name  has 
been  borne  by  father  and  son  from  time  immemo- 
rial. Is  it  not  likely  that  Defoe  had  been  at  Lynn 
(he  was  frequently  in  trouble  with  the  Govern- 
ment, and  Lynn  was  then  the  port  which  people 
wishing  to  escape  passed  through  on  their  way  to 
the  Low  Countries)  and  took  the  name  of  a  re- 
sident for  his  hero  ?  G.  A. 

SIDLEY  BARONETCY. — This  dignity  was  con- 
ferred in  1621  upon  Sir  Isaac  Sidley,  of  Great  Chart, 
Kent,  Knt.  When  and  with  whom  did  it  become 
extinct  1  Burke  and  Courthope  both  say  that  the 
last  two  persons  who  held  the  honour  were  Sir 
George  and  Sir  Charles,  the  seventh  and  eighth  baro- 
nets, the  two  sons  of  Sir  George  Sidley,  sixth  baro- 



*  S.  I.  JAN.  30,  '86. 

net,  but  give  no  dates  of  decease.  In  the  Gent.  Mag. 
we  have  recorded  the  death,  on  April  24,  1737,  of  a 
"  Sir  John  Sidley,  Bart.,"  who  must,  I  think,  have 
been  a  third  brother,  with  whom  the  title  actually 
expired.  The  sixth  baronet,  according  to  a  note 
I  have — but  whence  taken  unfortunately  am  not 
sure — died  in  1727,  leaving  three  sons.  This,  if 
true,  would  confirm  the  foregoing  suggestion  as  to  a 
ninth  baronet  ;  but  in  that  case  the  brothers  must 
have  followed  one  another  in  the  succession  at  very 
brief  intervals.  W.  D.  PINK. 

POEMS. — Will  any  contributor  kindly  tell  me 
where  to  find  the  poems  from  which  1  give  the 
following  extracts  ]  I  have  forgotten  who  wrote 
the  poems ;  but  they  are  worth  searching  for. 

1.  High  peace  to  the  soul  of  the  dead  ! 
From  the  dreams  of  this  earth  she  has  fled, 
The  stars  in  their  glory  to  tread, 

And  shine  in  the  blaze  of  the  throne. 

2.  A  green  and  silent  spot  amid  the  hills, 

*  *  #  * 

0  'tis  a  quiet  spirit-healing  nook  ! 

.    Here  at  this  tomb  these  tears  I  shed. 

*  *  *  * 

Hope  of  my  heart  now  quenched  in  night, 
But  dearer  dead  than  aught  that  lives  ! 

4.  The 'Death  of  Sappho':— 

She  in  act  to  fall,  her  garland  torn. 

5.  Though  lightly  sounds  the  song  I  sing, 
Though  like  the  lark's  its  soaring  music  be, 
Thou'lt  find  e'en  yet  some  mournful  note  that  tells 
How  near  such  April  joy  to  sorrow  dwells. 

6.  'Twas  an  hour  of  fearful  issue, 
Where  the  bold  three  hundred  stood 
For  their  love  of  sacred  freedom 

By  that  old  Thessalian  flood. 

*  #  i*  * 

And  all  from  mountain,  cliff,  and  wave, 
Was  freedom's,  valour's,  glory's  grave. 

0.  B. 

[Surely  the  last  is  a  misquotation  from  '  The  Giaour ' 
of  Byron : — 

Whose  land  from  plain  to  mountain  cave 
Was  Freedom's  home  or  Glory's  grave.] 


(7th  S.  i.  8.) 

After  a  long  silence,  caused  by  other  occupations, 
and  not  by  any  means  through  indifference  to  our 
favourite  *  N.  &  Q.,'  I  am  happy  to  furnish  the 
materials  required  by  its  esteemed  correspondent, 
my  own  faithful  friend,  MR.  C.  A.  WARD.  I  pro- 
mise to  be  more  frequent  in  communications  on 
our  old  songs  and  ballads  for  the  future.  In  his 
inquiry  MR.  WARD  mixes  two  distinct  catches  or 
songs  ;  of  these  the  earlier  (1652)  is  "  Hang  sor- 
row, let  'a  cast  away  care,"  to  which  the  music  was 
composed  by  William  Lawes,  and  "  published  by 
John  Hilton  :  printed  for  John  Benson  and  John 

Playford,  and  to  be  sould  in  St.  Dunstan'd  Church- 
yard, and  in  the  Inner  Temple  neare  the  Church 
doore,  1652."  It  reappeared  in  '  Windsor  Drollery/ 
1672,  with  a  few  verbal  alterations,  here  noted. 

Of  the  other  song,  containing  the  line  "The 
parish  is  bound  to  find  us,"  I  know  no  earlier 
printed  copy  than  one  in  the  excessively  rare  1671 
edition  of  '  The  New  Academy  of  Complement?,' 
here  given. 

1.  From  J.  Hilton's  'Catch  that  Catch  Can,' 
1652  (music  by  William  Lawes): — 

Hang  Sorrow  and  cast  away  Care, 

and  let  us  drink  up  our  Sack  ; 
They  say  'tis  good  to  cherish  the  blood,* 

and  for  to  strengthen  the  back. 
'Tis  wine  that  makes  the  thoughts  aspire, 

and  fills  the  body  with  heat  ; 
Besides  'tis  good,  if  well  understood, 

to  fit  a  man  for  the  feat : 
Then  call  and  drink  up  all, 

The  Drawer  is  ready  to  fill, 
A  Pox  of  care,f  what  need  we  to  spare  1 

my  father  has  made  his  will. 

2.  Song  276  :— 

Hang  fear,  cast  away  care, 

The  parish  is  bound  to  find  us, 
Thou  and  I  and  all  must  die, 

And  leave  this  world  behinde  us. 
The  Bells  shall  ring,  the  Clerk  shall  sing, 

And  the  good  old  wife  shall  winde  us, 
And  John  shall  lay  our  bones  in  clay 
Where  the  Devil  ne'er  shall  find  us. 

•  The  New  Academy  of  Complements,'  1671. 
One  version  is  in  Playford's  '  Musical .  Com- 
panion,' 1673.  There  is  also  a  Roxburghe  ballad 
beginning  similarly,  but  quite  distinct  from  these 
two  songs.  It  is  entitled,  "Joy  and  Sorrow  mixt 
together.  To  the  tune  of,  Such  a  Rogue  should 
be  hang'd."  Which  is  the  same  tune  as  '  Old  Sir 
Simon  the  King.'  Here  is  the  first  of  the  fourteen 
stanzas  for  comparison.  The  ballad  is  preserved 
in  the  Roxburghe  Collection  (vol.  i.  fol.  170),  and 
has  been  reprinted  in  the  Ballad  Society's  pub- 
lication, vol.  i.  p.  509  : — 

Hang  sorrow,  let 's  cast  away  care, 
for  now  I  do  mean  to  be  merry, 
Wee  '1  drink  some  good  Ale  and  strong  Beere, 

With  sugar,  and  clarret,  and  sherry. 
Now  I  'le  have  a  wife  of  mine  own, 

I  shall  have  no  need  to  borrow; 
I  would  have  it  for  to  be  known 

that  I  shall  be  married  to-morrow. 
(Burden:)  Here  's  a  health  to  my  Bride  that  shall  be, 
Come  pledge  it  you  boon  merry  blades  : 
The  day  I  much  long  for  to  see, 
We  will  be  as  merry  as  the  Maides,  &c. 

This  ballad  was  written  and  signed  by  Richard 
Climsell,  and  was  printed  for  John  Wright  the 
younger,  dwelling  in  the  Old  Bayley. 


Molash  Vicarage,  by  Ashford,  Kent. 

*  "  Quicken   the  blood,  and  also  to  strengthen   the 
back  "  ('  Windsor  Drollery,'  1672). 

t  "  A  fig  for  care.. .hath  made  "  (Ibid.,  p.  140). 

S.  I.  JAN.  30,  '86.] 



The  song  is  older  than  your  correspondent  has 
been  led  to  suppose.  The  following  is  from  the 
Spectator,  under  date  November  26,  1711 : — 

"  We  have  a  tradition  from  our  forefathers  that  after 
the  first  of  these  (poor)  laws  was  made,  they  were  in- 
sulted with  that  famous  song, 

Hang  sorrow  and  cast  away  care, 
The  parish  is  bound  to  find  us,  &c.; 
and  if  we  will  be  so  good-natured  as  to  support  them 
without  work,  they  can  do  no  less  in  return  than  sing  us 
'  The  Merry  Beggars.'  " 

R.  W. 

OALIGRAPHY  (6th  S.  xii.  408).— If  MR.  E.  R. 
VYVYAN  will  refer  to  Liddell  and  Scott's  '  Lexicon ' 
he  will  find  that  the  Greek  form  is  Ka\Xiypa(f)La, 
and  that  there  is  this  observation  in  reference  to 
the  prefix  KoAAt-  :  "  It  is  the  first  part  of  the  word 
in  many  compounds  in  which  the  notion  of  beautiful 
is  added  to  the  chief  and  simple  notion ;  KaAo-  is 
later  and  less  common."  The  question  of  the 
spelling  was  noticed  by  LORD  LYTTELTON  in 
'  N.  &  Q.,'  5th  S.  ii.  473,  where  he  stated  that  "  he 
wished  to  point  out,  once  for  all,  the  wrong  spel- 
ling caligraphy"  which  he  compared  with  the 
calisthenics  of  the  then  ladies'  schools.  He  further 
remarked  that  the  prefix  was  derived  from  the 
substantive  /caAAos,  not  from  the  adjective  KaAos. 


[We  find  the  question  completely  disposed  of  by  the 
late  LORD  LYTTKLTON  at  the  reference  supplied  t>y  our 
correspondent,  tfnder  these  circumstances  we  are  com- 
pelled reluctantly  to  omit  some  valuable  contributions 
to  the  subject  from  the  REV.  W.  E.  BUCKLEY,  C.  B.  M., 
MR.  P.  C.  BIRKBECK  TERRY,  and  F.  N.] 

SHEPSTER  (7th  S.  i.  68).— Both  the  guesses  are 
wrong.  The  real  sense  is  "  a  female  cutter-out  of 
garments,"  and  it  is  the  feminine  of  shaper.  No 
doubt  the  apprentice  wanted  to  learn  cutting  out. 
and  so  was  apprenticed  to  the  wife  instead  of  to 
the  husband,  merely  to  secure  himself,  else  he 
would  have  been  put  to  sewing.  The  right  expla- 
nation has  been  given  at  least  four  times,  and  it  is 
really  rather  a  tax  to  have  to  explain  things  all 
over  again.  See  my  *  Notes  to  P.  Plowman,' 
p.  109;  Marsh's  *  Student's  Manual,'  ed.  Smith, 
p.  217;  Nares's  'Glossary,'  new  ed. ;  and,  in  par- 
ticular, '  N.  &  Q.,'  1s*  S.  i.  356. 


PLAYS  (7th  S.  i.  67).— Rushworth  («  Historical 
Collections/  part  iii.  vol.  ii.  p.  1,  edit.  1692)  gives 
the  date  of  issue  of  these  ordinances  as  Sept.  2, 
1642 ;  it  is  therefore  impossible  that  they  could 
have  been  printed  before  that  date.  I  cannot  dis- 
cover "  The  Declaration  for  the  appeasing  and 
quieting  unlawful  Tumults/'  &c.,  in  Rushworth, 
unless  it  is  "  An  Order  of  Parliament  to  suppress 
Riots,"  &c.,  issued  Aug.  8,  1642.  But  this  can 
scarcely  be  the  one  in  question,  since  it  is  only 

twelve  lines  in  length,  and  could  not  (even  with 
the  help  of  the  stage-play  ordinances)  have  swollen 
into  an  eight-page  pamphlet. 


FEET  OF  FINES  (6th  S.  xii.  449;  7th  S.  i.  13).— 
I  am  surprised  that  none  of  your  contributors  has 
cited  the  late  Mr.  A.  J.  Horwood's  explanation  of 
this  terra,  from  his  preface  to  '  The  Year  Books 
21  &  22  Edward  I.'  (R.  S.),  p.  x  :- 

"  In  a  former  volume  it  was  suggested  that  the  clerks 
who  framed  the  inrolments  in  Latin,  from  proceedings 
conducted  in  law- French,  were  obliged  to  forge  Latin 

words At  p.221  line  4,  le  pee  of  a  fine  is  vouched.  In 

our  law  books  the  document  is  usually  referred  to  as  the 
foot  of  the  fine.  Now  in  the  law-French  reports  and 
tracts  it  is  written  la  pee  or  la  pes,  most  usually  the  latter, 
which  has  the  same  sound  as  paix  (Lat.  pax  or  concordia). 
In  the  tract  called  '  Modus  levandi  fines,'  usually  called 
the  statute  18  Edw.  I.  stat.  4,  the  direction  is  that 
when  the  fine  was  proclaimed  in  the  Common  Pleas,  the 
justice  shall  say  Criez  la  pees  (i.e.  proclaim  the  peace,  or 
concord)  ;  and  the  countor  (serjeant)  is  to  read  the  con- 
cord, saying,  La  pees  est  ycele,  &c.,  setting  out  the  terms 
of  the  agreement  between  the  parties.  What  is  called 
the  foot  of  the  fine  is  the  final  concord  or  peace  thus 
proclaimed  in  court,  beginning,  ffcec  edfinalis  concordia, 
of  which  a  form  may  be  seen  at  the  end  of  the  second 
volume  of  Blackstone's  Commentaries." 

This  seems  to  dispose  of  the  question. 

Q.  V. 

6). — I  have  cited  some  examples  of  belief  in  the 
powers  of  seventh  daughters  to  cure  diseases  in 
'  Folk  Medicine ;  (Folk  Lore  Society,  1 883),  p.  137 : 

"  A  herbalist  in  Plymouth,  who  was  tried  in  June, 
1876,  for  obtaining  a  sovereign  on  false  pretences  from  a 
pauper,  represented  herself  to  be  the  seventh  daughter 
of  a  seventh  daughter  of  a  seventh  daughter.  Never- 
theless she  had  to  refund  the  sovereign." 
See  also  '  Superstitions  Anciennes  et  Modernes/ 
&c.,  1733.  WILLIAM  GEORGE  BLACK. 


CURRAN'S  HISTORICAL  FLEAS  (7th  S.  i.  49). — 
It  was  Sydney  Smith,  not  Curran,  who  said  that 
had  the  fleas  been  only  unanimous  they  could  have 
pulled  him  out  of  bed  altogether. 

W.   J.    FlTZPATRICK. 

WILLIAM  WOOLLETT  (7th  S.  i.  68),  engraver, 
was  born  in  a  "house  in  King  Street,  on  the 
eastern  side  of  the  passage  leading  to  Mr.  Duke's 
alms-houses,"  Maidstone,  on  August  15,  1735,  and 
baptized  on  the  3lst  of  that  month.  His  father's 
name  was  Philip,  a  flax  dresser,  also  of  Maidstone. 

Louis  FAGAN. 

APOSTATE  NUNS  (7th  S.  i.  48).— In  the  notes  to 
the  second  canto  of  *  Marmion '  there  is  this  state- 

"  It  is  not  likely  that  in  later  times  this  punishment 
was  often  resorted  to ;  but  among  the  ruins  of  the  abbey  of 
Goldingham,  were  some  years  ago  discovered  tho  re- 



[7«>  S.  I.  JAN.  30,  '* 

mains  of  a  female  skeleton,  which,  from  the  shape  of 
the  niche  and  position  of  the  figure,  seemed  to  be  that  of 
an  immured  nun." 

This  instance  might  receive  investigation.  The 
date  of  the  first  foundation  of  Goldingham  is 
A.D.  673.  ED.  MARSHALL. 

S.  xii.  8,  76).—  Horsfield  states,  in  his  'History  of 
Sussex,'  that 

"  around  the  rim,  and  along  the  middle  of  this  tomb,  is 
the  following  inscription,  in  Saxon  characters  : — 
Stirps  Gundrada  ducum  decus  evi  nobile  germen 
Intulit  ecclesiae  Anglorum  balsama  morum 


Martha  fuit  miseris,  fuit  ex  pietate  Maria 
Pars  obiit  Marthe  superest  pars  magna  Marie, 
O  pie  Pancrati  testis  pietatis  et  equi 
Te  facit  heredem,  tu  clemens  suspice  matrem, 
Sexta  Kalendarum  Junii  lux  obvia  carnis 
Infregit  alabastrum." 

There  are  some,  I  know,  who  doubt  that  Gun- 
drada was  the  daughter  of  William  the  Conqueror, 
but  upon  what  authority  I  am  unable  to  under- 
stand. To  my  mind  there  is  the  strongest  evidence 
that  she  was  so.  For  no  one,  I  presume,  will  deny 
that  the  wife  of  the  Conqueror  was  Matilda, 
daughter  of  Baldwin,  Earl  of  Flanders,  and  that 
by  her  he  had  a  numerous  family — Florence  of 
Worcester  says  four  sons  and  five  daughters.  Now 
as  to  this  Gundrada,  it  is  a  fact  past  all  denying 
that  she  was  married  to  William  de  Warrehne, 
who  came  over  with  the  Conqueror,  and,  in  con- 
junction with  his  wife,  founded  the  Cluniac  monas- 
tery at  Southover,  in  the  parish  of  Lewes,  Sussex. 
The  charter  of  this  foundation  is  given  at  length 
in  Dugdale's  *  Monasticon,'  and  in  it  we  find  the 
following  entry:— 

"  Donavi  pro  salute  meae  animae  et  animag  Gundradse 
uxoris  mese  et  pro  anima  mei  Domini  Willielmi  Regis, 
qui  me  in  Angliam  adduxit,  et  per  cujus  licentiara 
monachos  venire  feci,  et  pro  salute  dominie  meae  Matildis 
Reginae,  matris  uxoris  meae." 

"  I  have  given  for  the  health  of  my  soul,  and  for  the  soul 
of  Gundrada  my  wife,  and  for  the  soul  of  my  lord  King 
William,  who  brought  me  into  England,  and  under  whose 
permission  I  have  caused  monks  to  come  over,  and  for 
the  health  (of  the  soul)  of  my  lady  Queen  Matilda,  the 
mother  of  my  wife,"  &c. 

Now,  unless  this  charter  be  a  forgery,  which 
few,  I  think,  will  admit,  one  of  two  things  follows, 
viz.,  that  Gundrada  was  either  the  Conqueror's 
daughter  by  his  wife  Matilda  or  the  daughter  of 
Matilda  by  a  former  husband,  an  alternative  for 
which  there  is  not  a  scrap  of  evidence.  And  as 
William  survived  his  wife  for  at  least  four  years, 
any  similar  alternative  is  out  of  the  question. 
Malmesbury  gives  the  names  of  three  of  their 
daughters,  but  says  the  names  of  the  others  had 
escaped  his  memory.  In  a  note  to  Rapin's  account 
it  is  said  : — 

"  The  fifth  was  Gundred,  Countess  of  Surrey,  married 
to  William  Warren,  made  Earl  of  Surrey  by  King 

William.    She  died  in  childbed  at  Castleacre,  in  Nor- 
folk, 1085." 

Now,  if  William  was  not  her  father,  I  should 
like  to  know  who  was.        EDMUND  TEW,  M.A. 

MESSIAH  AND  MOSES  (6th  S.  xii.  516). 
and  J"!t?p  are  radicals  which  have  no  connexion 
with  one  another.  It  is  unnecessary  to  look  for 
kindred  radicals  in  Hebrew  to  explain  or  alter  the 
meaning  of  the  word  n^lO,  which  is  common  both 
to  Hebrew  and  Arabic.  There  is  no  more  dignity 
attached  to  the  word  anointed  in  Hebrew  than 
there  is  to  the  word  seated  in  English.  The  dignity 
is  in  the  concomitants.  A  man  may  be  seated 
on  a  throne  or  on  a  dunghill.  Neither  is  there 
any  reason  for  thinking  that  the  Hebrews  attached 
the  idea  of  saviour  to  Moses.  He  was  the  law- 
giver. It  was  God  who  "  saved  them  out  of  Egypt 
by  the  hands  of  Moses  and  Aaron."  Moses  was 
unable  to  bring  them  into  the  promised  land. 
MCJVCTTJS  is  not  the  equivalent  of  the  passive  par- 
ticiple of  nfc^JO,  which  would  be  Mao-ot^s  —  or 
Mao-^s  according  to  our  incorrect  pronunciation 
of  Greek.  Josephus  was  right  in  his  derivation 
of  the  name  from  two  Egyptian  words,  and  Mwvo-^s 
is  an  exact  equivalent  of  the  Egyptian  compound 
word.  There  is,  therefore,  no  ground  for  the  in- 
ference that  the  Hebrews  changed  the  passive  into 
the  active  participle  to  make  Moses  a  deliverer, 
especially  when  it  was  Joshua,  "  the  saviour,"  who 
brought  them  into  the  land  of  promise. 

J.  H.  C. 

ST.  THOMAS  A  BECKET  (6th  S.  xii.  407).— 
Pontifex,  of  course,  means  a  builder  of  bridges. 
"  Hinc,"  says  Ducange,  "  Hospitilarii  Pontifices 
nuncupantur  interdum  Fratres  Pontis,  quod  ex 
instituto  suo  pontes  construerent  "  ("The  Hos- 
pitallers were  sometimes  called  Brothers  of  the 
Bridge,  because  they  were  accustomed  to  build 
bridges").  According  to  him,  also,  archbishops 
were  so  named  :  "  Nuncupati  non  raro  prsecipuarum 
Sedium  Archiepiscopi.  Ita  Arlatensis  Summus 
Pontifex  dicitur  in  Charta  an.  circ.  1000."  And 
of  our  own  great  prelate  Lanfranc  he  says  :  "  Lan- 
francus  Archiepiscopus  Cantuar.  Primus  et  Ponti- 
fex Summus  vocatur  a  Milone  Crispini  ejus  sub- 
pari  in  ipsius  vita  num.  19  "  ("  Lanfranc,  Arch- 
bishop of  Canterbury,  is  called  first  and  highest 
Pontifex  by  Milo  in  the  life  of  his  suffragan 
Crispinus  "). 

Chambers  ('Cyclopaedia')  says:  — 

"Authors  differ  about  the  origin  of  the  word  pontrfex. 
Some  derive  it  from  posae  facere,  that  is,  from  the  autho- 
rity the  pontifeK  had  to  offer  sacrifice  ;  others,  as  Varro, 
from  pons,  because  they  built  the  Sublician  bridge,  that 
they  might  go  over  and  offer  sacrifice  on  the  other  side 
the  Tiber." 
So  far,  then,  it  seems  "  adhuc  sub  judice  lis  est." 

It  is  pretty  certain,  however,  that  among  the 
Romans  the  Pontifex  Maximus  had,  with  his  other 

7th  S.  I.  JAN.  30,  '86.] 



duties,  the  care  and  superintendence  of  the  bridges. 
And  as  he  was  chief  priest  as  well  as  chief  ruler 
"  in  all  causes  and  over  all  persons,  ecclesiastical 
and  civil,  in  his  dominions  supreme,"  it  is  more 
than  probable,  as  in  other  instances,  that  this  title 
was  thus  given  to  the  chief  ministers  of  the 
Christian  Church.  EDMUND  TEW,  M.A. 

With  regard  to  the  letter  in  the  Globe  quoted 
by  MR.  BONE,  I  find  that  the  Koman  Church 
rarely  applies  the  term  pontifex  to  any  save  the 
Pontifex  Maximus  himself,  that  is  to  say,  the 
Pope.  In  the  headings  of  saints'  days  in  the 
Breviary  an  ordinary  bishop  is  described  as 
"Episcopus";  e.g.,  "Die  xxvi.  Novemb.  Sancti 
Petri  Episcopi  et  Marty ris."  A  pope  is  described 
as  "  Papa."  Some  bishops  are,  however,  called 
"  Pontifices  ";  e.g.,  "  SS.  Cletus  et  Marcellinus" 
(April  26). 

Thus  it  will  be  seen  that  pontifex  is  a  more  or 
less  elastic  title — that  although  the  Pope  has 
robbed  the  bishops  of  most  of  their  powers,  he  has 
not  as  yet  robbed  them  of  their  name  altogether. 
Curiously  enough,  the  collect  for  St.  Thomas 
Cantuar.'s  day  actually  contains  the  word  pontifex, 
whence  the  inscription  mentioned  is  probably 
borrowed.  It  runs  thus  : — 

"  Deus  pro  cuius  Ecclesia  gloriosus  Pontifex  Thomas 
gladiis  impiorum  occubuit,  prsesta,  qusesumus,  ut  omnes, 
qui  eius  implorant  auxilium,  petitionia  suae  salutarem 
consequantur  effectum,  per  Dominum  nostrum,  lesum 
Christum.  Amen." 

R.  J.  W. 

It  is  to  be  presumed  that  the  writer  in  the 
Globe  was  not  aware  that  pontifex  =  episcopus. 
See  Ducange.  So,  while  the  Manual  contained 
such  offices  as  a  presbyter  could  administer,  the 
Pontifical  contained  those  which  a  bishop  only 
could  perform.  ED.  MARSHALL. 

I  do  not  know  whether  MR.  BONE  seriously 
takes  it,  on  the  word  of  the  Globe's  correspondent, 
that  there  is  anything  peculiar  in  the  use  of  the 
word  pontifex  of  an  Archbishop  of  Canterbury.  My 
faith  is  not  so  great ;  and  I  have  a  shrewd  guess 
that  the  correspondent  thought  no  bishop  was  ever 
called  pontifex  except  the  Bishop  of  Rome,  com- 
monly known  as  the  Pope. 

C.  F.  S.  WARREN,  M.A. 

Treneglos,  Kenwyn,  Truro. 

I  do  not  know  if  there  may  be  a  vein  of  gentle 
irony  in  MR.  BONE'S  interrogatory,  but  I  do  not 
think  there  is  any  difficulty  about  the  inscription 
pontiffx  quoted  by  Mr.  Brookes  in  his  letter  to 
the  Globe.  My  Latin  dictionary  (Lewis  and 
Short's)  gives,  under  "Pontifex,"  "The  Jewish 
high  priest  :  Pontifex,  id  est,  sacerdos  maximus, 
Vulg.  Lev.  21,  10  :  Caiapham  pontificem,  id. 
Johan.  18,  24.  Hence  in  the  Christian  period  a 
bishop,  Sid.  Carm.,  16,  6." 


I  think  pontifex  is  used  to  express  metropolitan 
primacy,  because  in  former  days  the  Archbishop 
of  Canterbury  was  one  of  the  most  important  pre- 
lates in  Europe.  I  believe  that  pontiff  is  syno- 
nymous with  bishop,  the  Pope  being  Pontifex 
Maximus.  Moreover,  the  book  containing  the 
ceremonial  of  a  bishop  is  called  the  Pontifical,  and 
his  mitre,  crozier,  pectoral  cross,  &c.,  pontificalia. 


S.  xii.  441,  524;  7th  S.  i.  36).— I  beg  to  thank  my 
friend  MR.  PICKFORD  and  other  contributors  for 
the  additional  instances  of  simulation  they  have 
afforded.  Another  friend,  by  private  letter,  re- 
minds me  of  one  at  Palazzo  Grimaldi  at  Cagne 
(near  Antibes).  In  the  sala  there  the  fall  of 
Phaeton  is  depicted  with  great  actuality  on  the 
ceiling  by  Carleoni. 

In  response  to  the  inquiry  at  the  last  reference 
I  send  a  line  for  line  translation  I  made  some 
years  ago  of  The'ophile  Gautier's  version  of  the 
legend,  which  has,  I  think,  only  appeared  in  a 
magazine: — 

In  the  good  town  of  Toledo  a  Madonna  they  revere, 
And  before  it  a  pale-gleaming  lamp  is  burning  all  the 


It  is  covered  with  a  glittering  profusion  of  brocade 
And  the  treasures  of  fond  art  with  tawdry  gilding  over- 
laid ! 

And  about  this  same  Madonna  a  tradition  they  receive, 
Which  an  infant  in  its  nurse's  arms  I  'm  sure  would 

scarce  believe, 

And  which  yet  no  poet  dedicate  at  sacred  beauty's  shrine 
But  must  wish  to  cherish  integrate,  as  very  truth  divine. 
What  time  the  Virgin  came  to  visit  Holy  Ildefonse, 
To  reward  him  for  his  treatise  he  had  called  his 

"Great  Response," 
Descending  from  her  gold-capp'd  tower  of  ivory  all 


And  bringing  him  a  chasuble,  a  weft  of  sunbeams  bright, 
She  pleased  to  entertain  a  woman's  fantasy  that  day 
By  visiting  that  fair  Madonna-image  on  her  way. 
For  miracle  of  art  it  was,  each  Spaniard  loved  to  see, 
A  seraph's  dream  you    might   have    thought    he  'd 

carved  on  bended  knee  ! 
And  as  she  stood  that  statue   fair  arrested  all  her 


It  seem'd  as  if  her  gaze  surprized  to  search  each  de- 
tail sought ; 

Her  eye  escaped  no  token  of  the  chaste  and  tender  care 
With  which  the  patient  sculptor  had  transformed  the 

marble  rare  ; 

The  grandly  falling  drapery  of  cloth  of  gold  and  lace, 
The    slender,  mobile,  peerless  form,  swathed  in  its 

Gothic  grace ; 

The  look  of  virgin  purity  from  out  of  velvet  eyes  ; 
The  infant  Jesus  nestling  there,  his  mother's  conscious 


A  portraiture  so  accurate  a  very  double  seemed, — 
Her  arms  encircled  the  fair  form,  her  eyes  with  plea- 
sure beamed  ; 

And  turning  to  retrace  her  way  to  Paradise  above 
She  printed  on  that  image  true  a  kiss  of  beaming  love  ! 
Such  stories  gain  no  credence  under  reason's  rigid  sway — 
Ah!  no  radiance  can  be  seen  athwart  the  lights  diffused 
to-day ! 


[7th  S.  I.  JAN.  30,  '86. 

But  in  other  times,  when  poetry  and  faith  were  paramount, 
What   toils  would  not  such   thoughts   help   the  weary 

artist  to  surmount — 

To  arrest  the  gaze  of  Heaven  on  the  work  of  human  brain ! 
Sure,  such  hope  as  that  must  make  the  loneliest  studio 

smile  again. 
How  would  not  the  pious  chisel  linger  perfecting  with 

A  creation  might  be  honoured  with  caresses  from  above  ! 

Should  the  Virgin  have  a  mind  again  some  day  of  our 


To  reward  an  Apologia  with  a  chasuble  sublime, 
Dare  you  hope,  O  modern  sculptors  of  our  altars  pseudo- 

One  of  your  Madonnas  ere  would  woo  her  kiss  upon  its 
cheek ! 

R.  H.  BUSK. 

When,  on  February  27,  1644,  John  Evelyn,  on 
his  way  to  St.  Germains,  called  in  at  Cardinal 
Richelieu's  villa  at  Ruell,  he  saw  there  all 
rarities  of  pleasure,  whereof  one  was 

"the  Citroniere,  where  is  a  noble  conserve  of  all  tho?e 
rarities  ;  and  at  the  end  of  it  is  the  Arch  of  Constantine, 
painted  on  a  wall  in  oyle,  as  large  as  the  real  one  at 
Rome,  so  well  don  that  even  a  man  skill'd  in  painting 
may  mistake  it  for  stone  and  sculpture.  The  skie  and 
hills  which  seem  to  be  betweene  the  arches  are  so 
natural!  that  swallows  and  other  birds,  thinking  to  fly 
through,  have  dashed  themselves  against  the  wall." 

A.  J.  M. 

xii.  516).— The  last  time  this  picture  was  exhibited 
was  in  1857,  at  the  Art-Treasures  Exhibition, 
Manchester  ;  it  then  belonged  to  W.  F.  Fryer, 
Esq.  The  picture  was  first  exhibited  at  the  Royal 
Academy  in  1833  ;  it  was  engraved  by  James 
Scott  in  1845.  It  has  never  been  sold  at  Christie's, 
and  is  probably  still  in  the  possession  of  Mr.  Fryer. 

RHYMING  CHARTERS  (6th  S.  xii.  84,  194,  253, 
314,  410,  475).— I  cordially  share  SIR  JAMES 
PICTON'S  regret  that  the  valuable  space  in 
*  N.  &  Q.'  should  be  occupied  by  much  of  the 
"childish  trash"  which  a  sorely-tried  editor 
always  finds  difficult  to  deal  with  in  conducting  a 
periodical  of  this  nature.  The  rhyming  charters 
are  open  to  all  that  may  be  urged  against  them 
upon  the  score  of  childishness,  and  I  am  not  one  of 
the  gobemouches  against  whose  revellings  in  an 
ideal  atmosphere  SIR  JAMES  PICTON  so  forcibly 
inveighs.  But  I  can  give  him  an  old  and  respect- 
able authority  for  one  example,  viz.,  Richard 
Crompton,  from  whose  book,  *  L'Authoritie  et 
Jurisdiction  des  Covrts  de  la  Maiestie  de  la 
Roygne'  (London,  C.Yetsweirt,  1594,  4to.,ffol.  146 
verso,  and  147  recto),  I  extract  the  following  : — 

*  A  translator  ought  not  to  add  a  word  without  de- 
claring it.  I  have  here  added  "  pseudo,"  for,  though 
the  little  poem  was  written  at  the  most  aggressive 
moment  of  the  Gothic  revival,  no  attack  on  Greek  art 
was  intended. 

'Nota  Edward  le  Confessor  graunt  a  un  Raffe  Peper- 
king  loffice  de  garder  de  son  Forest  de  hundred  de  Chel- 
mer  &  Daunceing  in  com'  Essex  in  taile  come  appiert 
per  Record  in  Lescheker  escrie  modo  sequente,  viz. ; 

Jche  Edward  King 

Haue  yeuen  of  my  Forest  the  keeping 

Of  the  hundred  of  Chelmer  and  Dauncing 

To  Randolph  Peperking  and  to  his  kynlyng, 

With  Han  and  Hynde,  Doe  and  Bucke. 

Hare  and  Foxe,  Catt  and  Brocke, 

Wyldfowle  with  his  flocke, 

Partridge,  Fezant  Hen,  arid  Fezant  Cocke, 

With  greene  and  wihle  stub  and  sto'cke 

To  keepen,  and  two  yeomen  by  all  their  might, 

Both  by  day  and  eke  by  night, 

And  Hounds  for  to  hould, 

Good,  swift  and  bould, 

Foure  Greyhounds,  and  sixe  Raches, 

For  Hare  and  Foxe,  and  wyld  Cattes  : 

And  therefore  yche  made  him  my  booke, 

Witness  the  Bishop  of  Wolstone 

And  booke  ylerned  many  one. 

And  Sweyne  of  Essex  our  brother, 

And  tekyn  him  many  other, 

And  our  Steward  Howelyn 

That  besought  me  for  him. 

Gel  graunt  iaye  icy  insert,  per  que  poyes  voyer  le  plaine 
meaning  del  graunt  de  Roy  in  eel  temps,  &  auxi  queux 
sont  beastes  de  Forest  &  de  Warreyn,  &  eel  graunt  fuit 
signe  ouesque  crosses  de  Or,  car  avant  venua  des  Nor- 
mans in  Englit',  les  charterz  fuer'  signez  oue  crosses 
d'Ore  &  auterz  sigries,  et  apres  lour  venus  fuit  vae  de 
sealer  oue  sere  &  totu'  auis  escrie  ;  quant  al  dit  graunt 
ieo  trouve  in  libra  WillnC  Camden  de  de^cripc'  de 
Britaine  fo.  340.  Vide  1.  H.  7.  Charter  le  Roy  monstre 
cum  crucibus  signatum,  in  case  Stafford  law." 

Upon  this  I  only  remark  that  there  seems  to 
have  been  no  doubt  inCrompton's  mind  respecting 
the  authenticity  of  the  deed,  seeing  that  he  quotes 
it  for  a  distinct  purpose  by  way  of  illustration. 
Camden  deliberately  says  that  the  deed  "  stands 
thus  in  the  Rolls  of  the  Exchequer  :  but,  by  often 
transcribing,  some  words  are  made  smoother  than 
they  were  in  the  Original"  ('Britannia/  1695, 
col.  344).  Whence,  then,  did  Caiuden  procure  the 
original  of  the  deed,  which  he  puts  forth  with  the 
due  solemnity  of  a  responsible  historian,  and  in 
which  a  distinguished  legist  recognizes  an  autho- 
rity. I  suppose  it  is  not  suggested  that  Camden 
was  guilty  of  putting  forth  a  •'  bare-faced  and  im- 
pudent forgery  ! "  The  imposition,  if  it  be  one, 
has  had  three  centuries  or  more  of  existence. 


NATHANIEL  COTTON,  M.D.  (6th  S.  xii.  410,  458, 
492). — I  think  SIR  J.  A.  PICTON  is  in  error  in  ascrib- 
ing the  date  1764  to  the  second  edition  of  Cotton's 
4  Visions  in  Verse.'  I  have  a  copy  of  the  sixth 
edition  which  is  dated  1760.  In  this  edition 
'  Marriage,'  which  SIR  J.  A.  PICTON  mentions  as  a 
separate  publication,  is  the  seventh  vision,  being 
the  longest  of  a  series  of  nine,  preceded  by  an  in- 
troductory poem.  The  title-paj/e  of  this  edition  is 
as  follows  :  —  "  Visions  |  in  |  Verse  I  for  the  | 
Entertainment  and  Instruction  |  of  |  Younger 
Minds.  |  Virginibus  puerisque  Canto.  Hor.  |  The 

7"  S.  I.  JAN.  30,  '86.] 



Sixth  Edition,  Eevis'd  and  Enlarg'd  |  London  :  | 
Printed    for  E.    &  J.    Dodsley,   in  Pallmall.  \ 
MDCCLX."     My  copy  is  very  strongly  bound  in  gilt 
vellum,  and  has  three  pages  of  advertisements  of 
"  Books  published  for  R.  &  J.  Dodsley." 

W.  E.  TATE. 
Walpole  Vicarage,  Halesworth. 

.  How  TO  FIND  A  DROWNED  CORPSE  (7th  S.  i. 
6), — About  the  year  1827  a  boy  named  Dean  was 
drowned  whilst  bathing  in  the  Thames,  as  it  flows 
by  the  playing  fields  of  Eton  College.  The  body 
was  dived  for,  but  could  not  be  found.  Mr.  Evans, 
the  well-known  drawing-master,  arrived  on  the 
spot,  and  having  ascertained  whereabouts  the  boy 
disappeared,  he  threw  a  cricket-bat  on  the  place, 
which  floated  with  the  stream  until  it  stopped  in 
an  eddy,  where  it  began  to  turn  round.  The  eddy 
was  caused  by  a  hole  in  the  bed  of  the  river,  and, 
lying  at  the  bottom  of  the  hole,  the  body  was 

Harry  Baker's  mother  need  not  have  used  a  loaf 
of  bread  charged  with  quicksilver  to  recover  her 
son's  corpse,  which  no  doubt  had  been  caught  in 
an  eddy  and  sucked  to  the  bottom. 


BROWN  OR  BROWNE  (6th  S.  xii.  469,  503).— 
Since  writing  my  reply  I  have  found  a  biographical 
notice  of  Frances  Brown,  with  one  of  her  poems 
('  The  Hope  of  the  Eesurrection  '),  in  the  St.  James's 
Magazine,  first  series,  vol.  xvii.  p.  Ill,  under  the 
title  of  *  Blind  Authors.'  In  this  article  her  name 
is  spelt  with  the  final  e, 

71,  Brecknock  Road. 

OLD  ST.  PANCRAS  CHURCHYARD  (7th  S.  i.  27). 
— The  following  extract  from  a  pamphlet  dated 
1874,  and  entitled  'A  Plea  for  St.  Pancras  Church- 
yard/ &c.,  may  be  of  interest  to  E.  L.  G. : — 

"  It  has  been  asserted  that  the  preference  was  owing 
to  the  fact  that  Roman  Catholics  were  burnt  there  in 
Queen  Elizabeth's  reign.  It  has  also  been  explained  by 
saying  that  mass  is  said  daily  in  a  church  dedicated 
to  the  same  saint  in  the  south  of  Prance,  for  the  repose 
of  the  souls  of  the  faithful  buried  at  St.  Pancras  in 
London.  Both  of  these  statements  appear,  however,  to 
be  without  foundation,  and  Mr.  Markland,  in  a  note  to 
Croker's  edition  of  BoswelPs  'Life  of  Johnson'  (1860, 
p.  840)  says, '  I  learn  from  unquestionable  authority  that 
it  rests  upon  no  foundation,  and  that  mere  prejudice 
exists  among  Roman  Catholics  in  favour  of  this  church, 
as  is  the  case  with  respect  to  other  places  of  burial  in 
various  parts  of  the  kingdom." 

Jean  Frangois  de  la  Marche,  Bishop  of  St.  Pol 
de  Leon,  who  was  buried  in  this  churchyard,  died 
in  Queen  Street,  Bloomsburv,  in  1806. 

G.  F.  E.  B. 

Information  might  be  obtained  from  two  volumes 
compiled  by  Mr.  T.  Cansick — '  Epitaphs  from 
Monuments,  &c.,  of  St.  Pancras'  (1869),  and 
'.Epitaphs  from  Existing  Monuments  in  Ceme- 

teries and  Churches  of  St.  Pancras'  (1872).  In  the 
little  history  of  '  London,'  by  "  Sholto  and  Eeuben 
Percy,"  it  is  remarked  :  "  The  churchyard  of  St. 
Pancras  is  remarkable  for  the  great  number  of 
Eoman  Catholics  interred  in  it,  and  the  church 
was  the  last  in  England  where  mass  was  performed 
after  the  Eestoration." 


'  HOURS  OF  IDLENESS'  (6th  S.  xii.  386,  520).— 
At  the  latter  reference  A.  A.  describes  the  title  of 
his  copy,  and  gives  the  reading  therein  of  the  first 
verse  in  the  book.  My  copy  has  a  similar  title, 
with  the  addition  of  mottoes  from  Homer,  Horace, 
and  Dryden,  and  the  last  line  of  the  verse  in 
question  in  mine  runs  thus  : — 

Have  choak'd  up  the  rose,  which  late  bloom'd  [sic]  in 
the  way. 

Perhaps  some  one  can  say  to  which  of  the  four 
editions  mine  belongs. 


THOMAS  PRINGLE  (7th  S.  i.  28)  was  born  on 
January  5,  1789,  at  Blaiklaw,  in  the  parish  of 
Lenton,  Eoxburghshire,  and  dying  of  consumption 
on  December  5,  1834,  in  the  forty-sixth  year  of  his 
age,  was  buried  in  Bunhill  Fields.  For  details  of 
his  life,  see  Josiah  Conder's  *  Biographical  Sketch 
of  the  late  Thomas  Pringle'(1835);  Irving's  'Book  of 
Scotsmen  '  (1881),  p.  416,  where,  by  a  curious  mis- 
print, Pringle  is  supposed  to  have  been  born  in 
1879,  and  to  have  died  in  1834;  Gent.  Mag.,  1835, 
n.s.,  vol.  iii.  pp.  326-7  ;  the  memoir  by  Mr.  L. 
Eitchie  in  the  '  Poetical  Works  of  Thomas  Pringle' 
(1838),  and  by  Mr.  Noble  in  'Afar  in  the  Desert: 
and  other  South  African  Poems  '  (1881). 

G.  F.  E.  B. 

Thomas  Pringle  was  born  at  Blaiklaw,  Eoxburgh- 
shire, January  5, 1789,  and  died  in  London,  Decem- 
ber 5,  1834.  He  is  buried  in  Bunhili  Fields.  The 
edition  of  his  '  Narrative  of  a  Eesidence  in  South 
Africa '  published  in  1835  contains  a  sketch  of  his 
life  by  Josiah  Conder,  and  another  biography  by 
Leitch  Eitchie  is  prefixed  to  his  '  Poetical  Works,' 
1839.  There  are  some  interesting  references  in 
Cyrus  Eedding's  '  Eeminiscences.' 


208).— Eobert  died  1134,  and 

"was  interr'd  in  the  choir  of  St.  Peter's  Church  at  Glou- 
cester, before  the  High  Altar,  where  not  long  after,  was 
erected  to  him  a  Tomb  (in  form  of  a  Chest  of  Wainscot). 

This  tomb   (to  the  great  credit  of  the  Substance  of 

which  it  was  made)  stood  firm  until the  rebellious 

Soldiers  tore  it  to  pieces,"  &c. — Sandford's  '  Genealogical 
History/  1707. 

Sir  Eobert  Atkyns  ('  The  Ancient  and  Present 
State  of  Gloucestershire,'  London,  1712)  writes  : — 

"His  Monument  of  Wood  stood  firm  until  the  great 
Rebellion  in  the  Keign  of  King  Charles  the  First,  when 



[7th  8. 1.  JAN.  30,  '86. 

the  rude  Soldiers  tore  it  in  pieces.  But  Sir  Humphry 
Tracy,  of  Stanway,  bought  them,  and  laid  them  up  till 
the  Restoration  of  King  Charles  the  Second,  and  then 
caused  the  Monument  to  be  repaired  and  beautifyed  at 
his  own  charges.  The  Effigies  is  carved  with  Cross 
Legs"  &c. 

Whilst  Rudder  (CA  New  History  of  Gloustershire/ 
1779),  after  mentioning  an  early  "  grave  stone  " 
with  "  a  cross  "  on  it,  says  of  the  Irish-oak  tomb, 
"  This  monument  was  made  long  since  he  was 
buried";  and  refers  to  "a  noble  representation" 
of  it  "  which  is  published  in  Sandford's  '  Genea- 
logical History.' " 

My  impression  is  that  Rudder  is  correct.  The 
tomb  has  been  so  broken,  restored,  and  neglected 
that  from  appearances  one  would  not  give  it  the 
age  which  Sandford  claimed  for  it ;  but  he  inclined 
to  set  it  down  to  the  design,  if  not  the  handiwork, 
of  those  artificers  who  were  employed  to  create  the 
tomb  of  John  of  Elthatn  in  Westminster  Abbey. 

34,  St.  Petersburg  Place,  W. 

BED-STAFF  (6th  S.  xii.  496;  7th  S.  i.  30).— Two 
correspondents  reassert  the  Johnson-Nares  ex- 
planation, but  they,  like  these  latter,  give  no  proof 
such  as  DR.  MURRAY  asked  for,  but  only  assertion 
and  reassertion.  Having  seen  some  half  dozen 
Elizabethan  bedsteads  at  different  times,  I  failed  to 
notice— while  owning  that  I  did  not  specially  look 
for  them— the  necessary  and  now  unusual  holes, 
and  must — as  previously  intimated — still  dis- 
believe in  such  bed-staffs  and  bed-staff  holes 
till  proof  be  brought  forward.  I  now  incline  to 
"the  staff  for  beating  up  the  bed,"  my  friend 
Mr.  W.  G.  Stone  having  quoted  from  John 
Russell's  ' Boke  of  Nurture'  (E.E.T.S.),  p.  179:  — 
The  Pethurbed  ye  bete  without  hurt,  so  no  feddurs  ye 

a  MS.  written  in  the  latter  half  of  the  fifteenth 
century;  but  the  bedstaves  of  Alley n's  will  and 
of  Jonson's  '  Staple  of  News '  were,  for  aught  I 
can  see  to  the  contrary,  the  bed-rungs,  or  bed- 
laths,  that  supported,  and,  though  now  generally 
of  iron,  still  support  the  mattrass. 


"PULL  DEVIL,  PULL  BAKER"  (2nd  S.  iii  228 
258,  316;  7th  S.  i.  16).— The  episode  of  the  devil 
and  the  baker  forms  the  subject  of  a  magic  lantern 
slide  which  has  been  in  the  possession  of  my  family 
since  near  about  the  beginning  of  the  present  cen- 
tury. The  first  scene  shows  the  baker  and  a  con- 
stable (?)  having  a  dispute  about  the  light  weight 
of  loaf  sold  by  the  former;  the  constable  catches 
the  baker  by  the  shoulder  and  holds  aloft  the 
scales,  which  prove  the  baker's  ill-doing.  Scene 
two  :  When  this  dispute  has  raged  some  time  the 
devil  comes  by,  seizes  a  loaf  from  the  baker's 
round  basket  standing  on  the  ground,  and  runs 
off  with  it,  but  the  baker  catches  him  by  the  tail 
und  now  comes  the  "  pull  devil,  pull  baker."  As 

the  slide  is  moved  to  and  fro,  the  two  gain  ground 
alternately;  but  this  does  not  last  long.  Scene 
three :  The  devil,  whose  patience  is  worn  out, 
claps  the  baker  into  his  own  basket,  gets  the 
basket  on  his  back  by  means  of  the  straps  pro- 
vided for  the  shoulders,  and,  still  holding  in  his 
hands  the  loaf,  the  cause  of  all  the  trouble,  walks 
quickly  off  to  his  own  place  with  the  unfortunate 
baker.  Scene  four:  "  His  own  place";  a  reptile's 
head,  hideous  with  black,  red,  and  green,  huge 
eye  (for  it  is  in  profile),  huge  fangs,  flames  and 
smoke  issuing  from  the  open  jaws. 


A  CORNISH  CAROL  (6th  S.  xii.  484).—  The  song 
given  as  a  carol  in  the  Christmas  number  is  nearly 
identical  with  one  I  used  to  hear  sung  in  Wilts, 
some  years  ago,  at  harvest  time.  The  burden  was 
quite  different,  and  ran  as  follows  : — 

When  want  is  all  the  go, 

And  it  ever  more  shall  be  so, 

I  'Jl  sing  you  (two),  0. 

I  am  inclined  to  think,  however,  that  (though  cer- 
tainly sung  so)  it  was  a  corruption  of  a  line  similar 
to  the  Cornish  line  about  God,  as  there  was  no 
"  one."  It  then  went  on, — 

What  is  your  two,  O  ? 

Let,  let  your  lily  white  boys 

Be  clothed  all  in  green,  0. 

The  other  numbers  were, — 
Three  0  are  rivo  ; 

which   we   supposed    to    predicate   the    equality 

(rivality)  of  the  Trinity. 

Four  are  the  Gospel  leaders. 

Five  are  the  benders  of  the  bow, 

Six  of  them  brought  waters, 

Seven  are  the  seven  bright  stars  in  the  sky, 

Eight  are  the  gabel  rangers,* 

Nine  are  the  nine  bright  sbiners,f 

Ten  are  the  ten  commandements, 

Eleven  are  tbe  eleven  of  innocents,:}: 

Twelve  are  the  twelve  apostles 

I  have  compared  this  with  a  copy  also  written 
down  from  the  mouth  of  a  singer  by  a  friend,  and 
find  it  nearly  the  same.  She  has  "  Three  arrive  0," 
"  Six  of  them  brought  Walters  ";  and  each  time  she 
has  "  I  '11  sing  your  two,  0,"  "  your  three,  0,''  &c. 

I  gave  at  pp.  254-5  '  Folk-lore  of  Rome '  a  Roman 
equivalent,  and  neither  did  my  contributor,  most 
certainly,  consider  it  a  Christmas  song.  Though 
quite  similar  in  construction,  the  attributions  of  the 
numbers  are  all  different,  except  four  and  nine, 
which  agree  with  the  Wilts  version. 

I  am  glad  to  take  this  opportunity  of  acknow- 
ledging a  suggestion  made  to  me  by  Mr.  W.  Bliss, 
and  which  I  ought  to  have  thought  of  for  myself, 
in  regard  to  No.  2,  which  I  had  written  down  as 

*  A  corruption  of  "  the  Angel  Gabriel  "  (?). 
f  Clearly  meaning  the  nine  orders  of  angels. 
I  St.  Ursula's  11,000  virgins  (?), 

7'h  8. 1.  JAN.  30,  '86.] 



I  thought  I  had  heard  it,  t;  Due  sono  le  chiavi  del 
cielo,  c'  e  I'  oro  "  (there  is  gold),  which  undoubtedly 
is  meant  for  a  mixture  of  Latin  and  Italian,  and 
should  be  written  ccelorum.  My  old  lady  probably, 
by  assonance,  said  c'eloro,  "cielo." 

E.  H.  BUSK. 

ANGLO-IRISH  BALLADS  (6th  S.  xii.  223).— In 
order  to  render  my  former  note  on  this  subject  a 
little  more  complete,  I  should  like  to  add  that 
the  earliest  version  of  *  The  Grey  Cock '  is  appa- 
rently to  be  found  in  Herd's  *  Collection  of  Ancient 
and  Modern  Scots  Songs,'  1776,  where  the  stanzas 
run: — 
"Flee,  flee  up,  my  bonny  grey  cock, 

And  craw  when  it  is  day  ; 
Your  neck  shall  be  like  the  bonny  beaten  gold, 

And  your  wings  of  the  silver  grey." 

The  cock  proved  false,  and  untrue  he  was, 

For  he  crew  an  hour  ower  soon  ; 
The  lassie  thought  it  day,  when  she  sent  her  love  away, 

And  it  was  but  a  blink  of  the  moon. 

This  may  be  compared  with  another  version  in 
•N.&Q./1"S.TL  370. 

I  may  also  mention  that  a  fragment  of  the  Irish 
song  of  *  Shuile  Agra '  (Graves,  '  Irish  Songs  and 
Ballads/  p.  257)  was  current  in  Scotland,  and  is 
printed  in  Mr.  C.  K.  Sharpe's  *  Ballad  Book' 
under  the  title  of 'Dickie  Macphalion '  (see  Mr. 
E.  Goldsmid's  reprint  of  part  i.  p.  37). 



PIGEONS  AND  SICK  PEOPLE  (7th  S.  i.  49).— In 
the  '  Autobiography  of  Mrs.  Alice  Thornton  (pub- 
lished by  the  Surtees  Society),  that  lady,  telling 
of  the  last  illness  of  her  father,  the  Lord  Deputy, 
Sir  Christopher  Wandesforde,  says:  "That  night, 
pigeons  cut  was  laid  to  the  soles  of  his  feet.  When 
my  father  saw  it  he  smiled  and  said,  *  Are  you 
come  to  the  last  remedy  ?  But  I  shall  prevent  your 
skill.' "  The  editor  of  the  '  Autobiography  '  adds, 
in  a  note  : — 

"  In  the  olden  time,  when  the  treatment  of  the  sick 
was  not  so  rational  as  in  later  years,  remedies  of  this 
character  were  not  unusual.  The  idea  seems  to  have 
been  that  a  living,  or  recently  killed  creature  applied  to 
the  patient  communicated  some  of  its  vitality  to  him. 
A  moribund  person  has  been  wrapped  in  the  skin  of  a 
sheep  fresh  from  the  animal." 


There  are  many  references  to  the  medical  use  of 
pigeons  in  *  Les  Pigeons  de  Valiere  et  de  Colom- 
bier,'  1824.  I  have  a  note  of  the  authors'  names 
as  "  Bataud  et  Corbie"." 



When  I  was  in  Bermuda  in  1863  I  several 
times  heard  of  this  custom  being  practised  by  the 
negro  poor  as  a  last  remedy  in  cases  of  yellow 
fever.  H.  G.  GRIFFINHOOFE. 

34,  St.  Petersburg  Place,  W 

PYEWIPE  INN  (6th  S.  xii.  487;  7th  S.  i.  37).— 
The  pyewipe  is,  in  the  vernacular  of  the  Eastern 
counties,  the  lapwing.  Compare  the  Scotch  terms 
peesweep  and  peeweep.  The  second  syllable  would 
seem  to  be  cognate  with  the  Swedish  vipa. 


TOOT  HILL  (6th  S.  xii.  491 ;  7th  S.  i.  56).-If  my 
worthy  and  learned  friend  SIR  JAMES  PICTON — 
from  whose  suggestive  papers  at  archaeological  con- 
gresses I  have  learned  so  much — had  only  read  a 
little  further  what  I  wrote  about  Tothill  Fields  in 
'  Old  and  New  London '  (vol.  iv.  p.  14),  he  would 
have  seen  that  he  has  scarcely  done  me  justice  in 
classing  me  among  "  those  whose  only  idea  of 
etymological  inquiry  is  that  of  idle  guess-work." 
I  wrote  there  : — 

"  Toot,  in  one  of  its  varied  forms,  is  not  an  uncommon 
prefix  to  the  names  of  other  places  in  different  parts  of 
England,  as  Totness,  Toth&m,  Tutbury,  Tooting,  Totten- 
ham, &c. ;  and  it  may  be  added  that  all  these  are  places 
of  considerable  elevation  compared  with  the  surrounding 

I  came  by  my  own  independent  observation  of 
place-names  to  the  conclusion  that  the  word  must 
have  originally  meant  a  rising  ground,  the  same 
which  SIR  JAMES  calls  a  specula  ;  and  the  remarks 
which  he  makes  in  the  columns  of  '  N.  &  Q.'  show 
that  I  was  right  in  my  etymology.  He  tells  me 
that  the  old  English  or  Saxon  word  totian,  which 
is  at  the  bottom  of  toot,  means  to  lift  up  or  elevate ; 
and  I  thank  him  for  his  reference  to  the  *  Promp- 
torium  Parvulorum,'  which  confirms  his  deriva- 
tion. But  surely  my  inference  from  toot  or  tut 
that  some  such  Anglo-Saxon  word  underlies  it, 
shows  not  that  I  love  "  idle  guess-work,"  but  that 
when  SIR  JAMES  PICTON  has  lectured  in  my  hear- 
ing I  have  been  an  attentive  listener  and  a  teach- 
able pupil.  E.  WALFORD,  M.A. 

2,  Hyde  Park  Mansions,  N.W. 

This  word  has  been  well  dealt  with  before  ;  see 
5th  S.  vii.  461 ;  viii.  56,  138,  298,  358,  478 ;  ix. 
277 ;  x.  37 ;  xi.  455.  0.  W.  TANCOCK. 

TRAPP  (7th  S.  i.  47).— The  epigrams  on  Trapp's 
'  Virgil'  are  noticed  in  an  editorial  communication, 
in  answer  to  a  query  by  MR.  S.  JACKSON,  in 
1 N.  &  Q.,'  4th  S.  vii.  236.  Another  epigram  is 
given  by  ANON,  at  p.  326,  from  '  The  Festoon,' 
p.  39,  1767.  This  seems  to  me  like  a  various 
reading  of  the  epigram  on  Archbishop  Sharp. 
ANON,  also  tries  to  raise  the  estimate  of  the  trans- 
lation. ED.  MARSHALL. 

[Many  answers  to  the  same  effect  are  acknowledged 
with  thanks.] 

A  SHEAF  OF  MISPRINTS  (7th  S.  i.  5). — If  your 
correspondent  C.  M.  I.  had  been  good  enough  to 
refer  to  the  names  of  the  poems  in  which  the  mis- 
takes he  pointed  out  occur  in  the  1850  edition,  he 
would  have  saved  a  great  deal  of  trouble  to  those 


[7'b  S,  I,  JAN.  30,  '86. 

who,  like  myself,  have  other  editions.  My  copy  of 
Emerson's  'Works'  is  that  published  by  George  Bell 
&  Sons  (London,  1882),  and  the  poems  are  in 
vol.  i.,  to  the  pages  of  which  my  references  apply. 

C.  M.  I.  gives  eighteen  corrections,  and  it  may 
be  useful  to  compare  Bell's  edition,  and  to  give 
references  to  the  poems. 

1.  'Each  and  All,'  lines  5  to  8,  p.  399.  Correct. 

2.  '  Guy,'  lines  39,  40,  p.  413.     Correct.     More 
correct,    indeed,    than    your    correspondent,    for 
"  honoured  "  is  spelt  in  accordance  with  pure  Eng- 
lish orthography,  and  not  in  that  odious  (perhaps 
I  should  say  odios)  Yankee  fashion  "  honored." 

3.  'Woodnotes,'  i.  1.  79,  p.  421.     First  correc- 
tion given  effect  to,  but  not  second. 

Where  feeds  the  moose,  and  walks  the  surly  bear. 
No  doubt  "  stalks  "  is  better,  though  the  bear  is 
more  frequently  the  stalkee  than  the  stalker. 

4.  '  Woodnotes,'  ii.  11.  282,  283,  p.  429.  Correct. 

5.  *  Woodnotes,'  ii.  11.  315,  316,  p.  430.  Correct. 

6.  'Monaduoc,'  11.  10,  11,  p.  432.     Correct. 

7.  '  Monaduoc,'  11.  227-9,  p.  437.     Same  as  in 
Koutledge's  edition, — 

The  gamut  old  of  Pan. 
Quite  as  good  as 

The  gamut  of  Old  Pan, 

and  not  showing  such    contemptuous    familiarity 
with  the  Old  Gentleman. 

8.  '  Ode  inscribed  to  W.  H.  Channing,'  11.  3,  4 
p.  441.     Correct. 

9.  '  Estienne  de  la  Boece,'  11.  16,  17,  p.  445. 

10.  '  To  Ellen,'  11.  11,  12,  p.  451.     Correct. 

11.  'To  Ellen,'  1.  24,  p.  452.     Correct. 

12.  «  Saadi,'  11   149,  150,  p.  475. 

All  the  brass  of  plume  and  song. — Koutledge. 
Obviously  idiotic.     C.  M.  I.  suggests 

All  the  birds  of  plume  and  song. 
Bell  has  it 

All  the  brags  of  plume  and  song. 

"  Birds  "  would  appear  at  the  first  blush  to  be  the 
correct  reading,  but  it  is  tautological,  for  the  tw 
preceding  lines  are 

Wish  not  to  fill  the  isles  with  eyes 

To  fetch  thee  birds  of  paradise  ; 

and  we  have  in  Milton  ('  Comus,'  1.  745) 

Beauty  ia  Nature's  brag,  and  must  be  shown 
Jn  Courts,  at  feasts  and  high  solemnities, 
Where  most  may  wonder. 

Used  in  the  same  sense,  "brags"  would  seem 
correct,  and  the  use  of  the  long  s  referred  to  b; 
C.  M.  I.  would  explain  the  misprint.  "  Brags  "  i 
quite  Emersonian. 

13.  '  From  the  Persian  of  Hafiz,'  1.  21,  p.  477 
Correct,  but  given  slightly  differently  in  Bell  :  — 

Bring  me,  Boy,  the  veiled  beauty. 

14.  '  From  the  Persian  of  Hafiz,'  last  two  lines 
p.  480.     Corrected,  and  with  different  and  bette 
reading  : — • 

Thee  may  Sovereign  Destiny 
Lead  to  victory  day  by  day. 

15.  'Ghaselle,'  1.  21,  p.  481.     Correct. 

16.  'Ghaselle/ll.  27,  28,  p.  481,  given,  "Shy 
bou  not  hell,"  &c.   Probably  more  correct,  "  Shun 
hou,"  as  C.  M.  I.  has  it. 

17.  '  Threnody,'  1.  277,  p.  493.     Correct. 

18.  The  misprint  of  "  deferential "  for  differen- 
ial  "  in  one  of  eight  essays''  I  thought  it  would 
e  impossible  to  hunt  up,  but  I  find  it  (corrected) 
n  Bell's  edition,  '  Essay  on  Nature,'  vol.  i.  p.  228, 
irst  line.  J.  B.  FLEMING. 

VEGETABLE  BUTTER  (6th  S.  xii.  493).— This 
ree  is  probably  Elceis  guincensis,  the  maba  or 
)il  palm  of  Western  Africa.  The  fleshy  part  ia 
iruised — not  the  kernel,  as  commonly  said — and 
he  bruised  paste  is  subjected  to  boiling  water  in 
wooden  mortars,  when  an  orange  yellow  oil 
eparates,  of  the  consistency  of  butter.  When 
'resh  it  has  a  violet  odour.  It  is  employed  in 
Europe  in  perfumery  and  medicine.  The  tree  is 
ndigenous  to  Africa,  but  can  be  cultivated  else- 
where, as  in  Jamaica.  C.  A.  WARD. 

Haverstock  Hill. 

'•  The  Shea  tree  or  butter  tree  of  Africa,  whose  seeds 
produce  the  Galam  butter  mentioned  by  Muntjo  Park,  is 

i  species  of  this  genus  [Bassia,  nat  ord.  Sapotaceci] 

Tiie  seeds  are  boiled  in  water  to  extract  the  butter  from 
them.  This  fatty  substance  is  of  a  white  colour  and 
agreeable  taste,  and  keeps  well,  hence  it  is  an  important 
article  of  commerce  in  Sierra  Leone."— M.  T.  M.  in 
'  Treasury  of  Botany,'  i.  128. 

A  figure  of  the  tree  will  be  found  in  Prof.  Oliver's 
"Botany  of  the  Speke  and  Grant  Expedition," 
Transactions  Linn.  Soc.,  vol.  xxix.  t.  73.  The 
plant  is  now  placed  in  the  genus  Bretyrospermum. 
The  fatty  matter  is  said  to  be  introduced  into 
Europe  for  the  use  of  soap  and  of  candle  manufac- 
turers. M.  T.  M. 

'  VALOR  ECCLESIASTICUS'  (7th  S.  i.  70).— The  por- 
tion of  the"taxatio  ecclesiastica,"Papa  NicholailV., 
relating  to  the  diocese  of  Exeter,  was  printed  by 
Dr.  Oliver  in  his'Monasticon  Diocesis  Exoniensis,' 
Supplement,  pp.  456-71.  The  ecclesiastical  survey 
of  the  diocese  of  Exeter,  "  as  returned  to  the  crown 
by  John  Veysey  3  Nov.,  1536,"  the  then  occupant 
of  the  see,  was  included  by  the  same  admirable 
antiquary,  Dr.  Oliver,  in  his  '  Ecclesiastical  Anti- 
quities of  Devon,'  pp.  151-92. 


15,  Queen  Anne's  Gate. 

ETON  MONTEM  (6th  S.  xii.  494  ;  7th  S.  i.  55). 
—  A.S  a  "  serjeant,"  i.e.,  fifth  form  boy,  at  the  last 
two  montems,  I  can  bear  witness  that  they  took 
place  in  1841  and  1844.  At  the  former  an 
historical  incident  occurred,  viz.,  a  more  or  less 
compulsory  subscription  by  the  boys  to  compen- 
sate "Botham,"  at  Salthill,  for  damage  done  to 
his  gooseberry-bushes  ;  at  the  latter,  the  boys  did 

7">  S.  I.  J*N.  30,  'i 



not  leave  the  playing  and  shooting  fields,  so  there 
was  no  "  Ad  Montem." 

WILLIAM  FRASER  of  Ledeclune,  Bt. 

SEAL  OF  GRAND  INQUISITOR  (6th  S.  xii.  387, 
438,  472;  7th  S.  i.  17).— If  I  understand  IX  P. 
rightly,  our  Catholic  prelates,  on  being  appointed 
by  the  Holy  See,  receive  heraldic  as  well  as  spiritual 
powers  from  the  Pope.  I  did  not  know  this  in- 
teresting fact ;  but  it  may  explain  the  very  "messy" 
heraldry  to  which  we  are  often  ecclesiastically 
treated.  If  D.  P.  describes  Bishop  Vaughan's 
arms  correctly,  I  fear  these  are  badly  marshalled. 
If  my  name  be  "Vaughan"  I  do  not  see  how  I 
can  carry  "Herbert"  first — or  indeed  any  other 
coat  first — although  other  bearings  may  follow 
those  of  Vaughan.  Judging  from  foreign  epis- 
copal coats,  I  imagine  that  foreign  prelates  choose 
their  own  arms;  but  I  have  no  information  on  this 
point.  But  MR.  WOODWARD  will  see  that,  if 
D.  P.'s  theory  of  heraldic  jurisdiction  holds  water, 
there  is  no  reason  why  bishops  should  not  choose 
or  change  arms  of  sees,  &c.,  ad  libitum.  But  I 
am  of  opinion  that  the  power  of  granting  coats 
armorial  to  persons,  or  corporations,  or  sees,  or  to 
anybody  or  thing  in  Great  Britain  and  Ireland  is 
vested  in  and  confined  to  Garter,  Lyon,  and 
Ulster  respectively.  GEORGE  ANGUS,  M.A. 

St.  Andrew's,  N.B. 

The  First  Century  of  Christianity.    By  Homersham  Cox, 

M.A.     (Longmans  &  Co.) 

To  produce  a  new  work  dealing  with  the  early  history  of 
Christianity  is,  it  must  be  admitted,  a  somewhat  bold 
undertaking.  Folios,  quartos,  octavos  innumerable 
crowd  our  bookshelves,  and  seem  scarcely  to  leave  room 
fora  new  volume  upon  this  well-worn  subject.  Histories 
ancient,  histories  modern;  histories  orthodox,  histories 
neological ;  histories  high,  low,  and  broad,  seem  to 
occupy  every  possible  standpoint.  And  yet  Mr. 
Homersham  Cox  makes  out  a  very  good  case  for  his  new 
venture.  The  standard  treatises,  he  says,  are  addressed 
to  the  learned ;  they  are  rarely  "  understanded  of  the 
people";  they  are  too  ponderous  for  men  who  are  not 
professed  scholars.  Here  is  an  attempt  to  present  in  a 
popular  and  concise  form  the  pith  and  marrow  of  many 
learned  books,  and  further,  to  give  it  a  special  feature 
of  its  own,  "  religious  and  doctrinal  topics  are  scrupu- 
lously excluded." 

We  frankly  confess  to  a  feeling  of  no  little  curiosity 
as  to  the  fulfilment  of  this  last  condition.  Is  it  possible 
to  compile  a  history  of  the  first  century  of  Christianity 
from  which  religious  topics  can  be  excluded  1  We  should 
have  thought,  reasoning  a  priori,  that  the  task  was  an 
utter  impossibility;  and  we  cannot  say  that,  after  a 
perusal  of  the  book,  our  prior  conclusion  has  been 
greatly  modified.  We  can  only  suppose  that  Mr. 
Homersham  Cox  must  attach  some  technical  sense  to 
the  words  religious  and  doctrinal  other  than  that  in 
which  they  are  commonly  used.  The  chapters  on 
baptism,  the  holy  Eucharist,  the  observance  of  Sunday, 
and  other  sections  of  the  book,  though  they  deal  mainly 

with  the  historical  aspect  of  the  matters  discussed,  can- 
not avoid  touching  their  religious  and  doctrinal  sides. 

Beyond  doubt,  however,  the  book  has  a  certain  well- 
defined  position  of  its  own.  It  avoids,  so  far  as  may  be, 
technical  language ;  it  makes  no  display  of  learning, 
though  its  author  has  evidently  read  far  and  wide;  it  is 
drawn  mainly  from  original  sources,  from  the  fathers 
and  early  writers  rather  than  from  their  modern  com- 
mentators ;  and  whilst  it  quotes  freely  from  the  more 
familiar  books  known  to  every  student,  it  does  not 
forget  to  use  even  the  latest  discovery,  the  Ai£ax»)  T&V 
dudeKa.  ATrooroXwj/.  It  opposes  warmly,  and  with 
trenchant  criticism,  the  opinions  of  some  modern  Ger- 
man critics  (founded  mainly  upon  theories  of  their  own 
rather  than  upon  any  solid  historical  basis),  notably  as 
to  the  authenticity  of  St.  John's  gospel ;  and  endeavours 
to  exhibit  the  orthodox  view  of  the  early  history  of  the 
Church.  We  do  not  doubt  that  the  book  will  be  of  use 
to  a  large  circle  of  readers,  especially  to  those  who  have 
neither  access  to  public  libraries  nor  leisure  to  consult 
original  authorities. 

What   tve    really  know  about   Shakespeare.     By  Mrs 

Caroline  Healey  Dall.  (Boston,  U.S.) 
IK  healthy  contrast  to  the  vagaries  of  some  other  literary 
ladies  in  the  United  States,  Mrs.  Dall  undertakes  to 
reply  to  the  victims  of  the  "  Bacon-Shakspeare  craze  " 
not  by  showing  how  utterly  absurd  is  the  attribution  of 
the  Shakspearian  dramas  to  Bacon,  but  by  laying 
before  her  readers  a  statement  of  all  we  know  about  the 
man  to  whom,  by  a  persistent  consensus  of  testimony 
from  his  own  day  to  the  present  century,  they  have  been 
attributed.  Mrs.  Dall  is  already  favourably  known  in 
American  literature ;  she  writes  well  and  pleasantly, 
and  she  brings  to  her  task  a  considerable  amount  of 
book-learning.  But  her  acquisitions  fall  short  of  the 
requirements  of  the  problem,  and  by  her  want  either  of 
knowledge  or  of  care  she  accepts  and  promulgates 
documentary  evidence  about  Shakspeare  which  is  purely 
fabulous.  For  instance,  on  page  118  she  informs  us  that 
'•  in  1609  he  was  assessed  at  Southwark  in  the  Liberty 
of  the  Clmk."  This  precious  fact  Mrs.  Dall  obtains 
from  a  document  preserved  in  the  library  of  Dulwich 
College.  She  ought  to  have  known  that  it  is  a  modern 
forgery,  condemned  by  the  authorities  of  the  British 
Museum  and  the  Record  Office.  The  fact  of  this  con- 
demnation stands  recorded  in  more  books  than  we  care 
to  enumerate.  A  facsimile  of  it  will  be  found  in  Dr. 
Ingleby's  '  Complete  View,'  p.  276,  and  it  is  one  of  the 
registered  forgeries  in  Mr.  Q.  F.  Warners  '  Catalogue  of 
the  Dulwich  Manuscripts.'  Again,  on  p.  148  she  relies 
for  a  most  interesting  bit  of  dramatic  history  on  a  still 
more  notorious  forgery,  condemned  by  the  same  autho- 
rities, of  which  facsimiles  have  been  published  by  both 
Mr.  Halliwell-Phillipps  and  Dr.  Ingleby.  That  of  the 
latter  appears  at  p.  256  of  the  '  Complete  View.'  This 
is  the  famous  H.  S.  letter,  or  Lord  Southampton's  letter 
to  Sir  Thomas  Egerton,  asking  protection  for  Shak- 
speare  and  Burbidge  (sic),  which  is  perhaps  the  best 
executed  of  that  long  series  of  impostures  which  the 
late  Mr.  John  Payne  Collier  had  the  misfortune  to 
"  discover"  and  publish.  It  is,  of  course,  to  be  expected 
that  here  and  there  some  writer  on  the  history  of  the 
drama  should  be  duped  by  one  or  other  of  these  fabrica- 
tions ;  but  nevertheless  the  writer  of  a  systematic  book 
like  this  before  us  is  wholly  without  excuse.  A  similar 
want  of  care  is  found  in  Mrs.  Dall's  dealings  with  printed 
literature  and  genuine  MSS.  For  instance,  she  quotes  a 
long  passage  from  '  The  Return  from  Pernassus,'  a  racy 
and  amusing  play,  full  of  gross  personalities,  which  was 
performed  at  Cambridge  in  1602  and  printed  in  1606. 
This  work  she  cites  as  a  '  Criticism  on  English  Poets 



.  I.  JAN.  30,  '86. 

Again,  her  citations  from  the '  Diary '  of  Thomas  Greene  at 
pp.  64  and  65  contain  inaccuracies  which  are,  indeed, 
more  excusable,  but  from  which  she  would  have  been 
saved  had  she  verified  her  extracts  by  consulting  Dr. 
Ingleby's  edition  of  the  '  Diary  '  issued  last  spring,  and  of 
which  "a  copy  is  in  one  of  the  New  York  libraries.  Such 
lapses  lay  Mrs.  Dall's  work  open  to  the  most  unpleasant 
rejoinders  from  the  Baconian  party,  who  will  not  be 
slow  to  point  out  how  much  of  her  Sbakspearian  struc- 
ture, like  the  famous  ice  palace  of  Queen  Catherine, 
will  dissolve  before  the  radiance  of  criticism.  But  the 
truth  is  that,  after  all  necessary  deductions,  there  remains 
a  solid  foundation  of  fact  which  is  an  all-sufficient 
answer  to  the  vagaries  of  the  Bacon  -  Shakspeare 

Christianity  lefore  Christ;  or,  Prototypes  of  our 
Faith  and  Culture.  By  Charles  J.  Stone,  F.R.S.L. 
F.R.Hist.S.  (Triibner  &  Co.) 

THE  aim  of  Mr.  Stone  is  to  show  that  in  India  much  of 
what  is  best  in  the  applied  Christianity  of  the  West  was 
anticipated,  and  to  prove  that  in  general  civilization  the 
countries  now  in  British  possession  were  far  in  advance 
of  European  nations.  To  this  task  he  brings  extensive 
erudition  combined  with  sincere  convictions.  Nothing 
in  his  volume  is  intended  to  disturb  the  faith  of  Western 
peoples  in  the  revelations  made  to  them.  Mr.  Stone, 
however,  claims  for  the  Buddhists  a  revelation  earlier  and 
not  less  important  than  our  own,  and  in  many  respects 
analogous  with  it.  In  the  execution  of  his  task  he 
gives  a  full  analysis  of  the  Mahabharata  epic,  and  de- 
pcribes  many  important  discoveries  of  the  ancient 
Hindus.  Mr.  Stone  writes  clearly  arid  well,  and  sup- 
plies abundance  of  interesting  information.  The  claims 
of  his  work  are  not  accordingly  confined  to  Indian 
specialists,  but  extend  to  general  readers,  who  cannot 
fail  to  find  much  that  is  interesting  and  valuable. 

Nemton,  his  Friend,  and  his  Niece.  By  the  late 
Augustus  De  Morgan.  Edited  by  his  Wife  and  by  his 
pupil  Arthur  Cowper  Ranyard.  (Stock.) 
DE  MORGAN'S  defence  of  Newton  from  the  charge  of 
connivance  at  dishonouring  relations  between  his  niece 
Catherine  Barton  and  his  friend  Charles  Montague,  Earl 
of  Halifax,  will  be  studied  with  interest  by  many  old  con- 
tributors to '  N.  &  Q.,'  in  the  columns  of  which  De  Morgan 
ventilated  his  theories  as  to  the  secret  marriage  which 
he  held  to  have  taken  place  between  the  two.  The 
argument  was  taken  up  in  an  article  intended  for  the 
'  Companion  to  the  Almanack,'  which  was  rejected  by 
Charles  Knight,  and  has  since  been  enlarged  into  its 
present  dimensions.  The  pleading  of  De  Morgan  is 
highly  characteristic  and  ingenious,  and  will  force 
admiration  even  where  it  fails  to  win  assent.  Ad- 
mirers of  De  Morgan  will  be  glad  to  possess  this  volume. 

A  True  and  Most  Dreadfull  Discourse  of  a  Woman 
possessed  with  the  Deuill.  Edited  by  Ernest  E.  Baker. 
(Weston-super-Mare,  Robbins.) 

MR.  BAKER  holds,  and  we  hold  with  him,  that  one  who 
brings  to  light  an  almost  extinct  and  unknown  tract 
renders  a  service  to  others.  He  has  accordingly  reprinted 
in  facsimile  a  curious  black-letter  tract  of  1584.  de- 
scribing how  at  Ditcbeat,  in  Somersetshire,  the  devil,  in 
the  likeness  of  a  headless  bear,  and  in  presence  of  many 
credible  witnesses  who  append  their  names  to  the  report, 
appeared  to  a  married  woman  named  Margaret  Cooper. 
The  manner  in  which  Mephistopheles  acquitted  himself 
in  his  amorphous  shape  and  the  tribulation  of  all  con- 
cerned must  be  read  in  this  curious  work,  the  interest  of 
which  extends  beyond  the  locality  connected  with  the 
incidents  described. 

The  Encyclopaedic  Dictionary.    Vol.  V.  Part  I.    (Casaell 


WHILE  one  reprint  of  this  well-known  dictionary,  in 
course  of  publication  in  parts,  is  still  at  the  beginning 
of  the  alphabet,  an  earlier  edition,  issued  in  volumes,  has 
got  more  than  half  way  through.  The  first  part  of  the 
fifth  volume  begins  with  Milne  and  ends  with  parbuckle. 
It  abounds  with  desirable  information.  Not  easy,  too,  is 
it  to  tell  of  how  much  advantage  are  the  cuts  which 
accompany  words  such  as  morion,  naissant  (heraldic), 
nimbus,  pagoda,  &c.,  of  which  it  is  difficult  by  words  to 
convey  an  adequate  idea.  For  proof  of  the  miscel- 
laneous information  conveyed  the  reader  may  turn  to 
Pall  Mall,  to  monachism,  and  a  hundred  different 

THE  first  number  of  a  reprint  of  Cassell's  « Illustrated 
Shakespeare,'  edited  by  Charles  and  Mary  Cowden  Clarke, 
and  copiously  illustrated  by  H.  C.  Selous,  has  just  been 
issued.  With  it  is  a  facsimile  of  the  will  of  Sbakspeare, 
which  cannot  be  other  than  a  recommendation  to  the 
edition.  The  opening  play  is  '  The  Tempest.' 

PART  XXVII.  of  Mr.  Hamilton's  'Parodies'  deals 
with  Campbell  and  Burns. 

A  FACSIMILE  reprint  of  the  first  edition  of  the  '  Roscius 
Anglicanus '  of  Downes,  the  prompter  of  Sir  William 
Davenant's  company,  one  of  the  rarest  and  most  impor- 
tant contributions  to  our  knowledge  of  the  early  history 
of  the  stage,  is  promised  by  Messrs.  J.  W.  Jarvis  &  Son 
in  a  limited  edition. 

IN  the  last  catalogue  of  Mr.  W.  P.  Bennett,  of  Bir- 
mingham, among  many  curious  works  is  a  manuscript  on 
vellum  of  the  Vulgate  which  is  assigned  to  the  thirteenth 

flotfcerf  to  CorredpmiiJent*. 

We  must  call  special  attention  to  the  folloioing  notices : 

ON  all  communications  must  be  written  the  name  and 
address  of  the  sender,  not  necessarily  for  publication,  but 
as  a  guarantee  of  good  faith. 

WE  cannot  undertake  to  answer  queries  privately. 

To  secure  insertion  of  communications  correspondents 
must  observe  the  following  rule.  Let  each  note,  query, 
or  reply  be  written  on  a  separate  slip  of  paper,  with  the 
signature  of  the  writer  and  such  address  as  he  wishes  to 
appear.  Correspondents  who  repeat  queries  are  requested 
to  head  the  second  communication  "Duplicate." 

A.  C.  B.  ("Beautiful  Snow  ").— This  poem  may  be 
found  in  '  N.  &  Q.,'  5th  S.  iv.  12.  It  was  published  in  the 
form  of  a  small  pamphlet  by  John  Stabb,  5,  Red  Lion 
Square,  W.C.,  and  by  W.  Willis,  £2,  Great  Dover  Street. 

C.  C.  ("  Question  of  Relationship  ").— No. 

H.  0.  ("  True  Date  of  the  Birth  of  Christ ").— We  are 
disinclined  to  reopen  the  question. 

ERRATA.— P.  33,  col.  2, 1.  15  from  bottom,  for  "  Glou- 
cestershire workhouse "  read  Worcestershire  almshouse. 
P.  63,  col.  2,  1.  10  from  bottom,  for  "Lincoln"  read 
London.  P.  68,  col.  2,  11.  10  and  11  from  bottom,  for 
"  Johanna  "  read  Johannce ;  1.  9  from  bottom,  for  "  to  " 
read  6. 


Editorial  Communications  should  be  addressed  to  "  The 
Editor  of  '  Notes  and  Queries  '  " — Advertisements  and 
Business  Letters  to  "  The  Publisher  "—at  the  Office,  22, 
Took's  Court,  Cursitor  Street,  Chancery  Lane,  E.G. 

We  beg  leave  to  state  that  we  decline  to  return  com- 
munications which,  for  any  reason,  we  do  not  print ;  and 
to  this  rule  we  can  make  no  exception. 

7'"  S.  I.  FEB.  6,  '86.] 





NOTES :— History  of  the  Thames,  101— The  Village  Green, 
102— Cornet  Blackburn  —  Portrait  of  Byron,  104— Bliss- 
Extracts  from  Crosstone  Registers,  106  —  Perio — Lambeth 
Degrees,  1885— Footway  from  Haymarket,  106. 

QUERIES  :— Montaigne— Dartmoor  Bibliography— A  Curious 

Race Westminster  School — Porter  of  Calais— Proverbs  on 

Ducks,  107— St.  Evremond— Robertson— Stratton— Whiskey 
—Lent  Fines— Roi  de  Paques— Head  Family— A zagra,  108— 
Campbell  of  Craignish— "  Plain  Dealing"— Clock  Makers- 
Brass  Seal— Upright  Grave-stones  —  Subject  of  Picture— 
A.  Sharp— Epigram  by  Macaulay— Queen's  Day— Beresford 
Chapel— Early  Pronunciation  of  English,  109— Napoleon's 
Dream— Bewick  Cuts— Lombard  Street,  110. 

REPLIES  :— Churchwardens,  110— Portsmouth,  111— Knoxis 
—Prefix  "En"— Latin  Poem  —  Crest- Wreaths— Suicide  of 
Animals,  112— Prayer  of  Queen  of  Scots— Landlord— Mrs. 
Parsons  —  Smoking  in  Church — Arms  of  Halifax,  113 — 
Pentameters  —  Descendants  of  Mead  and  Wilkes,  114— 
Folifate— Rev.  E.  Neale— Shepster— Knox's  Clock— Colle- 
gium Grassinseum  —  Kelly's  Saloon,  115— Fleming— Carew 
Raleigh  —  Castles  —  Stangnum  —  Esquire,  116  —  Must— Al- 
manac—Origin  of  Saying,  117— Volume  of  Sermons-  German 
Proverbs  —  Cantankerous  —  Casaubon's  Haunted  Parish  — 
Beldam—'  Gulliver's  Travels  '—Cornish  Carol,  118. 

NOTES  ON  BOOKS :— Burke's  'Peerage  and  Baronetage'— 
Walford's  'County  Families '—Doyle's  'Official  Baronage 
from  1066  to  1885.' 

Notices  to  Correspondents,  &c. 



Now  we  have  seen  that  Holinshed,  or  rather  his 
fellow- worker  Harrison,  assumes  without  question 
that  Albion  and  Bergios  stand  in  the  story  as  the 
representatives  of  the  British  Islands.  That  this 
identification  is  no  mere  dream  of  an  Elizabethan 
chronicler  is  satisfactorily  proved  by  no  less  an 
authority  than  Prof.  Khys.  These  names,  says  the 

"  one  may  without  much  hesitation  restore  to  the  forma 
Albion  and  Iberion,  representing  undoubtedly  Britain 
and  Ireland,  the  position  of  which  in  the  sea  is  most 
appropriately  symbolized  by  the  story  making  them  sons 
of  Neptune  or  the  sea-god.  The  geographical  difficulty 
of  bringing  Albion  and  Liguria  together  is  completely 
disposed  of  by  the  fact  that  Britain  and  Ireland  were 
once  thought  by  Greek  and  Latin  writers  to  have 
been  separated  from  Gaul  and  Spain  by  only  a  very 
narrow  channel,  not  to  mention  that  it  is  hardly  known 
how  far  Liguria  may  have  reached  to  the  west  and 
north,  or  even  the  Loire — in  Latin  Liger — may  not  have 
got  that  name  as  a  Ligurian  river."f 

!  '  Celtic  Britain,'  p.  201. 
f  In  furthur  corroboration  of  the  identity  of  Bergios 
and    Iberion,   or    rather    Iberjon,  which    Prof.  Rhys 
believes  to  be  the  correct  form,  I  may  here  remark  tha 
the  simple  substitution  of  an  n  for  a  u  in  the  Greek 
name  for  the  southern  part  of  St,  George's  Channe 

For  myself  I  cannot  help  thinking  that  the 
connexion  between  Albion  and  Ligys  may  be  of 
a  much  closer  character.  In  the  delightful  chron- 
cles  which  make  the  history  of  Britain  a  sequel  to 
he  tale  of  Troy  divine,  Brutus,  king  of  the  whole 
sland,  has  three  sons,  who  are  the  eponymous 
tings  of  the  three  great  divisions — Locrinus,  king 
>f  Loegria,  or  England ;  Camber,  king  of  Cambria, 
or  Wales ;  and  Albanact,  king  of  Albania,  or 
Scotland.  Translated  into  less  figurative  lan- 
_uage,  this  means  that  at  the  earliest  time  of 
which  the  author  of  the  myth  possessed  any  record 
or  tradition,  Britain  had  been  divided  into  three 
more  or  less  clearly  defined  territories,  occupied 
)y  three  dominant  races,  all  derived  from  a  com- 
mon Caucasian  stock,*  but  all  differing  more  or 
ess  widely  in  language,  and  all  exercising  more 
or  less  independent  sovereignty.f  It  is  remark- 
able, too,  that  while  many  early  authorities  claim 
a  sort  of  vague  feudal  overlordship  on  behalf  of 
Cambria,  all  the  versions  of  the  eponymous  myth 
epresent  Locrinus  as  the  eldest  son  of  Brute, 
which,  I  take  it,  can  only  mean  that  Loegria  at 
the  time  was  the  most  powerful  of  the  three  states 
— if  states  they  may  be  called.  There  can  be  no 
doubt,  I  imagine,  that  this  tripartite  division  of 
the  island  actually  did  exist  at  a  period  long 
before  the  Roman  conquest,  and  I  am  not 
aware  of  any  antecedent  improbability  in  the  con- 
jecture that  before  the  time  of  -<Eschylus  the 
"  Loegrians  " — I  use  the  term  to  avoid  complica- 
tion— may  have  been  the  most  warlike  and  best 
known  of  the  nations  of  Britain,  or  in  the  further 
conjecture  that  they  may  have  entered  into  an 
alliance  with  certain  tribes  of  Northern  Britain 
and  Ireland  against  the  "  Cambrians,"  the  former 
lords  of  the  "  Loegrian "  soil.  I  venture,  there- 
fore— not  without  misgiving,  but  I  hope  with  some 
show  of  reason — to  suggest  that  if  Albion  and 

would  give  us  a  Bergipnian  instead  of,  as  it  is 
usually  rendered,  a  Vergivian  Ocean.  It  is  just  worth 
note,  too,  that  the  Georgians,  the  same  race  as  the 
ancient  Iberians  of  the  East,  are  still  called  Virk  by 
Armenian  writers.  See  Smith's  '  Diet.,'  s.v.  "  Iberia." 

*  The  original  cradle  of  the  three  races  is  said  to  have 
been  "  Gafis  in  Asia,"  which  I  assume  means  the  Cau- 
casian land 

Where  cloud-capped  Kaf  protrudes  his  granite  toes. 

f  How,  where,  and  when  arose  the  horrible  confusion 
in  the  jargon  of  modern  diplomacy  between  sovereignty 
and  suzerainty — a  sovereign  and  a  suzerain]  In  his 
'  Juventus  Mundi '  (1869)  Mr.  Gladstone  writes  of  "  the 
empire,  or,  to  use  a  modern  phrase,  the  suzerainty,  of 
Agamemnon"  (p.  46).  At  a  later  date  he  made  use  of 
the  same  term  to  define  the  relation  of  the  Queen  of 
Great  Britain  and  Ireland  and  Empress  of  India  towards 
the  victorious  Boers  of  Africa.  Surely  it  required  no 
profound  scholarship  to  recognize  in  the  sover-  of 
sovereign  the  Latin  fuper,  and  the  Latin  subtus  in  the 
sue-  of  suzerain  I  Why  did  not  Mr.  Freeman  prevent 
the  perpetration  of  such  a  solecism  as  the  description  of 
her  Majesty  in  an  official  document  as  the  "under-lady  " 
of  certain  semi-barbaric  African  Dutchmen? 



[?<h  S.  I,  FEB.  6,  '80, 

Bergios  are  accepted  as  referring  to  Britain  an 
Ireland,  it  is  not  improbable  that  the  "Loegrians 
— whatever  their  right  name  may  be — may  be  th 
real  historic  equivalents  of  the  mythic  "  Ligyan 
host "  of  the  Greek  tragedian. 

But,  even  assuming  the  possible  identity  of  the 
two,  how  came  Hercules  to  be  fighting  with  an 
representatives  of  the  British  Islands  near  th 
mouth  of  the  Rhone?  I  rather  think  that  the 
answer  is  to  be  found  in  the  vagueness  of  the  earl 
traditions  relating  to  the  European  Far  West.  ] 
Strabo  or  Mela  found  in  the  poets  a  reference  to  a 
£ght  of  Hercules  with  giants  in  a  stony  plain,  anc 
in  the  accounts  of  travellers  a  mention  of  a  stony 
waste  where  Hercules  was  said  to  have  fought  with 
giants,  it  was  inevitable  that  the  two  stories  woulc 
be  confounded,  and  that  any  names  of  giants  who 
fought  at  a  place  unnamed  by  the  poets  would  be 
taken  as  the  names  of  any  unnamed  giants  who 
fought  at  a  placed  named  by  the  travellers.  This 
is  what  I  conceive  really  took  place.  A  marvellous 
number  of  localities  presenting  unusual  natural 
phenomena  were  associated  with  the  name  oi 
Hercules,  just  as  in  after  days  Robin  Hood  or 
King  Arthur  was  made  godfather  to  any  group 
of  rocks  or  cavern  or  cleft  that  looked  like  the 
handiwork  of  a  giant.  One  such  locality  Strabo 
found  at  the  plain  of  La  Crau,  and  having  found  the 
local  habitation,  he  transferred  a  name  from  another 
story  about  Hercules  to  the  same  place.* 

It  is  worth  note,  however,  that  a  "  promontory 
of  Heracles  "  is  mentioned  by  Ptolemy  in  Britain, 
which  supplies  quite  as  fitting  a  scene  for  the  en- 
counter as  La  Crau  itself,  and  manifestly  a  much 
more  probable  place  for  the  hero  to  meet  Albion 
and  Bergios  with  a  Ligurian  or  Loegrian  host. 
This  promontory  is  clearly  identifiable  as  Hartland 
Point,  in  North  Devon,  and  though  no  extant  local 
tradition  recalls  the  name  of  Heracles,  the  name 
itself  recalls  the  tradition  of  our  own  indigenous 
Hercules,  the  Scilding  Beowulf.  Hartland,  I 
fancy,  still  preserves  the  name  of  Heorot,  which 
Beowulf  gave  to  the  home  he  built  for  himself,  "  of 
hall-houses  greatest,"  where  for  twelve  long  years 
he  was  harassed  by  the  Grendel  till  the  day  came 
when  the  monster's  right  arm  was  wrenched  off  by 
the  hero  in  single  conflict.  Here  on  the  wild  coast 
of  North  Devon  and  the  wilder  shores  of  Lundy 
Island — not,  I  venture  to  say,  with  some  approach 
to  confidence,  on  the  seaboard  of  Northern  Jut- 
land, where  the  perverse  ingenuity  of  commentators 
has  posited  them — are  to  be  found  the  scenes  of 
the  earliest  English  epic,  still  to  be  identified  by  a 
long  series  of  correspondences  and  coincidences  to 
which  I  can  here  only  make  a  passing  allusion. 
Here,  then,  I  find,  or  seem  to  find,  the  real  battle- 
field of  Heracles,  and  recognize,  or  seem  to  recog- 
nize, in  his  features  not  merely  a  mythic  Beowulf 

*  Cf,  Humboldt, '  Kosmos,'  vol.  i.,  note  61,  p.  xxii. 

doing  battle  with  the  Grendel  and  the  Grendel's 
dam,  but  a  veritable  Viking  Beowulf  fighting  for 
the  dear  life  by  flood  and  fell  with  the  warriors  of 
Loegria,  and  finally  making  good  his  footing  on 
their  soil,  a  prehistoric  pioneer  of  the  English 
people  on  a  part  of  our  coast  as  yet  far  beyond  the 
English  border,  if  any  English  border  there  were 
at  the  time. 

I  have  commented  somewhat  at  large  on  this 
fragment  of  ^Eschylus,  because    it  has  been  re- 
garded as  containing  the  earliest  known  reference 
to  the  British  Islands  preserved  in  any  literature. 
The  Cassiterides,  or  Tin  Islands,  of  which  Hero- 
dotus tells  us  that  he  knows  nothing,  have  been 
shown  to  be  neither  the  British  Islands  themselves, 
nor  even  the  Scillies,  but  certain  islands,  "  towards 
NamancosandBayona's  hold,"  off  Vigoon  the  Span- 
ish coast.    The  mention,  moreover,  of  the  Brettanic 
Islands  in  Aristotle's  '  Treatise  of  the  World '  is 
open  to  the  objection  that  the  treatise,  valuable  as 
it  is,  was  palpably  not  written  by  Aristotle,  and 
may  be  of  considerably  later  date.     Some  of  the 
authorities  who  supplied  part  of  their  information 
to  later  writers  probably  belong  to  days  earlier 
than  those  of  ^Eschylus,  but  there  is  no  distinct 
evidence  of  the  fact,  and  Pytheas  of  Marseilles  or 
Himilco  of  Carthage  is  as  likely  to  have  written 
after  as  before  the  date  of '  Prometheus  Unbound.' 
Shadowy,  no  doubt,  and  unsatisfactory  is  this  allu- 
sion to  Britain.     One  fabulous  hero  in  a  play  tells 
another  fabulous  hero  that  at  a  certain  unspecified 
place  he  will  meet  an  army  of  Ligyans,  which  he 
is  destined  to  destroy  by  a  miracle  wrought  in  his 
favour  by  a  fabulous  divinity.    This  is  all.    With- 
out the  light  of  later  writers  it  would  have  been 
m possible  for  anybody  even  to  surmise  that  any 
reference  to  our  islands  lurked  between  the  lines. 
But  when  Mela  speaks  of  Albion  and  Bergios  as 
the  leaders  of  the  army,  there  can  be  no  reason- 
able doubt  that  Britain  and  Ireland  are  really 
alluded  to,  and  when  he  describes  them  as  sons  of 
Neptune,    he  proves  my  special  point,  that  the 
earliest  recognized  reference  to  Britain  implicitly 
defines  it  as  an  island,  although  it  is  proved  by 
geological  induction  to  have  been  inhabited  when 
t  was  still  part  of  the  mainland.     Shadowy  as  is 
he  allusion,  it  enables  us  to  assert  distinctly  that 
sonsiderably  more  than  three-and-twenty  centuries 
go  the  tide  had  even  then  ebbed  and  flowed  for 
mmemorial  ages  over  the  floor  of  the  Channel  and 
he  North  Sea,  once,  in  yet  earlier  immemorial 
ges,  the  hunting-grounds  of  innumerable  genera- 
ions  of  men.  BROTHER  FABIAN. 
(To  le  continued.) 

The  perusal  of  a  list  of  field-names,  including 
tie  quantities  of  the  fields  and  the  names  of  their 
wners,  has  caused  me  to  consider  whether  some- 

I*  S.  I.  FEB.  6,  '86.] 



thing  might  not  be  said  on  the  subject  of  village 
greens.  I  have  before  me  a  survey  of  the  town- 
ship of  Cold- Aston,  in  Derbyshire,  made  in  1815, 
shortly  after  the  enclosure  of  the  commons  there, 
and  I  have  been  struck  in  turning  over  its  pages 
by  the  curious  manner  in  which  separate  bits  of 
the  old  village  green  were  at  the  time  of  enclosure 
parcelled  out  amongst  the  various  landowners 
within  the  township.  On  going  through  these 
items  I  found  that  the  green  had  been  divided 
into  nine  small  portions,  and  apportioned  amongst 
six  landowners  in  quantities  varying  from  an  acre 
and  a  half  to  twenty-six  perches.  When  the  frag- 
ments are  added  together  the  exact  size  of  the 
green  appears  to  have  been  3a.  2r.  39p.  It  lay 
in  the  very  centre  of  the  village,  and  round  it 
were  grouped  the  houses  of  some  of  the  principal 
inhabitants,  including  the  inn  past  which  the 
London  coaches  ran.  I  have  seen  no  plan  of  it, 
but  its  shape  must  have  been  irregular. 

The  green  of  the  adjacent  village  of  Norton  had 
no  better  fate.  Of  this  place  Ebenezer  Rhodes,  in 
his  '  Peak  Scenery,'  1822,  pt.  iv.  p.  6,  says  :— 

"  This  secluded  place  is  more  neat  and  trim  than  for- 
merly :  it  has  lost  part  of  its  rural  appearance  by  the 
enclosure  of  the  many  little  verdant  spots  with  which  it 
was  once  adorned.  The  village  green,  the  scene  of  many  a 
mirthful  sport,  has  disappeared,  and  every  spot  is  now  se- 
curely hemmed  in  with  fences.  I  question  not  the  policy  of 
such  proceedings — they  may  be  wise  and  useful,  perhaps 
necessary,  but  they  have  devastated  many  a  lovely  scene, 
and  impaired  the  beauty  of  many  a  rural  picture." 

The  green  was  contiguous  to  the  churchyard,  and 
a  small  triangular  bit  of  it  is  left,  near  to  which 
stands  a  plain  obelisk  to  the  memory  of  Sir 
Francis  Chantrey,  sculptor.  The  above  lines 
were  written  by  Rhodes  shortly  after  the  en- 
closure of  commons,  and  they  are  interesting  as 
showing  that  the  loss  of  the  village  green  was  even 
then  a  thing  to  be  lamented. 

Every  one  is  familiar  with  the  "Plestor"  of 
White's  4  Natural  History  and  Antiquities  of 
Selborne.'  If  I  may  quote  so  well-known  a  book, 
White  says  in  his  second  letter  : — 

"  In  the  centre  of  the  village,  and  near  the  church,  is 
a  square  piece  of  ground  surrounded  by  houses,  and  vul- 
garly called  the  Plestor.  In  the  midst  of  this  spot  stood 
in  old  times  a  vast  oak,  with  a  short  squat  body  and  huge 
horizontal  arms,  extending  almost  to  the  extremity  of 
the  area.  This  venerable  tree,  surrounded  with  stone 
steps,  and  seats  above  them,  was  the  delight  of  old  and 
young,  and  a  place  of  much  resort  in  summer  evenings  ; 
where  the  former  sat  in  grave  debate,  while  the  latter 
frolicked  and  danced  before  them." 

In  the  tenth  letter,  relating  to  "  The  Antiquities  of 
Selborne,"  White  tells  us  that  in  the  year  1271  Sir 
Adam  Grurdon  and  Constantia,  his  wife, 
"  granted  to  the  prior  and  convent  of  Selborne  all  his 
right  and  claim  to  a  certain  place,  placea,  called  La 
Pleystow,  in  the  village  aforesaid  '  in  liberam  puram,  et 
perpetuam  elemosinam'  This  Pleystow,  locus  ludorum, 
or  play-place,  is  a  level  area  near  the  church  of  about 
forty-four  yards  by  thirty-six," 

Thus  the  size  of  the  Plestor  was  1,584  square 
yards,  or  nearly  one-third  of  an  acre.  It  may 
have  been  the  village  green,  but  I  am  not  sure  of 
it.  The  Plestor  was,  indeed,  a  playing-place,  but 
the  play  was  of  a  sterner  kind  than  the  gambols 
of  children  or  the  games  of  May  Day.  It  was  the 
wrestling-place  of  old  times,  the  Dutch  worstel- 
perk.  The  '  Catholicon  Anglicum'  (1483)  has 
"  wrastyllynge  place,  palestra,  palisma,"  and  in 
A.-S.  glossaries  of  the  eleventh  century,  printed 
amongst  the  Wright- Wlilcker  vocabularies,  may  be 
seen  "  palestrarum,  gestrynga,"  "  amphitheatri 
[sic]  plegstowe,"  and  "  gymnasia,  on  plegstowum." 
Probably  these  play-stows  were  surrounded  by 
wooden  palings,  for  Baret,  in  the  *Alvearie/ 
1580,  speaks  of  "  a  wrestling-place,  or  the  seate  of 
wrestling  or  barriars."  A  wood  engraving  of  two 
men  engaged  in  single  combat  occurs  several 
times  in  Holinshed's '  Chronicles/  ed.  1577,  where 
the  combatants  are  divided  from  the  spectators  by 
compact  wooden  palings,  and  in  the  same  book 
there  is  an  engraving,  several  times  repeated,  of 
two  wrestlers,  but  they  are  not  surrounded  by 
barriers.  And  there  is  another  engraving,  occur- 
ring in  vol.  ii.  p.  869,  and  elsewhere,  which 
appears  to  represent  the  sacking  of  a  village.  Here 
the  houses  are  disposed  in  an  irregular  line  leading 
up  to  the  church,  and  they  are  not  divided  from 
the  adjacent  open  field  by  any  kind  of  fence.  This 
field  may  be,  and  I  think  is,  the  village  green. 

To  go  further  back,  there  is  a  great  resem- 
blance between  the  English  green  or  play-stow 
and  the  palastra,  &c. ,  of  the  Romans.  When  Virgil  is 
describing  the  abodes  of  the  blessed,  he  can  think 
of  no  happier  scene  than  that  of  fields  dressed  in 
purple  light,  in  the  midst  of  which  is  a  place  of 
games — a  village  green  : — 

Devenere  locos  laetos,  et  amoena  vireta 
Fortunatorum  nemorum,  sedesque  beatas. 
Largior  hie  campos  aether  et  lumine  vestit 
Purpureo,  solemque  suum,  sua  sidera  norunt. 
Pars  in  gramineis  exercent  membra  palsestris, 
Contendunt  ludo,  et  fulva  luctantur  arena  : 
Pars  pedibus  plaudunt  choreas,  et  carmina  dicunt. 
<^En.,'vi.  643. 

Not  in  all  cases,  probably,  was  the  green  in  the 
middle  of  the  village.  Prefixed  to  Mr.  Seebohm's 
'English  Village  Community*  is  a  map  of  the 
township  of  Hitchin,  about  1816.  Here  the 
common  field  system  is  in  prominent  view.  Most 
of  the  houses  are  disposed  on  each  side  of  a  long 
street.  No  village  green  is  marked  ;  but  at  a 
little  distance  away  from  the  long  street  is  a  piece 
of  common  ground  called  "The  Butts  Close." 
There  is  a  similar  piece  of  ground  near  the  village 
of  Ashover,  in  Derbyshire,  known  as  "The  Butts." 
Each  of  these  places  must  have  been  used  for 
archery,  for  butt  does  not  here  mean  a  strip  in  an 
open  field  abutting  on  other  strips.  In  each  case 
these  places  may  have  represented  the  village 



[7th  S.  I.  FEB.  6,  '86. 

It  would  be  interesting  to  see  a  few  instances 
collected,  from  parish  maps  and  other  sources,  of 
the  size,  position,  and  names  of  English  village 
greens,  and  these  lines  have  been  written  in  the 
hope  of  obtaining  some  information  on  the  sub- 
ject. It  is,  of  course,  no  more  possible  to  re- 
store the  lost  village  green  than  it  is  possible  to 
bring  back  the  two  or  three  centuries  of  history, 
written  on  stone,  brass,  and  marble,  which  during 
the  last  quarter  of  a  century  have  been  care- 
fully swept  out  of  our  churches.  Yet  some  fading 
traces  or  memories  of  these  "play-stows,"  these 
English  palcestrce,  may  remain. 

It  may  be  remarked  that  there  is  a  strong 
resemblance  between  the  words  palcestra  (TraAcuV- 
rpa)  and  Plestor. 

There  is  a  Plaistow  in  Essex,  about  five  miles 
from  London,  and  another  place  of  that  name,  in 
North  Derbyshire,  is  mentioned  in  a  poll  book  of 
that  county,  dated  1734.  I  do  not,  of  course, 
derive  play-stow  from  the  Latin,  but  I  see  no 
reason  why  the  word  should  not  have  been  used 
as  an  interpretative  corruption  of  palcestra.  Doubt- 
less the  Romans  introduced  their  games  amongst 
us ;  and  Lord  Selborne,  in  a  very  interesting 
chapter  on  the  antiquities  of  Selborne,  appended 
to  Buckland's  edition  of  White,  has  shown,  from 
recent  discoveries  of  coins  and  implements  of  war, 
how  well  known  that  place  must  have  been  to  the 
Komans.  S.  0.  ADDY. 

7th  S.  i.  19.)  —  As  the  writer  of  the 
memoir  of  Cornet  Blackburn  which  Canon  Hul- 
bert  has  incorporated  in  his  *  Annals  of  Almond- 
bury,'  I  feel  it  incumbent  upon  me  to  say  that  I 
took  the  statement  to  which  you  except  from  no 
partisan  authority;  but  that,  on  the  contrary,  I 
sorrowfully  deduced  it  from  the  evidence  of  the 
men  themselves.  My  accusation  is  levelled  not,  as 
you  seem  to  think,  against  the  "Puritan  leaders," 
for  I  specially  excepted  "  the  Lord  General  Fairfax 
and  some  few  others,  who  were  quite  overborne," 
but  it  was  directed  against  the  leaders  of  "the 
military  party  on  the  Republican  side."  I  say, 
and  am  prepared  to  maintain  by  evidence,  that  at 
the  time  I  mention,  "  the  autumn  of  1648,"  those 
"military  leaders"  were  gradually  coming  to  the 
determination  that  their  warfare  should  be  one  of 
extermination  ;  and  that  by  November  or  Decem- 
ber they  had  resolved  ' l  to  avail  themselves  of  one 
excuse  or  another  to  put  to  death  every  Royalist 
officer  whom  they  took  prisoner,  and  to  send  to 
slavery" — abroad — "  every  common  man  for  whom 
they  could  not  find  corresponding  employment  at 

No  one  can  read  ever  so  cursorily  the  Tanner 
MSS.  in  the  Bodleian,  or  (a  better  example)  the 
Baynes  MSS.  in  the  British  Museum,  or  any  other 
similar  contemporary  documents  without  meeting 

with  illustrations  of  this  state  of  mind,  and  with- 
out perceiving  that  the  determination  I  have  men- 
tioned was  the  real  instigation  of  Pride's  Purge  on 
December  6, 1648,  by  which  a  Puritan  majority  of 
the  House,  inclined  and  willing  to  treat  with  the 
king,  was  sequestrated,  in  order  that  an  Inde- 
pendent and  Republican  minority,  resolved  to  put 
a  fatal  close  to  all  possibility  of  negotiation,  might 
effect  their  purpose.  "Fairfax  and  the  Puritan 
leaders"  were  by  such  means  "overborne";  the 
king's  trial  and  execution,  and  the  execution  of 
Duke  Hamilton  and  other  leaders — who  had  been 
admitted  to  composition  by  the  unpurged  Parlia- 
ment— followed.  All  took  place  under  some  form 
of  trial,  it  is  true;  but  how  fair  was  that  trial  will  be 
ascertained  after  inquiry  into  the  number  and  pro- 
portion of  the  accused  who  escaped.  As  for  the 
"  Common  Prisoners,"  as  Cromwell  calls  them  in 
his  letter  from  Dalhousie,  October  8,  1648,  they 
were  "given  away,"  two  thousand  at  a  time,  or 
"  sold  "  at  half-a-crown  a  dozen ! 

The  system  of  extermination  of  which  I  wrote 
seems  to  have  commenced  in  the  first  war,  with  a 
Parliamentary  ordinance  to  hang  any  Irish  rebel 
taken  in  arms  in  England.  Commenced,  however, 
against  the  Irish  during  the  first  war,  the  scope  of 
the  measure  and  its  spirit  were  extended  during 
the  second,  that  of  1648,  till  at  length  the  ruling 
authorities  brought  themselves  to  instruct  the 
judges  that  such  a  one  was  "worthy  of  death"; 
while  the  judges  had  brought  themselves  to  take 
the  hint,  and,  with  a  packed  jury  ready  to  follow 
the  lead,  to  mercilessly  ignore  each  plea,  and  reso- 
lutely overwhelm  the  victim  that  was  once  within 
their  toils. 

I  should  be  very  glad  if  you  could  open  your 
columns  for  a  discussion  of  this  question,  which  is 
one  of  considerable  interest,  although  the  ordinary 
histories  absolutely  ignore  the  facts,  for  '  N.  &  Q.' 
seems  to  be  a  very  suitable  medium  for  ventilating 
the  subject.  I  have  given  the  heads  of  my  argu- 
ments, and  shall  be  willing  to  substantiate  and 
adduce  authority  for  every  statement  I  have  made. 

R.  H.  H. 


A  PORTRAIT  OF  BYRON.  —  In  Mr.  Hubert 
Jernyngham's  'Reminiscences  of  an  Attache/ 
which  is  concluded  in  the  January  number  of 
Blackwood's  Magazine,  we  find  a  curious  example 
of  how  history  is  written.  In  allusion  to  the 
Contessa  Guiccioli  the  writer  says  : — 

"  I  asked  her  which  was  the  best  portrait  existing  of 
Byron,  and  she  gave  me  a  photograph  of  him,  from  a 
portrait  by  Phillips,  the  same  which  1  caused  io  be  repro- 
duced as  a  frontispiece  for  my  translation  of  her  '  Recol- 
lections ';*  but  when  she  gave  it,  she  looked  at  it  a 
moment  in  reverent  Bilence,  then  burst  out  in  commenda- 
tion of  Byron's  neck,  his  brow,  his  face,  his  nails,  but 
especially  his  mouth,"  &c. 

*  The  italics  are  mine. 

.  I.  FEB.  6, '86.] 



Now  all  this  is  mighty  fine  ;  but,  unfortunately, 
the  portrait  actually  reproduced  as  a  frontispiece 
to  the  English  version  of  the  Guiccioli  book  is 
taken  not  from  Phillips,  but  from  a  portrait  of 
Byron  by  West — a  picture,  by  the  way,  of  which 
the  translator  jauntily  speaks  in  the  following 
terms  (see  note,  p.  38)  : — 

"  Among  the  b«d  portraits  of  Lord  Byron  spread  over 
the  world,  there  is  one  that  surpasses  all  others  in  ugli- 
ness, which  is  often  put  up  for  sale,  and  which  a  mer- 
cantile spirit  wishes  to  pass  off  for  a  good  likeness;  it 
was  done  by  an  American,  Mr.  West — an  excellent  man, 
but  a  very  bad  painter.  This  portrait,  which  America 
requested  to  have  taken,  and  which  Lord  Byron  con- 
sented to  sit  for,  was  begun  at  Montenero,  near  Leghorn ; 
but  Lord  Byron  being  obliged  to  leave  Montenero  sud- 
denly, could  only  give  Mr.  West  two  or  three  sittings. 
It  was  then  finished  from  memory,  and.  far  from  being 
at  all  like  Lord  Byron,  it  a  frightful  caricature,  which 
his  family  or  friends  ought  to  destroy"* 

Thus,  we  have  this  "frightful  caricature,"  which, 
in  the  opinion  of  the  translator,  ought  to  be  de- 
stroyed, perpetuated  as  a  frontispiece  to  the  very 
book  in  which  it  is  so  strongly  condemned  !  This 
is  humoursome  enough  to  be  acknowledged  as  a 
joke,  and  I  note  it  accordingly.  Whatever  may 
have  been  the  facts,  I  need  scarcely  remind  the 
reader  that  the  Guiccioli  had  anything  but  a  high 
opinion  of  Phillips's  portrait  of  Byron.  Writing 
to  Lamartine,  she  says :  "  In  Phillips's  picture  the 
expression  is  one  of  haughtiness  and  affected 
dignity,  never  once  visible  to  those  who  ever  saw 

We  are  further  told  in  her  book  (p.  38)  that 
the  Guiccioli  considered  "  the  portrait  by  Westall 
superior  to  the  others,  although  it  does  not  come 
up  to  the  original."  Some  years  ago  Lord  Malmes- 
bury  told  me  that  the  Guiccioli  had  expressed  to 
him  her  opinion  that  Bartolini's  bust  gives  the  best 
idea  of  Byron.  I  dare  not  dispute  that  judgment, 
but  cannot  help  smiling  at  the  notion  that,  in  the 
eyes  of  his  lady-love,  Byron  had  all  the  appear- 
ance of  a  "superannuated  Jesuit." 


33,  Tedworth  Square,  Chelsea. 

STREETS,  ASTRONOMER. — According  to  my  wish, 
the  particulars  which  I  found  ('  N.  &  Q./  6th  S.  xi. 
235)  respecting  Bliss  in  MS.  in  a  copy  of  Streete's 
'  Caroline  Tables '  have  been  incorporated  into  the 
account  of  the  fourth  Astronomer  Royal  in  the 
new  'Dictionary  of  National  Biography,'  vol.  v. 
But  a  very  curious  mistake  has  been  made  in  doing 
so.  I  remarked  that  Bliss  must  have  married 
at  an  early  age,  because  the  MS.  in  question  states 
that  his  son  John  Bliss  matriculated  at  Oxford  in 
1740,  being  then  sixteen  years  of  age,  so  that  he 
must  have  been  born  in  1724  (his  father  was  born 
in  1700).  In  the  <  Dictionary '  we  are  told  that 

*  The  italics  are  mine. 

the  son  was  born  in  1740;  and  the  reader  is  then 
left  to  conclude  that  he  was  of  extraordinary  pre- 
cocity, for  the  date  of  his  taking  his  B.A.  degree 
is  given  correctly  as  March  11,  1745/6.  In 
stating  that  I  found  the  above  particulars  in  a 
fly-leaf  of  "  the  copy  of  Thomas  Streete's  '  Astro- 
nomia  Carolina7  which  is  in  the  library  of  the 
British  Museum,"  I  should  have  said  (as  copies  of 
both  editions  of  that  work  are  in  our  national 

library),  "the  copy  of  the  second  edition  of ," 

which  was  published  in  1710,  after  the  author's 
death,  under  the  editorship  of  Halley,  who  gives 
in  an  appendix  the  results  of  a  number  of  ob- 
servations of  the  moon  made  by  himself  at 
Islington  in  the  years  1682-3-4.  The  death  of 
Streete  is  alluded  to  in  the  preface ;  but  I 
believe  all  the  efforts  which  have  been  made  to 
ascertain  the  date  of  that  event  have  proved  un- 
successful. If  any  reader  of  '  N.  &  Q.,'  can  con- 
tradict this  and  assign  it  I  shall  be  glad. 

W.  T.  LYNN. 

CROSSTONE.  —  The  following  extracts  from  the 
registers  of  the  church  of  St.  Paul,  Crosstone, 
formerly  known  as  the  Chapelry  of  Crosstone,  may 
be  of  interest.  The  earliest  date  in  the  existing 
registers  is  1678,  but  they  must,  I  fancy,  go  further 
back,  but  the  earlier  books  are  nonexistent : — 
"  Excommunications. 

Susan  Greenwood,  Martha  Greenwood  and  Grace 
Collings,  all  of  Stansfield.  Dated  York,  May  20«>,  1756  ; 
published  at  Crostone,  June  6"',  1756. 

John  Walton  and  Mary  Cunliffe,  both  of  Stansfield, 
were  declared  Excommunicated  July  5th,  1761.  Dated 
at  York  28th  of  May,  1761." 

From  a  later  register  book  I  quote  the  following : 

"  Memorandum  made  the  25th  day  of  April  in  the  Year 
of  our  Lord  One  Thousand  seven  hundred  and  ninety- 
eight  Witnesseth  that  I,  M.  TJttley,  the  present  Clerk  of 
the  Chapel  of  Crosstone,  did  in  my  own  person  go  to 
Scaitcliflfe  to  Mr  John  Crossley,  Son  of  Anthony  Cross- 
ley,  Donor  of  a  Violincello  (or  as  it  is  commonly  called  a 
Bass  Viol),  which  Violincello  aforesd  was  reported  to  have 
been  given  to  John  Stephenson  Clerk  my  predecessor  for 
his  own  Property  and  Use.  But  hearing  to  the  contrary,  I 
applied  to  the  above  Mr  John  Crossley  aforesaid  to  know 
the  intention  of  the  gift,  who  said  :— '  It  was  always 
understood  in  their  family  to  be  given  to  the  Use  of  the 
singers  of  Crosstone  Chapel,  and  to  be  played  by  the 
above  John  Stephenson  or  others  who  might  come  after 
him  at  the  Chapel  of  Crosstone  aforesd  so  long  as  it 
should  remain  fit  to  be  played  on.'  And  Elias  Green- 
wood, a  Singer  at  that  time.  Says  that  the  above  Anthony 
Cronsley  gave  it  in  these  Words.  '  I  think  (says  the  above 
Anthony  Crossley)  y°u  ar-  (i.  e.  to  ye  Body  of  Singers 
being  in  a  Summer  House  at  Seaitcliffe  aforesd)  in  Want 
of  a  Baas.  I  must  make  you  a  present  of  one.'  Which 
word-  were  the  most  he  ever  heard  him  say  as  to  the 
gift  of  it.  That  the  above  is  a  fair  statement  of  the 
Matter  and  the  truth  of  what  we  know  and  believe  as  to 
ye  gift  of  the  sd  Bass  to  the  sd  Singers  of  Crosstone  Chapel 
for  ever,  As  Witness  our  Hands. 

Wrote  by  M.  UTTLEY,  Crosstone. 




[7th  S.  I.  FEB.  6,  '86. 

The  names  of  the  witnesses  are  illegible.  The 
memorandum  is  written  on  the  fly-leaf  of  the 
parish  register,  but  is  four  years  later  in  date  than 
the  first  entry  in  the  volume,  which  is  August  16, 
1794.  T.  G.  P. 

Miss  Agnes  Strickland  was  writing  her  life  of 
Mary  Stuart  in  'The  Queens  of  Scotland'  I  com- 
municated to  her  the  local  legend  concerning 
Perio  Lane  (pronounced  "  Perry ")  at  Fothering- 
hay,  and  she  mentioned  it  on  p.  420  of  her  con- 
cluding volume.  Subsequently  she  told  me  that 
she  had  discovered  a  deed  of  a  prior  date  to  the 
time  of  Mary,  Queen  of  Scots,  in  which  the  name 
"  Perio "  occurs.  I  have  mentioned  this  in  my 
recently  published  little  book  '  Fotheringhay  and 
Mary,  Queen  of  Scots,'  which  was  very  kindly  re- 
viewed in  this  journal  on  January  16  (p.  60). 
Since  the  publication  of  my  book  Mr.  R.  B. 
Pooley,  solicitor,  Oundle,  has  been  good  enough  to 
show  me  a  certified  copy  (dated  1777)  of  an 
original  record  then  remaining  in  the  Tower  of 
London,  of  a  perambulation  of  Olive  Forest,  in 
the  twenty-seventh  year  of  King  Edward  I.,  1299, 
giving  a  description  of  certain  boundaries.  From 
this  I  extract  the  following  : — 

"  Efc  sic  de  Walmisforde  pr  ripam  de  Nene  includendo 
villam  de  Jarwell  &  villam  de  Nassynton  &  villam  de 
Foderyngeye  usque  ad  campum  de  Pyriho  at  sic  ad  le 

Hoesende  excludendo at  sic  ad  Totenhobroke 

usque  ad  Bradelye  includendo  chaceam  de  Pyriho,"  &c. 

The  chase  of  Pyriho  is  here  clearly  noted.  Be- 
sides Totenho  there  are  also  Wadenho,  Aynho, 
Farthingho,  &c.,  in  Northamptonshire.  "  Perio  " 
is  the  modern  rendering  of  the  ancient  "  Pyriho," 
and  so  appears  on  the  Ordnance  map.  For  various 
learned  articles  on  the  meaning  of  "  ho  "  or  "  hoe" 
in  place-names,  see  *  N.  &  Q.,'  4th  S.  x.  102,  171, 
255,  298,  461,  507.  CUTHBERT  BEDE. 


B.D.— Alexander  J.  Harrison,  Vicar  of  Water- 
foot,  Manchester. 

B.D.— John  Miller,  B.A.  London  University, 
Head  Master  of  Weymouth  College  and  of  Mel- 
combe  Regis  School. 

D.D.— J.  0.  Edghill,  KC.L.,  Th.As.,  Chaplain- 
General  of  the  Forces. 

LL.D.— J.  0.  Cox,  Enville  Rectory,  near  Stour- 
bridge.  On  the  petition  of  Dean  and  Chapter  of 
Lichfield,  supported  by  the  recommendation  of  the 
Bishop  of  Lichfield,  the  Duke  of  Devonshire, 
Lord  Scarsdale,  Canon  Greenwell,  and  others,  in 
recognition  of  his  antiquarian  knowledge. 

LL.B.— Mr.  G.  M.  Norris,  Principal  of  the 
Birkbeck  Institution.  On  the  recommendation  of 
the  Bishops  of  London,  Ripon,  and  Brisbane,  the 
Earls  of  Northbrook  and  Lytton,  Lord  Edtnond 
Fitzmaurice,  Mr.  Mundella,  and  the  Secretary  of 
the  Society  of  Arts,  in  recognition  of  the  valuable 

work  Mr.  Norris  has  performed  for  the  last  twenty 
years  in  promoting  the  education  of  the  young  men 
and  women  of  the  metropolis  in  connexion  with 
that  institution.  M.A.Oxon. 

—From  a  Bill  in  Chancery,  filed  Feb.  5,  1685,  by 
Charles  Marshall  and  Edmund  Marshall,  sons  and 
executors  of  Simon  Marshall,  late  of  the  parish 
of  St.  Giles  in  the  Fields,  vintner,  deceased, 
against  Ambrose  Meeres,  which  has  recently  passed 
through  my  hands,  I  have  extracted  the  following 
particulars  relating  to  a  well-known  London  locality, 
which  may  interest  your  readers.  From  the  minute 
way  in  which  the  measurements  and  abuttals  are  set 
out,  it  would  not  be  difficult  to  lay  down  upon  a 
map  the  exact  position  of  the  premises  described. 

The  Bill  alleges  that  one  John  Browne,  being 
possessed  of  certain  lands  and  houses  in  or  near 
"Pickadilly,"  in  the  parish  of  St.  Martin  in  the 
Fields,  and  also  in  a  place  called  Leicester  Fields, 
near  thereunto,  did,  on  Dec.  1,  1671,  mortgage  to 
Simon  Marshall  for  2,900Z.,  a  messuage  called  the 
Windmill  in  "  Pickadilly,"  and  also  the  yard  to 
the  same  belonging,  containing  from  east  to  west  on 
the  north  side  thereof  160  feet,  and  abutting  on  the 
ground  of  Sir  William  Poultney ;  and  from  east 
to  west  on  the  south  side  110  feet,  abutting  on  a 
messuage  in  the  occupation  of  one  Robert  Greene ; 
and  from  north  to  south  on  the  east  side  188  feet, 
abutting  on  a  footway  leading  out  of  the  "  Hay- 
markett  in  Pickadilly  to  Soe  Hoe  ";  and  also  con- 
taining from  north  to  south  on  the  west  side  117 
feet,  abutting  on  a  piece  of  ground  called  the  Pingle, 
and  then  or  late  in  the  occupation  of  Mr.  James 
Axtell;  all  which  premises  had  been  purchased 
by  John  Browne  from  James  Baker  and  Grace  his 

By  another  deed  of  the  same  date  Browne 
mortgaged  to  Marshall,  as  a  further  security, 
a  piece  of  leasehold  ground,  on  part  whereof 
formerly  stood  the  "Crown  and  Feathers,"  then 
late  in  the  occupation  of  John  Marshall  and 
Edward  Hinckley,  together  with  a  slip  of  ground 
late  belonging  to  the  messuage  called  the  Homes, 
theretofore  in  the  possession  of  Edward  Hickman, 
containing  in  length  from  south  to  north  on  the 
west  151  feet,  and  in  breadth  from  east  to  west  on 
the  north  100  feet,  in  depth  from  north  to  south 
along  the  coach  houses  of  Mr.  Thomas  Panton 
75  feet,  and  in  breadth  from  east  to  west  on  the 
south  part  thereof  61  feet,  abutting  southward  on 
the  highway  leading  from  St.  Giles  in  the  Fields 
to  Knightsbridge,  westward  on  the  highway,  lane, 
or  street  leading  from  the  Haymarkett  in  the  said 
parish  of  St.  Martin  to  Soe  Hoe,  northward  on  a 
messuage  in  the  occupation  of  Abbott  Newell,  and 
eastward  and  southward  in  part  on  the  said 
coach  houses  and  other  new  erected  messuages  of 
the  said  Thomas  Panton,  and  to  front  the  Hay 

.  I.  FEB.  6,  '80.] 



Markett,  and  are  in  the  said  parish  of  St.  Martin. 
This  leasehold  ground  was  held  by  Browne  from 
Thomas  Panton. 

Query,  Where  was  the  "  footway  leading  out  of 
the  Haymarket  to  Soho,"  mentioned  in  the  first 
deed  ?  The  piece  of  leasehold  ground  assigned  in 
the  second  deed  plainly  lay  at  the  south- west  angle 
of  Coventry  Street  and  Windmill  Street. 

Browne,  the  mortgagor,  as  it  is  stated,  committed 
some  act  of  felony,  and  was  executed,  and  some 
complications  arose  after  his  death  relating  to  the 
property,  to  remedy  which  the  suit  (extending  no 
further  than  the  Bill)  was  instituted. 

W.  H.  HART,  F.S.A. 

We  must  request  correspondents  desiring  information 
on  family  matters  of  only  private  interest,  to  affix  their 
names  and  addresses  to  their  queries,  in  order  that  the 
answers  may  be  addressed  to  them  direct. 

MONTAIGNE  QUERIES.—!.  Speaking  of  drunken- 
ness, '  Essais,'  bk.  ii.  chap.  ii. ,  he  says,  "  Aussi  la 
plus  grossiere  nation  de  celles  qui  sont  aujour 
d'huy,  c'est  celle  la  seule  qui  le  tient  en  credit." 
What  nation  does  he  intend  ?  Is  it  the  German, 
of  whom  he  later  on  says,  "  Leur  fin  c'est  1'avaller, 
plus  quo  le  gouster"?  2.  In  *  Essais,'  bk.  iii. 
chap.  viii. ,  we  read,  "  C'est  son  malheur,  non  pas 
son  default."  The  first  edition  of  the  ' Essais' 
was  published  in  1580.  Is  an  earlier  instance  of 
this  familiar  saying  known  in  French  or  in  any 
other  language  ?  H.  DELEVINGNE. 


[In  the  marginal  notes  to  the  Rouen  edition  of  1627 
appear  opposite  these  phrases  the  words  "Allemands 
grand  yurongnes."] 

DARTMOOR  BIBLIOGRAPHY. — Having  in  course  of 
preparation  a  list  of  works  and  articles  relating  to 
Dartmoor,  as  a  small  contribution  to  the  proposed 
bibliography  of  Devonshire,  I  am  anxious  to  pro- 
cure all  the  information  obtainable  on  the  subject. 
Perhaps  some  of  your  readers  can  assist  me  in  the 
following  matter.  I  have  before  me  a  copy  of  a 
pamphlet  with  the  title,  &c.,  as  follows  :— "Dart- 
moor :  a  Poem  :  which  obtained  the  Prize  of  Fifty 
Guineas  proposed  by  the  Eoyal  Society  of  Litera- 
ture. By  Felicia  D.  Hemans.  Printed  by  order 
of  the  Society.  London,  1821."  It  is  then  stated 

"  On  the  Report  of  a  Committee,  given  in  June  21st, 
1821,  it  was  Resolved,  That  the  following  Poem,  by  Mrs. 
Hemans,  was  entitled  to  the  Prize  of  Fifty  Guineas 
offered  by  the  Provisional  Council  of  The  Royal  Society 
of  Literature,  for  the  best  English  Poem  on  the  subject 
of  Dartmoor.  Council  Room,  June  21st,  1821." 

Another  poem  sent  for  the  same  competition  by 
Joseph  Cottle  was  published  with  other  works  by 
the  same  author  in  1823.  Of  this  also  I  have  a 
copy ;  but  as,  doubtless,  there  were  many  com- 

petitors and  many  good  things  were  amongst  the 
rejected  MSS.,  I  shall  be  glad  to  know  if  a  list 
of  such  works  is  to  be  obtained,  and  if  the  archives 
of  the  Koyal  Society  of  Literature  for  1821  are 
still  preserved,  and  where.  If  allowable,  I  shall 

3e  glad  to  be  put  in  communication  with  any  of 
your  correspondents  who  may  be  interested  in 

his  matter  or  in  Devonshire  bibliography  gener- 
ally. W.  H.  K.  WRIGHT,  F.R.H.S. 
Public  Library,  Plymouth. 

There  is  extant  a  small  print  called  'A  Perspective 
View  of  New  Market,  with  a  Description  of  the 
Horses  &  Carriages  that  Run  (?)  there  the  29th  Aug*, 
1750.'  Is  there  any  printed  account  of  this  race  ; 
its  promoters;  its  results  ?  From  the  print  itself 
one  may  gather  that  Newmarket  then  consisted  of 
a  church  and  about  forty  houses.  The  carriage 
was  a  queer  machine — somewhat  complicated  by 
ropes — a  long  bar,  with  two  wheels  in  front  and 
two  behind.  It  was  drawn  by  four  horses  in 
couples — white  and  black,  white  and  black — each 
ridden  by  a  jockey,  and  only  harnessed  to  the 
machine  by  loose  straps.  Between  the  hind 
wheels  sat  another  jockey,  who  guided  the  carriage 
by  moving  a  handle  like  that  of  the  modern  bicycle. 
This  handle  seems  to  have  enabled  him  to  follow 
the  course,  by  moving  the  fore  wheels  with  pulleys 
and  ropes,  and  keep  them  at  the  heels  of  the 
horses.  I  should  imagine  the  print,  with  a  de- 
scription in  the  letterpress,  appeared  in  one  of  the 
magazines  of  that  period — possibly  the  Universal, 
Westminster,  &c.,  of  which  some  readers  of 
*N.  &  Q.'  perhaps  possess  a  set,  and  can  thence 
tell  us  all  particulars.  ADIN  WILLIAMS. 

Lechlade,  Glos. 

WESTMINSTER  SCHOOL. — The  head  master  has 
kindly  given  me  access  to  all  the  admission  books 
in  his  possession.  There  is,  however,  reason  to 
believe  that  some  of  the  books  and  other  manu- 
script lists  of  the  school  are  in  the  hands  of  private 
owners.  I  shall,  therefore,  be  greatly  obliged  by 
any  information  as  to  their  whereabouts,  in  order 
that  permission  for  copying  them  may  be  obtained. 

G.  F.  R.  B. 

PORTER  OF  CALAIS.— What  was  this  office? 
Was  it  distinct  from  Governor  or  Deputy  of 
Calais?  Another  office  was  Marshal  of  Calais. 
Is  there  any  list  of  the  English  Governors  or 
Deputies  of  Calais'?  Is  there  a  book  named 
4  Chronicles  of  Calais '  ?  W.  L.  R. 

[The  '  Chronicle  of  Calais  in  the  Reigns  of  Henry  VII. 
and  VIII.  to  the  Year  1540 '  was  edited  by  John  Gough 
Nichols  for  the  Camden  Society,  1846.] 

GHOSE.— What  is  this  affix  to  Indian  names  ? 

W.  L.  R. 

PROVERBS  ON  DUCKS. — May  I  ask  for  English 
sayings  about  ducks  ?  Here  are  a  couple  :  "  An' 



.  I.  FEB.  6, '86.    ' 

chance  th'  ducks  " — this  when  a  man  makes  up  his 
mind  to  a  risky  venture.  He  will  say,  "I  '11  do  it, 
an' chance  th5  ducks."  The  other,  which  I  hear 
now  and  again,  is,  "  Oh  !  you  know  all  about  th' 
ducks,  but  have  never  seen  th'  basket  !  "  What  is 
the  origin  of  either  or  both  ? 


ST.  EVREMOND.  —  Charles  de  St.  Denis  St. 
Evreinond  died  in  London,  Aug.  9,  1703,  and  lies 
buried  in  Westminster  Abbey.  Does  Col.  Chester 
or  any  other  authority  give  any  information  as  to 
where  he  died  ?  C.  A.  WARD. 

Haverstock  Hill. 

find  authentic  reference  to  the  saying  of  one  of  the 
Kings  James  of  Scotland,  "A7  the  sons  are  carles' 
sons  but  Struan  Robertson  is  a  gentleman  "  1  It 
is  not  referred  to  in  the  very  interesting  account  of 
this  family  in  '  N.  &  Q.,'  5th  S.  ii.  127,  211,  239, 
393,  nor  can  I  find  it  in  Anderson's  '  Scottish 
Nation,'  Brown's  'History  of  the  Highlands,' 
Stewart's  *  Highlanders,'  or  Keltie's  '  History  of 
the  Highlands.'  J.  B.  FLEMING. 

STRATTON. — Early  in  the  seventeenth  century 
John  Stratton,  gentleman,  was  living  in  Shotley, 
Suffolk.  His  wife,  Ann  Dearhaugh  (?),  who  was 
born  about  1590,  was  the  daughter  of  "  Mistress 
Mary  Dearhaugh,"  of  Barringham,  Suffolk,  whose 
death  occurred  about  1641,  and  John  Thurston,  of 
Hockston,  Suffolk,  was  executor  of  her  last  will  and 
testament.  In  the  adjoining  county  of  Essex 
lived  Joseph  Stratton,  mariner,  brother  of  the 
aforenamed  John.  John  of  Shotley  had  at  least 
four  children,  viz.,  John,  son  and  heir,  born  1606  ; 
William,  called  "of  Ardlye,  Essex";  Elizabeth, 
born  1614 ;  and  Dorothy.  About  1628  the  son  John 
emigrated  to  New  England,  and  simultaneously  his 
uncle  Joseph  and  brother  William  prepared  to 
emigrate  to  Virginia.  The  latter-named,  however, 
did  not  go,  and  is  soon  called  "  deceased."  The 
uncle,  Joseph,  went  to  Virginia,  and  settled  at 
James  City,  where  he  was  residing  in  1640.  John 
settled  in  Maine,  and  in  1631  procured  a  patent  of 
2,000  acres  there,  at  Cape  Porpoise,  but  this  he 
never  occupied.  His  "  squatter"  title  was  con- 
fined to  a  small  island  at  the  mouth  of  the  Saco 
river,  which  still  bears  his  name.  He  removed 
in  a  few  years  to  Salem,  Massachusetts,  where, 
with  his  widowed  mother  and  two  sisters,  he  was 
residing  in  1640.  Will  some  one  give  me  informa- 
tion as  to  the  genealogy  of  this  family  in  England  ? 


Marine  Hospital,  Chelsea,  Massachusetts,  U.S. 

WHISKEY  OR  WHISKY  ?— As  I  cannot  see  that 
the  query  as  to  this  word  in  6tb  S.  vi.  346  has  ever 
received  an  answer,  I  would  again  ask,  Which  is 
the  correct  form,  if  there  be  any?  Jamieson, 

'  Scottish  Diet./  edited  by  Longmuir  and  Donald- 
son, gives  the  word  under  the  almost  unknown 
form  "  Whiskie,"  with  "  Whisky  "  in  the  second 
rank,  and  offers  no  derivation.  Skeat,  '  Etym. 
Diet.,'  gives  the  word  under  "  Whiskey,"  with 
"  Whisky "  in  the  second  rank,  and  does  not 
admit  Jamieson's  whiskie  at  all.  Skeat  derives 
from  Gaelic  "  Uisge-btatlia,  water  of  life,  whisky," 
citing  Johnson  both  for  the  etymology  and  spell- 
ing. He  also  refers  to  the  corrupt  form  "  usque- 
baugh." Most  of  the  trade  advertisements  seem 
to  use  the  form  ivhiskey,  and  that  is,  I  think,  on 
the  whole,  the  form  more  generally  current. 


LENT  FINES. — In  the  Chamberlain's  Rolls  of 
Ripon  Minster  we  find  year  by  year  entries  such 
as  the  following,  under  "Fines  quadragesimales": 
"  Et  de  xiij/i.  iij*.  ijd.  de  finibus  xlabus  prtebendse 
de  Munketon  hoc  anno  (1410-11)  videlicet  albis 
vaccarum  ovium  vitulorum  rusticorum  caprielorum 
curtiladii,"  &c.  I  have  extended  the  abbreviations 
from  a  comparison  of  several  rolls,  but  I  have  put 
no  stops  in  because  I  do  not  understand  it.  Can 
any  one  explain  ?  J.  T.  F. 

Bishop  Hatfield's  Hall,  Durham. 

LE  Roi  DE  PAQUES. — I  find  the  following  in 
a  book  of  French  anecdotes  published  anony- 
mously : — 

"  L'empereur  Charles  V.  passant  par  un  village 
d'Aragon,  ou,  selon  la  coutume  du  pays,  il  y  avait 
un  roi  de  Paques ;  ce  roi  se  presenta  devant  lui,  et  lui 
dit :  C'est  moi,  seigneur,  qui  suis  le  roi.  A  quoi 
Charles  V.  repondit :  En  verite,  mon  ami,  vous  avez 
pris  un  malheureux  emploi." 

What  is  the  custom,  "  le  roi  de  Paques,"  alluded 
to?  J.  M. 

HEAD  FAMILY. — Can  any  one  tell  me  what  has 
become  of  some  manuscript  papers  concerning  the 
above  family  which  were  sold  at  John  Camden 
Hotten's  sale,  and  are  thus  mentioned  in  his  cata- 
logue : — 

"7252.  Head  Family.  Manuscript  papers  relative  to 
this  family.  V.D.  —  Comprising  old  MS.  account  of 
Head  of  Charles  Town,  in  the  province  of  South 
Carolina,  from  Deedes  of  H.,  Hythe  in  Kent.  Portrait 
of  Moses  Mendez ;  account  of  Rich.  Head,  author  of  the 
'English  Rogue.'  Coats  of  arms  of  Head  family; 
twenty-four  rare  engraved  scenes,  published  with  Kirk- 
man's  *  English  Rogue,'  assisted  by  Rich.  Head." 
I  shall  also  be  much  obliged  if  any  one  connected 
with  the  Kentish  family  of  Head  will  communicate 
with  me.  H.  STANLEY  HEAD. 

41,  Wimpole  Street,  W. 

AZAGRA. — The  direct  lineal  ancestress  through 
females  of  Queen  Victoria  was  Theresa  Alvarez  de 
Azagra,  the  wife  of  John  Nunez  de  Lara,  who 
lived  in  the  fourteenth  century.  She  is  thus 
described  on  p.  137  of  the  '  Genealogise  viginti 
illustrium  in  Hispania  Familiarum'  of  J.  W. 

7tb  S.  I.  FEB.  6,  '86.] 



Im-hof :  "  Theresa  Alvarez  de  Azagra  quinta 
domina  suprema  de  Alvarrazin  et  domus  de 
Azagra,  Alvari  Perez  de  Azagra  fil."  Can  you 
refer  me  to  any  genealogical  work  to  trace  the 
pedigree  of  Theresa  Alvarez  de  Azagra  up  higher  ? 

A.  MILL. 
48,  Millman  Street,  W.C. 

CAMPBELL  OF  CRAIGNISH.  — In  the  '  Almanach 
de  Gotha '  for  the  present  year  a  "  Ronald  Camp- 
bell, Baron  Craignish,"  figures  as  an  aide-du-camp 
to  the  Duke  of  Saxe  Cobourg  and  Gotha.  Is  this 
gentleman,  as  the  title  of  Craignish  might  lead  one 
to  imagine,  the  head  of  the  ancient  Argyleshire 
family  of  the  Campbells  of  Craignish  ? 


1  PLAIN  DEALING.' — Are  any  of  your  readers 
acquainted  with  an  anonymous  work  with  this 
title,  published  in  1668-9  ?  In  a  letter  from 
Mr.  Joseph  Church  to  Dr  John  Worthington, 
dated  March,  1668/9,  is  this  passage,  "  Here  is  a 
Dialogue  called  Plain  Dealing,  a  book  by  some  ad- 
mired, by  others  contemned.  The  Author  is  said  to 
be  Dr.  Patrick.  Others  think  it  not  his,  but  made 
by  a  Club  of  Episcopal  Divines."  The  title  does 
not  appear  in  any  of  the  lists  of  Patrick's  works 
which  I  have  seen,  and  Halkett  and  Laing's 
'  Dictionary  '  only  gives  two  books  with  the  title 
printed  in  the  seventeenth  century,  one  by  Andrew 
Marvell  in  1675,  the  other  by  John  Gordon  in 
1689.  JOHN  CREB. 

CLOCK  MAKERS. — I  subjoin  a  list  of  four  names 
taken  from  the  faces  of  old  clocks  known  to  me, 
and  I  should  be  glad  to  know  the  periods  during 
which  those  persons  flourished,  by  way  of  ascer- 
taining, approximately,  the  ages  of  the  several 
clocks:— (1)  "Smorthwait,  in  Colchester."  (2) 
"Nath1  Style,  London."  (3)  "Jas  Fear,  Ber- 
wick." (4)  "  Wm  Taylor,  King  S*,  W'  Haven." 



BRASS  SEAL. — Can  any  reader  of  'N.  &  Q.' 
kindly  explain  the  following  inscription,  which  is 
in  Saxon  characters  on  an  old  brass  seal  bearing 
the  device  of  the  holy  lamb,  with  cross  and  banner  ? 
s  .  EVSTACHII  .  DC  .  APSOL  .  I.  The  seal  is  an, 
undoubted  antique  (found  at  Stratford-on-Avon), 
and  is  about  the  size  of  a  shilling.  A.  A. 

UPRIGHT  GRAVE- STONES. — When  did  it  become 
the  fashion  to  put  upright  flags  of  stone  for 
memorials  over  graves  ?  I  have  only  one  memo- 
randum on  the  subject.  It  is  from  the  Liverpool 
records  ;  and,  if  I  have  read  them  correctly, 
nothing  of  the  kind  was  usual  in  that  city  in  the 
time  of  Queen  Elizabeth. 


SUBJECT  OF  PICTURE. — There  is  a  picture  be- 
longing to  me  in  the  present  exhibition  of  deceased 

masters  at  Burlington  House  concerning  which  I 
am  most  anxious  to  obtain  some  information. 
It  is  called  '  An  Embarkation,'  and  is  reputed  to 
be  by  Tassi,  the  master  of  Claude.  Close  to  the 
shore  there  is  a  British  man-of-war,  carrying  the 
flag  of  an  admiral  of  the  fleet,  and  there  is  a 
Dutch  ship  in  the  offing.  The  fine  rocky  landscape 
beyond  indicates  by  the  buildings  some  particular 
port ;  and,  as  an  important  person  stands  on  the 
shore,  as  if  about  to  embark,  and  the  ship  is  firing 
a  salute,  I  think  it  must  represent  some  historical 
incident.  I  wish  particularly  to  ascertain  the 
locality  and  the  incident,  and  should  feel  much 
obliged  if  any  of  your  readers  could  throw  any 
light  upon  these  point.  The  picture  is  in  the  second 
room,  No.  64.  It  is  the  largest  in  the  exhibition. 

B.  S.  MARKS. 
40,  Fitzroy  Square,  W. 

ABRAHAM  SHARP,  astronomer,  mathematician, 
&c.,  of  Little  Horton,  near  Bradford,  died  about 
1750,  believed  to  have  been  unmarried.  Wanted 
names  and  addresses  of  his  brothers  and  sisters, 
and  information  as  to  their  marriages,  issue,  &c. 


EPIGRAM  BY  MACAULAT. — Can  any  of  your 
readers  tell  me  where  I  can  find  an  epigram  or 
enigma,  said  to  be  by  Macaulay,  on  the  word 
manslaughter?  M.  G.  D. 

[This  question  was  asked  6tt>  S.  i.  248.  Some  specula- 
tion as  to  authorship  was  then  elicited,  but  no  definite 

QUEEN'S  DAY.  —  In  speaking  of  this  day, 
Nov.  17,  and  the  accession  of  Queen  Elizabeth, 
Dr.  Brewer,  in  his  '  Diet,  of  Phrase  and  Fable/ 
tells  us  that  it  is  still  continued  as  a  holiday  at 
Westminster  and  Merchant  Taylors'  Schools.  It 
has  been  discontinued  at  the  former  school  for 
some  time,  I  believe.  Can  any  one  inform  me  of 
the  exact  date  ?  Is  the  holiday  still  allowed  at  the 
latter  ;  and,  if  not,  when  was  it  done  away  with  ? 


BERESFORD  CHAPEL,  1818. —Very  near  to 
Walworth  Koad  railway  station  is  a  plain  building 
with  the  above  inscription  and  date.  Can  any  of 
your  readers  give  any  account  of  its  founders  ? 
What  sect  of  religionists  were  they  ?  Also,  what 
is  the  present  use  of  it  ?  S.  B.  BERESFORD. 

33,  Upper  Bedford  Place,  W.C. 

reference  to  pronunciation  in  the  time  of  Chaucer, 
will  a  reader  kindly  inform  me  to  what  extent  it 
is  considered  right  to  conform  to  such  rules  as 
those  laid  down  by  Mr.  Ellis  in  his  '  Early  English 
Pronunciation '  ?  To  some  extent  it  seems  necessary 
in  order  to  preserve  the  metre — as,  for  instance,  with 
the  word  vi-ci-ous  (three  syllables)  and  in  all  cases 
of  the  e  final;  but  surely  it  would  be  thought 
affected,  or  at  least  pedantic,  to  pronounce  date 



[7*  S.  I.  FEB.  6,  '80, 

"  dart,"  late  '•'  lart,"  which  would  seem  to  be  correct 
accordiDg  to  Mr.  Ellis  !  I  should  be  very  glad  of 
a  hint  on  this  point.  E.  W.  THOMSON. 

19,  HilldropRoad. 

NAPOLEON  I.'s  DREAM. — Can  any  reader  of 
'  N.  &  Q.'  inform  me  where  I  read  an  account  of 
Napoleon's  reviewing  all  the  troops  which  he  had 
ever  commanded  ?  I  read  the  story  about  twenty 
years  ago,  and  the  troops  coming  up  from  their 
graves  to  meet  on  the  Champs  Elyse"es  impressed 
my  then  juvenile  mind.  Jt  was,  so  far  as  I 
remember,  a  short  story. 


[A  well-known  picture  on  this  subject,  entitled  '  La 
Grande  Revue;  ou,  la  Nuit  du  Cinq  Mai,'  was  painted 
by  Raffet,  a  well-known  French  painter.  The  title  of 
the  poem  on  the  subject  is  '  Napoleon's  Midnight 
Review.'  Full  particulars  concerning  various  versions 
of  it  may  be  found  5'h  S.  ix.,  x.,  xi.,  passim.  At  5">  S. 
xi.  239  a  version  is  supplied  by  MR.  THOMS.] 

BEWICK  CUTS. — The  writer  would  feel  very 
much  obliged  to  any  one  who  would  lend  her,  or 
inform  her  where  she  could  obtain,  or  even  see, 
a  copy  of  "  '  The  Vicar  of  Wakefield/  A  Tale  by 
0.  Goldsmith.  Two  vols.  in  one.  Embellished 
with  woodcuts  by  T.  Bewick.  Hereford,  printed 
and  sold  by  D.  Walker,  at  the  Printing  Office, 
High  Town ;  sold  also  by  E.  Sael,  No.  192,  Strand, 
London.  And  may  be  had  of  all  other  booksellers. 
1798."  12mo.  pp.  224,  with  seven  cuts  by  Thos. 
Bewick.  JULIA  BOTD. 

Moor  House,  Leamside,  co.  Durham. 

LOMBARD  STREET. — If  any  one  possessing  any 
old  deeds  or  records  relating  to  the  houses  in 
Lombard  Street  before  the  Great  Fire,  or  since 
that  event  previous  to  the  year  1770,  could  let  me 
peruse  them,  I  should  be  greatly  obliged. 


Temple  Bar. 


(7*  S.  i.  29.) 

The  canons  of  1803  prescribe  a  joint  election  of 
the  churchwardens  by  the  minister  and  parishioners, 
where  it  may  be,  and  if  they  cannot  agree  upon 
such  a  choice,  either  party  shall  choose  one  sepa- 

The  '  Report  of  the  Ecclesiastical  Courts  Com- 
mission for  England  and  Wales'  contains  this 
statement : — 

"  In  practice,  though  perhaps  not  strictly  in  accordance 
with  tbe  original  intention,  the  minister  generally  nomi- 
nates one  and  the  parishioners  the  other.  The  parishioners 
may  have  the  right  by  immemorial  custom  of  electing 
both,  In  some  few  instances  the  Lord  of  a  Manor  has 
claimed  by  prescription  to  elect  one."— «  General  Re- 
port,' Jan  25, 1831,  authenticated  edition.  Lond.,  Long- 
mans, 1832,  p.  118. 

So  Blackstone  has  :•— "  They  are  sometimes  ap- 
pointed by  the  minister,  sometimes  by  the  parish, 
sometimes  by  both  together,  as  custom  directs" 
(i.11,7).^  ^ 

The  origin  of  the  provision  in  the  canon  may  be 
thus  stated : — 

"  Before  the  making  this  canon  (can.  89  of  1603)  the 
parishioners  in  some  places  chose  both  the  church- 
wardens, and  where  that  was  used  the  canon  doth  not 
abrogate  the  custom,  and  in  such  case,  if  the  arch- 
deacon should  refuse  to  swear  them  a  mandamus  lies, 
for  every  parish  had  formerly  a  right  to  choose  their 
churchwardens ;  but  because  they  varied  in  the  manner 
of  choosing,  therefore  a  custom  might  be  alleged  and 
issue  might  be  taken  at  law,  to  try  whether  a  select 
vestry  or  the  whole  parish  ought  to  choose.  In  Car- 
penter's case  (Raym.  439)  the  mandamus  was  directed 
to  the  commissary  to  swear  two  churchwardens,  who 
were  chosen  by  the  parishioners  by  virtue  of  a  custom, 
which  the  rector  denied,  and  insisted  upon  his  right  by 
virtue  of  a  canon  to  choose  one.  The  commissary  made 
a  special  return,  which  is  set  forth  in  the  Report ;  but  a 
mandamus  was  granted,  for  the  ecclesiastical  court 
cannot  try  the  custom."  —  Nelson's  *  Rights  of  the 
Clergy,'  Lond.,  1709,  pp.  159, 160. 

With  respect  to  the  prevalence  of  the  custom 
referred  to  in  other  parishes  than  in  Baling,  a 
recent  authority  cites  the  earlier  statement  of  an 
author  of  the  same  name  : — 

"  By  virtue  of  this  custom,  most,  if  not  all  of  the  old 
parishes  of  London,  that  is,  of  the  parishes  established 
before  time  of  legal  memory,  do  there  choose  both  their 
churchwardens."— C.  Q.  Prideaux.  '  Duties  of  Church- 
wardens/ p.  23,  thirteenth  edition,  Lond.,  1875. 

In  «  N.  &  Q.,'  2nd  S.  xii.  471,  INA  states  that  the 
corporation  of  Wells  has  always  appointed  both 
churchwardens.  JOHN  S.  BURN  makes  the  same 
statement  in  reference  to  Heuley-ou-Thames  in 
3rd  S.  i.  19. 

I  may  say  that  I  have  not  referred  to  Philli- 
more's  *  Ecclesiastical  Law  ;  on  this  subject.  A 
reply  of  any  extent  might  be  written,  but  the  above 
will  perhaps  be  deemed  a  sufficient  account  of  the 
matter.  ED.  MARSHALL. 

There  are  many  parishes  in  which  both  church- 
wardens are  chosen  by  the  vestry.  I  was  fourteen 
years  churchwarden  of  All  Saints,  Lewes,  in  which 
the  custom  obtained.  In  this  parish  of  St.  Mary, 
Stoke  Newington,  the  same  custom  is  found.  In 
fact  most,  if  not  in  all,  of  the  old  parishes  of 
London — that  is,  of  the  parishes  established  before 
time  of  legal  memory — do  there  choose  both  their 
churchwardens  (Pulling's  '  Laws  of  London/  262  ; 
2  Rolls  Ab.  287,  &c.).  The  right  of  electing 
churchwardens  exhibits  a  not  uncommon  conflict 
between  the  canon  and  common  law.  By  the 
common  law  the  right  belongs  to  the  parishioners, 
who  are  at  the  charge  of  repairing  the  church 
(Bac.  Ab.).  By  the  canon  law  (canons  of 
1603,  c.  89)  the  churchwardens  are  to  be 
chosen  by  the  joint  consent  of  the  minister  and 
parishioners,  it  it  may  be ;  but  if  they  cannot 

7'h  S.  I.  FEB.  6,  '86.] 



agree,  the  minister  shall  choose  one  and  the 
parishioners  the  other  ('  Com.  Dig.'  tit.  "  Esglise  "). 
These  canons  were  confirmed  by  the  king  in  coun- 
cil, but  not  by  Parliament,  and  therefore,  though 
they  are  declaratory  of  the  ancient  usage  and  law 
of  the  Church  (Middleton  v.  Crofts,  2  Atks.  650), 
they  do  not  bind  the  laity  by  their  own  force  and 
authority  (Lloyd  v.  Williams,  1  Lee,  434).  They 
cannot,  therefore,  prevail  where  there  is  a  special 
custom  to  the  contrary  (Sir  J.  Nicholl  in  Wilson 
v.  McMath,  3  Phil.  81),  but  the  onus  probandi  is 
on  him  who  sets  up  such  special  custom  in  the 
parishioners  (Lee,  C.J.,  in  Hubbard  v.  Penrice, 
2  Stra.  1246),  and  nothing  is  accounted  a  custom 
or  prescription  so  as  to  supersede  the  common  law 
of  the  land  except  such  custom  or  prescription  as 
is  beyond  the  memory  of  man,  and  nothing  is 
accounted  to  be  so  which  can  by  any  sufficient 
evidence  be  proved  to  have  been  otherwise  since 
the  first  year  of  King  Richard  I.,  A.D.  1189  (Hub- 
bard  v.  Penrice,  i&.).  In  practice,  it  is  true  that 
the  minister  generally  nominates  one  and  the 
parishioners  the  other,  but  it  is  to  be  doubted  if 
this  was  intended  by  the  canon  (Ecc.  Law  Rep. 
44),  and  so,  under  the  Church  Building  Acts,  one 
churchwarden  is  chosen  by  the  incumbent  and  one 
either  by  the  inhabitant  householders  resident  in 
the  district  (58  Geo.  III.  c.  45,  s.  73 ;  8  &  9 
Viet.  c.  70,  s.  6)  or  by  the  select  vestry 
(59  Geo.  III.  c.  134,  s.  30),  by  persons  exercising 
the  powers  of  vestry  (1  &  2  Will.  IV.  c.  38, 
s.  16),  or  by  inhabitants  holding  a  similar  quali- 
fication as  the  electors  of  churchwardens  of  the 
principal  parish  (6  &  7  Viet.  c.  37,  s.  17;  19  & 
20  Viet.  c.  104,  s.  14).  WYNNE  E.  BAXTER. 
170,  Church  Street,  Stoke  Newington,  N. 

According  to  Prideaux's  '  Practical  Guide  to  the 
Duties  of  Churchwardens '  (1880),  p.  23,  "  Most, 
if  not  all  of  the  old  parishes  of  London — that  is, 
of  the  parishes  established  before  time  of  legal 
memory— do  there  choose  both  their  church- 
wardens." See  also  Blunt  and  Phillimore's  *  Book 
of  Church  Law '  (1885),  p.  259,  where  the  principal 
special  customs  which  take  the  place  of  the  or- 
dinary law  are  enumerated.  G.  F.  R.  B. 

The  four  churchwardens  of  the  mother  church 
of  St.  Hilda,  South  Shields,  are  appointed  annually 
at  Easter  by  the  self-elected  ancient  vestry.  Of 
this  vestry  the  vicar  for  the  time  being  is  the 
chairman  ex  officio.  R.  B. 

[MR.  EVERARD  HOME  COLEMAN  refers  to  2nd  S.  xii. 
471  as  to  the  churchwardens  of  the  city  of  Wells,  3rd  S. 
i.  19  as  to  those  of  Henley,  and  6"'  S.  iii.  37  as  to  those 
of  the  old  parishes  of  London.  W.  S.  B.  H.  says  that  in 
Liskeard,  since  1598,  according  to  report,  the  Mayor,  on 
behalf  of  himself  and  the  Corporation,  nominates  one 
churchwarden  and  the  vicar  another.  EST.  H.  quotes 
from  Stephen's  '  Commentaries,'  vol.  ii.  pp.  699,  700, 
passages  showing  that  the  custom  mentioned  by  MR. 
DELEVIN«NE  ia  not  unusual.  MR.  F.  A.  BLAYDES  adds 

that  a  reference  to  the  canons  eighty-nine  and  ninety  of 
1603  will  show  "that  the  churchwardens  are  to  be 
elected  by  the  joint  consent  of  the  minister  and  parish- 
ioners in  vestry  assembled,  and  if  they  cannot  agree 
upon  a  choice,  then  the  minister  shall  choose  one  and 
the  parishioners  another."  Both,  he  states,  will  be 
parish  churchwardens,  however  elected.  MR.  E.  H. 
MARSHALL  advances  the  same  canons,  and  gives  the 
limitation  imposed  by  the  books  of  common  law  (Philli- 
more's '  Ecclesiastical  Law,'  ii.,  1843).  The  question  of 
special  custom  has  given  rise  to  litigation,  early  cases  of 
which  he  cites.] 

PORTSMOUTH  (6th  S.  xii.  494). — It  would  be  a  very 
great  boon  if  local  historians  were  to  append  to 
their  works  a  bibliographical  list  of  those  already 
written  relating  to  the  locality  they  write  about. 
I  am  not  aware  of  any  bibliography  of  Portsmouth 
that  has  anything  like  a  claim  to  completeness;  but 
having  some  time  since  taken  considerable  interest 
in  the  matter,  I  think  I  may  say  I  possess  a  larger 
list  than  any  to  be  found  elsewhere.  I  give  the 
names  of  a  few  works  which  bear  most  strictly  on 
the  general  history  of  the  place,  but  should  be 
happy  to  help  your  correspondent  F.  C.  B.  further 
if  he  should  desire  it : — 

A  Declaration  of  all  the  Passages  at  the  Taking  of 
Portsmouth,  shewing  the  Reasons  why  it  was  surrendered 
up  to  the  Committee  of  both  Houses  of  Parliament. 
Together  with  a  True  Copy  of  the  Articles  agreed  upon 
between  the  Committee  and  Colonel  Goring.  Pp.  8, 
am.  4to.  London,  printed  for  John  Sweeting  at  the 
Angell  in  Popes-head  alley.  September  15, 1642. 

The  Borough  (Portsmouth),  being  a  Faithful  tho' 
Humourous  Description  of  one  of  the  strongest  Garrisons 
and  Seaport  Towns  in  Great  Britain,  with  an  Account  of 
the  Temper  and  Commerce  of  the  Inhabitants  :  left  by 
a  Native  of  the  Place  who  was  lost  in  the  Victory  Man 
of  War,  and  now  published  for  the  Benefit  of  the  Gentle- 
men of  the  Navy,  and  the  Entertainment  of  the  rest  of 
mankind.  By  Robert  Wilkins.  8vo.  London,  1748. 

The  Portsmouth  Guide;  or,  a  Description  of  the  An- 
cient and  Present  State  of  the  Place,  &c.  To  which  ia 
added  some  Account  of  the  Isle  of  Wight,  &c.  Folding 

?late,  reduced  from  Ryall's  view  (8.E.).  12mo.  Pp.  viii, 
b'.  Portsmouth,  printed  and  sold  by  R.  Carr,  corner  of 
the  Grand  Parade,  1775.  Price  one  shilling. 

The  History  of  Portsmouth,  containing  its  Origin. 
Progressive  Improvements,  and  Present  State  of  its 
Public  Buildings,  &c.,  with  an  account  of  the  towns  of 
Portsea  and  Gosport  and  Isle  of  Wight.  12mo.  Pp.  157 
(query  folding  plates).  Portsmouth,  printed  at  the 
Hampshire  Telegraph  Office  by  Mottley  &  Co.  1802  (.'). 

The  Ancient  and  Modern  History  of  Portesmouth 
(sic),  Portsea,  Gosport,  and  their  environs.  12mo. 
Pp.  x,  122.  Gosport,  printed  and  sold  by  J.  Watts.  N.d. 

A  Candid  and  Accurate  Narrative  of  the  Operations 
used  in  endeavouring  to  raise  H.M.S.  Royal  George  in 
the  Year  1783,  with  an  Account  of  the  Causes  and 
Reasons  which  prevented  the  Success,  and  also  Copies 
of  the  Affidavits,  Vouchers.  Letters,  Documents,  and 
other  Correspondence  relative  to  that  Unfortunate 
Transaction.  12mo.  Third  edition.  Pp.  xvi,  iv,  iv, 
5-112.  With  folding  plate  of  plans  lor  raising  the 
ship.  By  William  Tracey.  Portsea,  printed  for  the 
author  by  J.  Williams.  1812. 

The  History  of  Portsmouth,  containing  a  Full  and 
Enlarged  Account  of  its  Ancient  and  Present  State,  &c. 
To  which  is  added  an  Appendix  containing  many  of  the 



[7*  S.  I.  FEB.  6,  '86. 

Charters   granted  to  the  Town,  &c.    By  Lake  Allen. 
Sm.  870.    Pp.  iv,  252 ;  app.  xliv.    London,  1817. 

Chronicles  of  Portsmouth.  By  H«nry  Slight,  P.R.C.S., 
Librarian  to  the  Philosophical  Society,  Vice-President 
Mechanics' Institute ;  and  Julian  Slight,  P.R.C.S.  and 
Secretary  to  the  Philosophical  Society.  8vo.  Pp.  xvi, 
248.  London,  Lupton  Relfe,  13,  Cornhill,  1828.— This  is 
the  best  of  the  Portsmouth  histories,  and  has  passed 
through  various  editions.  I  prefer  this  edition,  which 
is  to  be  found  on  large  and  small  paper. 

A  Narrative  of  the  Loss  of  the  Royal  George  at 
Spithead,  August,  1782.  Also  Col.  Pasley's  Opera- 
tions in  removing  the  Wreck  by  Explosions  of  Gun- 
powder in  1839-40-41.  Folding  plate  of  sinking  of 
Royal  George,  and  four  other  plates.  32mo.  Pp.  112. 
Fourth  edition.  Portsea,  S.  Horsey,  jun.,  151,  Queen 
Street.  1841.  Bound  in  the  wood  of  the  wreck. 

Narrative  of  the  Loss  of  the  Mary  Rose  at  Spithead, 
July  20,  1545,  from  Original  MSS.,  &c.,  in  the  British 
Museum.  32mo.  Pp.  vi,  iii-vi,  7-96.  Portsea,  by  S. 
Horsey,  sen.  1844.  Bound  in  the  wood  of  the  wreck. 

The  Story  of  the  "Doraus  Dei"  of  Portsmouth. 
Illustrated  with  photographs  and  woodcnts.  Sm.  8vo. 
1873. — Written  by  Archdeacon  Wright,  formerly  chap- 
lain to  the  Forces. 

Extracts  from  Records  in  the  Possession  of  the 
Municipal  Corporation  of  the  Borough  of  Portsmouth, 
and  from  other  Documents  relating  thereto.  By 
Richard  J.  Murrtll  and  Robert  East.  Sm.  4to.  Pp.  viii, 
ii,  567.  Portsmouth,  printed  by  Henry  Lewis  at  114, 
High  Street.  1884.— This  was  generously  printed  at 
the  expense  of  the  Corporation,  and  distributed  amongst 
themselves  and  friends. 


4,  Palmerston  Road,  Southsea. 

If  your  correspondent  F.  C.  B.  will  communicate 
with  nie  direct,  I  will  send  him  the  particulars  he 
requires.  JAMES  HORSEY. 

Quarr,  Ryde,  I.W. 

KNOXIS  :  WIMES  :  WRAT  (7th  S.  i.  49).— If  by 
the  Wroth  pedigree  in  Robinson's  '  History  of 
Enfield'  H.  H.  cannot  identify  the  John  of  1596 
with  the  Wroths  of  Durants,  which  they  held  as 
far  back  as  1360,  he  may  find  him  mentioned  in 
Clutterbuck's  '  History  of  Hertfordshire/  where 
the  name  frequently  occurs  in  other  pedigrees,  and 
nearly  always  as  "  of  Durants." 


34,  St.  Petersburg  Place,  W. 

The  "ritter  Knoxis"  was  most  probably  Sir 
Thomas  Knollys,  a  younger  son  of  Sir  Francis, 
who  married  Odelia,  daughter  and  heiress  of  John 
de  Marada,  Margrave  of  Bergen  op  Zoon,  who  is 
stated  to  have  been  "a  scion  of  the  house  of 
Nassau,  and  uncle  to  the  Prince  of  Orange."  See 
note  to  Rugeley  pedigree  in  Misc.  Gen.  et  Her., 
vol.  iii.  p.  201.  CLK. 

THE  PREFIX  "  EN  "  (6th  S.  xii.  29,  155,  357).— 
I  think  Chaucer's  use  of  enfecte  may  be  well  illus- 
trated from  Wiclif's  use  of  the  Latin  words  inficio 
and  infectus,  in  the  sense  "stains,"  "infects," 
"  damages,"  *'  incapacitates."  Thus  in  the  Wyelif 
Society's  '  De  Civili  Dominio,'  on  p.  2,  "  Patet  ex 
hoc  quod  mortale  peccatum  cum  inficit  naturam, 

multo  evidencius  inficit  omnem  modum  vel  acci- 
dens  eiusdem  ";  p.  4,  "  inficeret ";  p.  5,  "  Interior 
homo  infectus  peccato  inficit  totum  residuum 
nature  corporee  et  singulos  actus  suos  ";  and  on 
p.  275,  speaking  of  the  Jews  excommunicating 
Christ,  he  says,  "  Talis  excommunicacio  non 
descendit  in  Christum  sed  excommunicantes  in- 
Jicit  redundando."  0.  W.  TANCOCK. 

LATIN  POEM  (7th  S.  i.  9).— The  literary  history 
of  the  two  sets,  not  one  set,  of  hexameters  to 
which  T.  W.  R.  refers  is  well  ascertained.  It  is 
described  in  John  Ward's  preface  to  the  various 
modern  editions  of  Henry  VIII.'s  Latin  gram- 
mar. The  one  before  me  is  Lond.,  Longman  &  Co., 
1830.  At  p.  1  of  this  preface  there  is  :— 

" '  Carmen  de  Moribus,'  and  the  Rules  for  the  genders 
of  nouns  (scil. '  Propria  quae  maribus')  were  also  com- 
posed by  Lily,  and  bear  his  name  in  all  editions  to  this 
day.  These  latter,  after  the  death  of  Lily,  were  repub- 
lished  with  large  annotations  by  Thomas  Robertson,  who 
was  afterwards  Dean  of  Durham He  added  the  verse, 

Hue  amis  addenda  est,  hue  mystica  vannus  lacchi." 

Then  follows  a  notice  of  certain  additions  by 
other  writers.  In  reference  to  the  second  line  in 
the  query  of  T.  W.  R.,  which  is  from  the  verses  upon 
the  verbs  there  is : — "  The  rules  concerning  the 
perfect  tenses  and  suffixes  of  verbs  are  Lily's,  and 
have  his  name  prefixed  to  them  in  all  editions. 
These  were  published  also  by  Robertson,  with  large 
annotations  "  (p.  3).  Then  follow  notices  of  altera- 
tions, as  in  the  instance  of  the  previous  verses. 


514). — It  may  interest  MR.  S  ALTER  to  know  that 
I  have,  on  a  pair  of  old  Oriental  china  plates,  im- 
paled with  Brooke.  (Or,  a  cross  per  gale  engrailed 
gu.  and  sa.),  this  coat,  Gu.,  ten  billets,  4,  3,  2,  and 
1,  a  bordure  engrailed  arg.  Crest,  a  cock's  (?)  head 
gules,  combed  and  wattled  or,  charged  with  three 
billets  arg.  This  blazon,  which  appears  to  be  the 
arms  of  Salter  (6th  S.  xii.  514)  I  had  been  unable 
to  identify,  although  I  consulted  Papworth  and 
other  authorities.  The  wreath  supporting  the  crest 
is  tinctured  arg.  and  gu.  R.  H.  TEASDEL. 

Southtown,  Great  Yarmouth. 

SUICIDE  OF  ANIMALS  (6th  S.  xi.  227,  354 ;  xii. 
295,  454  ;  7th  S.  i.  59).— Without  at  all  wishing 
to  impugn  the  fact  of  there  being  authentic  in- 
stances of  suicide  by  some  of  the  higher  animals, 
I  think  that  the  Australian  gentleman  whose  com- 
munication to  the  Launceston  Examiner  is  quoted 
by  MR.  ED.  MARSHALL  at  the  last  reference  was 
mistaken  as  to  the  snake  killing  itself  with  its  own 
venom.  The  venom  of  serpents  is  quite  innocuous 
to  themselves  or  to  others  of  their  own  order. 
Holland,  the  late  intelligent  and  observant  keeper 
of  the  reptiles  in  the  Zoological  Society's  Gardens, 
had  told  me  that  he  has  frequently  known  puff- 
adders,  cobras,  &c.,  to  strike  each  other  when  en- 

7"  8. 1.  FEB.  6,  '86.] 



raged,  and  no  harm  had  resulted.  Moreover,  the  fat 
of  the  common  adder  is  well  known  to  be  the  best 
remedy  for  its  bite,  and  the  cottagers  in  the  heathy 
parts  of  West  Surrey,  where  these  animals  abound, 
keep  bottles  of  it,  to  apply  to  the  wound  in  such 
cases.  When  a  ynake  strikes  a  victim  with  its 
fangs  it  does  not  cover  the  spot  with  "viscid 
slime."  Nothing  is  visible  externally  but  the  two 
very  small  punctures  made  by  the  fangs. 

W.  K.  TATE. 
Walpole  Vicarage,  Halesworth. 

i,  70).— This  prayer  has  been  noticed  from  time  to 
time  in  *  N.  &  Q.,'  with  the  translation  of  it, 
since  the  first  communication,  in  the  third  volume 
of  the  First  Series.  But  the  only  two  notes  which 
contain  an  exact  reply  to  the  query  of  MR.  H.  H. 
GIBBS  are  the  statements  of  Mr.  T.  WARNER  in 
5lb  S.  xi.  191  ("A  very  curious  account  of  the 
Queen's  execution  was  published  in  France  soon 
after  the  event.  Immediately  before  the  execution 
she  repeated  the  prayer")  and  of  MR.  0.  F.  S. 
WARREN,  on  the  same  page.  It  is  stated  by 
Daniel,  '  Thesaurus  Hymnologicus,'  iv.  348,  that 
this  is  said  to  have  been  written  by  the  Queen  in 
her  Prayer  Book  a  few  hours  before  her  execution. 


Miss  Agnes  Strickland,  in  quoting  this  prayer  (the 
final  "Te"  after  "Desidero"is  omitted,  probably  by 
accident),  says  that  it  "is  well  known  to  have  been 
extemporized  by  her  during  her  last  devotions  on 
the  morning  of  her  death  "  ('  Queens  of  Scotland,' 
vii.  479).  As  I  was  unable  to  find  any  passage  in 
other  historians  to  confirm  this  statement,  I  wrote 
in  my  recently-published  book,  '  Fotheringhay  and 
Mary,  Queen  of  Scots'  (Simpkin,  Marshall  & 
Co.),  "her  devotions  included  the  following  prayer " 
(p.  117).  I  have  also  given  the  paraphrase  of  the 
prayer  that  was  set  to  music  by  Dr.  Harington,  of 

This  has  been  discussed  thrice  before  in '  N.  &  Q.'; 
see  1st  S.  Hi.,  3rd  S.  Hi.,  5th  S.  xi.  passim.  There 
seems  to  be  no  higher  authority  than  Seward's 
'Anecdotes  of  Distinguished  Persons/ 1795.  Daniel 
('Thesaur.  Hymnol./  iv.  348)  states  that  the 
Queen  wrote  the  poem  in  her  "  gebetbuch,"  but 
gives  no  reference.  This  would,  no  doubt,  have 
been  the  so-called  Fotheringay  Missal,  really  a 
Book  of  Hours,  which  is  now  at  St.  Petersburg, 
and  contains  much  of  the  Queen's  writing.  It  is 
described  in  '  N.  &  Q.,'  2Qd  S.  ix.  482;  3rd  S.  vii. 
70  ;  but  the  prayer  is  not  mentioned.  I  almost 
fear  that  it  was  written  by  some  last-century 
forger,  induced  by  the  mention  of  the  "  divers 
Latin  prayers  "  in  the  contemporary  narrative  of 
her  execution.  This  is  printed  in  Ellis's  "  Letters," 
2Qd  S.  Hi.  112.  C.  F.  S.  WARREN,  M.A. 

[Other  correspondents  are  thanked  for  replies.] 

LANDLORD  (6th  S.  xii.  428).— This  word  pro- 
bably became  applied  to  inn-keepers  and  tavern- 
keepers  by  virtue  of  their  letting  their  rooms  and 
apartments  for  hire.  Landlord,  in  common  phraseo- 
logy, now  means  a  person  from  whom  houses, 
lands,  or  lodgings  are  rented.  The  word  is  a  relic 
of  feudal  times,  when  the  possessor  of  land  was 
actually  dominus  terrce.  Addison  uses  the  word 
as  meaning  the  master  of  an  inn,  but  I  am  unable 
to  give  the  exact  reference. 



MRS.  PARSONS  (7th  S.  i.  68).— Eliza  Parsons  was 
the  only  duaghter  of  Mr.  Phelp,  a  wine  merchant 
at  Plymouth.  At  an  early  age  she  married  Mr. 
Parsons,  a  turpentine  merchant,  who  carried  on 
business  first  at  Stoneham,  near  Plymouth,  and 
afterwards  at  the  Old  Bow  China  House.  Mr. 
Parsons  died  in  necessitous  circumstances,  and  after 
his  death  his  widow  endeavoured  to  support 
her  children  by  writing.  Her  first  book  was 
'  The  History  of  Miss  Meredith  :  a  Novel ' 
(1790),  in  the  preface  to  which  (dated  from 
15,  East  Place,  Lambeth)  she  explains  her  reasons 
for  writing  it.  According  to  Baker's  '  Biog.  Dram.' 
(1812),  vol.  i.  pp.  561-3,  she  wrote  "  above  sixty 
volumes  of  novels,"  as  well  as  a  farce  entitled 
'  The  Intrigues  of  a  Morning.'  She  died  at  Ley  ton- 
stone  on  Feb.  5,  1811.  The  best  list  of  her 
works  will  be  found  in  Baker,  those  in  Watt, 
Allibone,  and  the  Gent.  Mag.,  1811,  vol.  Ixxxi.  pt.  i. 
p.  175,  being  very  meagre.  G.  F.  K.  B. 

SMOKING  IN  CHURCH  (6th  S.  xii.  385,  415,  470; 
7th  S.  i.  32).— The  following  passage,  from  the 
regulations  issued  by  the  Vice-Chancellor  of  Cam- 
bridge previous  to  the  visit  of  James  I.  in  1616, 
seems  to  show  that  smoking  in  church  was  at  that 
time  not  unknown  in  England: — 

"That  noe  Graduate,  Scholler,  or  Student  of  this 
Universitie  presume  to  resort  to  any  Inn,  Taverne,  Ale- 
howse,  or  Tobacco-Shop  at  any  time  dureing  the  aboade 
of  his  Majestie  here ;  nor  do  presume  to  take  tobacco  in 
St.  Marie's  Church,  or  in  Trinity  Colledge  Hall,  uppon 
payne  of  finall  expellinge  the  Universitie."  —  Nichol's 
'  Progresses  of  King  James  the  First,'  1828,  vol.  iii.  p.  44. 

The  royal  author  of  the  *  Counterblast  to  Tobacco ' 
does  not  actually  refer  to  the  u  taking  of  tobacco  " 
in  church,  although  he  complains  that  "  not  onely 
meate  time,  but  no  other  time  nor  action  is  ex- 
empted from  the  publike  vse  of  this  unciuille 
tricke  "  (Arbor's  reprint,  p.  111).  E.  S.  D. 

THE  ARMS  OF  HALIFAX  (6th  S.  xii.  426,  536  ; 
7th  S.  i.  18).— The  arms  of  Halifax,  as  I  have  seen 
them  drawn,  suspiciously  resemble  those  invented 
for  the  famous  Guy,  Earl  of  Warwick,  in  the 
"Rows  Eol,"  namely,  Chequy,  or  and  azure,  a 
human  head  affront^,  filleted  argent.  This  is  the 
head  of  no  saint,  but  of  Colbrand,  the  fabulous 
Danish  giant,  whom  Earl  Guy  slew,  according  to 



.  I.  FEB.  6,  '86. 

the  legend,  after  his  return  from  the  Holy  Land. 
This  excellently  illuminated  roll  is  itself  of  some 
respectable  antiquity,  and  "  was  laburd  &  finishid 
by  Master  John  Rows  of  Warrewyk"  between 
1477  and  1485.  It  is  in  the  possession  of  the 
Duke  of  Manchester,  and  was  published  by  W. 
Pickering  in  1845,  the  plates  being  beautifully 
illuminated  by  hand  to  match  the  original.  The 
chequy  field  in  this  case  was  suggested  by  the  arms 
of  the  De  Newburghs,  Earls  of  Warwick,  the  first 
of  whom  married  Gundreda  de  Warenne,  and  in 
the  case  of  the  Halifax  arms  by  the  similar  coat  of 
the  De  Warennes.  A.  S.  ELLIS. 

PENTAMETERS  (7th  S.  i.  70). — The  passage  occurs 
in  Ovid's  '  Amores,'  bk.  I.  11.  1-4:— 

Arma  gravi  numero  violentaque  bella  parabam 

Edere,  materia  conveniente  modis. 
Par  erat  inferior  versus  ;  risisse  Cupido 
Dicitur,  atque  unum  surripuisse  pedem. 

At  the  end  (11.  27  and  30)  he  describes  this  kind 
of  verse  : — 

Sex  mihi  surgat  opus  numeria :  in  quinque  residat. 
Musa  per  undenos  emodulanda  pedes. 

These  last  two  lines  may  have  suggested  to  Cole- 
ridge his  description  of  the  Ovidean  elegiac  : — 
In  the  hexameter  rises  the  fountain's  silvery  column  ; 
In  the  pentameter  aye  falling  in  melody  back. 


Ovid  addresses  Cupid  thus  (4Epis.  ex  Ponto,' 
lib.  iii.  ep.  iii.  11.  29,  30)  :— 

In  mihi  dictasti  juvenilia  carmina  primus  : 
Apposui  senis,  te  duce,  quinque  pedes. 


WILKES  (7th  S.  i.  67).— Dr.  Richard  Mead,  the 
eminent  physician,  1673-1754,  was  twice  married, 
and  had  eight  children.  Of  these  four  died  in 
infancy,  and  four  grew  up,  namely:  his  son  and 
heir  Richard,  and  three  daughters, — Sarah,  who 
married  Sir  Edward  Wilmot,  Bart. ,  M.D. ;  Bath- 
sheba,  who  married  Charles  Bertie,  Esq.,  of  tiffing 
ton,  co.  Lincoln  ;  and  Elizabeth,  who  married 
Frank  Nicholls,  Esq.,  M.D. 

John  Wilkes,  "  the  patriot,"  1727-1797,  mar- 
ried in  October,  1749,  the  only  daughter  and 
heiress  of  Mr.  William  Mead,  of  London  Bridge 
drysalter,  who  died  in  1722 ;  she  was  then  living 
at  Aylesbury  with  her  mother,  and  was  thirty-two 
years  of  age,  whilst  Wilkes  was  ten  years  younger. 
By  this  marriage  he  had  only  one  child,  a  daughter 
named  Mary  ;  and  shortly  after  her  birth  (Aug.  5 
1750)  a  coldness  sprang  up  between  Mr.  and  Mrs 
Wilkes,  which  finally  led  to  a  separation  ;  after 
which,  for  many  years,  they  did  not  meet.  Mrs 
Wilkes  brought  her  husband  a  very  considerable 
fortune,  the  greater  part  of  which  he  enjoyed,  anc 
the  whole  of  which  came  to  his  daughter  Mary  after 

he  death  of  the  mother,  who  died  April  4,  1784. 
?rom  a  brief  note  in  the  Gentleman's  Magazine 
'or  that  year,  i.  317,  we  learn  that  husband  and 
yife  "had  a  conciliatory  interview  a  short  time 
before  her  death."  John  Wilkes,  though  he  could 
not  live  with  his  wife,  could  not  live  comfortably 
without  her  ;  he  spent  much  time  with  a  Mrs. 
Arnold,  by  whom  he  had  a  second  daughter,  who 
was  born  in  1778,  named  Harriet  Wilkes,  and 
married  William  Rough,  Esq.,  barrister,  in  1802. 

John  Wilkes  died  in  December,  1797,  leaving 
ais  daughter  Mary  his  sole  heiress,  but  giving  a 
handsome  legacy  to  Mrs.  Arnold,  and  a  couple  of 
thousand  pounds  to  her  daughter  Harriet  Wilkes. 
After  his  death  Mary  Wilkes  continued  to  reside 
in  his  house,  No.  30,  Grosvenor  Square,  and  was 
very  kind  to  her  "half  sister"  Harriet.  Mary 
Wilkes  was  never  married,  and  died  very  suddenly 
on  March  12,  1802,  leaving  many  legacies  to 
friends,  and  the  bulk  of  her  property  to  her  cousin 
Charles  Wilkes,  of  New  York,  the  son  of  her  uncle 
Israel  Wilkes.  A  copy  of  her  will,  and  much 
interesting  information,  may  be  seen  in  '  The 
Correspondence  of  the  late  John  Wilkes/  which 
contains  his  life  by  J.  Almon,  published  by 
Phillips  in  1805.  It  is  unnecessary  to  say  anything 
about  Mr.  Wilkes's  illegitimate  son  "  John  Smith," 
as  the  present  inquiry  only  relates  to  the  Mead 
family.  It  is  plain  that  Mary  Wilkes  could  not 
claim  descent  from  Dr.  Mead  ;  but,  according  to 
Almon,  the  drysalter  and  the  doctor  had  a  common 
ancestor,  and  Miss  Wilkes  once  visited  Mrs. 
Nicholls,  the  doctor's  third  daughter,  who  for 
many  years  resided  at  Epsom,  and,  according  to 
Nichols's  '  Literary  Anecdotes,'  vi.  642,  was  living 
there  in  1798.  Miss  Wilkes  believed  that  her 
mother  and  Mrs.  Nicholls  were  very  near  relations. 


Sutton,  Surrey 

John  Wilkes  did  not  marry  the  daughter  of  Dr. 
Richard  Mead,  but  the  daughter  of  Mr.  William 
Mead,  drysalter,  of  London  Bridge,  and  of  Ayles- 
bury, by  his  wife  Miss  Sherbroke,  of  Bucks. 
John  Wilkes's  only  daughter,  Mary,  died  unmarried 
in  1802,  aged  fifty-one.  A  copy  of  her  will,  made 
in  1800,  is  to  be  found  at  the  end  of  Almon's 
'  Memoirs  of  John  Wilkes.'  Dr.  Richard  Mead, 
the  eleventh  son  of  the  Rev.  Matthew  Mead,  a 
Presbyterian  divine,  was  descended  from  a  junior 
branch  of  William  Mead's  family.  By  his  first 
wife  he  left  one  son  and  three  daughters.  One  of 
his  daughters  married  Sir  Edward  Wilmot,  Bart., 
and  was  mother  of  the  second  baronet,  and  another 
daughter  married  Dr.  Frank  Nicholls. 



Miss  Wilkes  died  unmarried  "at  her  house, 
the  corner  of  South  Audley  Street,  Grosvenor 
Square,"  on  March  12, 1802,  aged  fifty-one.  See 

7*  8. 1.  FEB.  6,  '86.J 



Chalmers's  '  Biog.  Diet./  vol.  xxxii.  p.  69  ; 
Gent.  Mag.,  1802,  pt.  i.  pp.  285,  372.  The  contents 
of  her  will,  which  was  dated  July  18,  1800,  will 
also  be  found  in  the  last-named  volume,  p.  466. 

G.  F.  R.  B. 

FOLIFATE     OR    FoLlFOOT     FAMILY,    CO.     YORK 

(7th  S.  i.  44).— The  Fairfaxes  of  Walton  and 
Denton  seem  sometimes  to  have  quartered  the 
arms  of  Follouet  or  Follovet,  Argent,  a  fess  between 
two  lions  passant  guardant  sable.  See  Tonge's 
4  Visitation/  Surtees  Society,  p.  iv  ;  Glover's 
*  Visitation/  ed.  Foster,  pp.  39,  96  ;  Herald  and 
Genealogist,  vol.  vi.  pp.  628,  629.  In  Flower's 
'Visitation/  Harleian  Society,  p.  118,  it  is  stated  : 
"  This  Sr  Nicholas  (Fairfax)  sayeth  that  he  should 
bere  Follovet  who  bereth — arg.  a  fece  between 
3  lions  rampant  sable  ;  and  yt  should  come  in  next 
unto  Etton."  How  this  quartering  came  in  I  have 
not  yet  found.  The  above  arms  as  first  described 
are  at  present  in  a  window  in  Guiseley  Church 
quartered  in  the  Eawdon  shield.  See  Yorks. 
Arch.  Journal,  vol.  vi.  p.  87. 

J.  W.  C.  RASTRICK. 

ALTERN *  (7th  S.  i.  32). — There  may,  perhaps,  be 
more  than  one  book  called  c  The  Subaltern ';  but 
the  well-known  work  so  entitled  was  unquestionably 
from  the  pen  of  the  Rev.  G.  K.  Gleig,  late  Chaplain 
General  of  the  Forces.  If  '  The  Country  Curate ' 
was  by  the  author  of  '  The  Subaltern/  the  propriety 
of  adding  that  to  the  list  of  the  Rev.  Erskine 
Neale's  writings  seems  also  more  than  doubtful.  Is 
it  possible  that  some  one  has  assigned  both 
books  to  Neale,  by  identifying  the  title  '  The 
Country  Curate '  with  "  A  Country  Curate,"  who 
wrote  '  The  Living  and  the  Dead  '  ? 


A  "SHEPSTER"  IN  1552  (7th  S.  i.  68,  91).— 
Halliwell  is  clearly  wrong  in  explaining  this  word 
as  "a  sheep-shearer."  Huloet,  in  his  '  Abcedarium/ 
1552  (the  very  year  in  which  your  correspondent's 
document  is  dated)  gives  "  shepster  or  seamster, 
sarcinatrix,  sutratrix."  Halliwell's  error  is  the 
more  remarkable  as  he  himself  gives  Palsgrave  as 
his  authority.  Palsgrave's  words  are  "  schepstarre, 
lingiere."  Cotgrave,  ed.  1632,  explains  lingiere  as 
"  a  seamster  ;  a  woman  that  makes  or  sells  linnen, 
or  linnen  ware."  See  also  Stratmann's  *  Diet./  s.v. 
"Schepstre."  S.  0.  ADDY. 


In  this  part  of  the  country  shepster  means 
starling.  In  Egerton  Leigh's  *  Glossary  of  Words 
used  in  the  Dialect  of  Cheshire  '  (1877),  the  word 
is  spelt  shepstir  or  shipstir,  and  stands  as  follows  : 
"  Shepstir,  or  Shipstir, «.— A  Starling.  W.  This 
bird  hunts  amongst  the  sheep's  wool  for  the  insects 
that  live  in  it  ;  and  is  therefore  called  by  its 
Cheshire  name,  because  he  stirs  up  the  sheep  with 

his  bill."  The  W.  indicates  that  the  word  remains 
as  in  Roger  Wilbraham's  'Glossary/  which  was 
contributed  to  the  Society  of  Antiquaries  in  1817. 

St.  Austin's,  Warrington. 

JOHN  KNOX'S  CLOCK  (7th  S.  i.  46). —"John 
Winterspoon,"  the  owner  of  the  clock,  must  be 
meant  for  the  Rev.  James  Witherspoon,  minister 
of  the  parish  of  Tester,  Haddingtonshire,  one  of 
the  chaplains  in  Scotland  to  George  II.  His  sou 
John  went,  as  stated,  to  America,  and  became 
President  of  Princeton  College,  New  Jersey.  As 
the  president's  sister  was  my  maternal  great-grand- 
mother, I  know  something  of  their  history,  yet 
never  heard  of  the  clock  or  its  pedigree,  which  is 
decidedly  interesting.  Whether  it  belonged  to 
Knox  or  not,  a  clock  made  in  Paisley  in  1560, 
still  a  good  time-keeper,  is  a  great  curiosity.  It 
is  to  be  hoped  the  present  owner  will,  as  MR. 
REID  suggests,  favour  us  with  further  details  of  its 
history.  There  is  certainly  an  old  family  tradition 
of  descent  from  a  daughter  of  Knox,  but  whether 
through  the  Rev.  James  or  his  wife  is  uncertain. 
After  considerable  research  on  the  point,  my  opinion 
is  that  it  was  through  the  wife,  if  at  all.  Their 
American  descendants  are  fully  convinced  of  it, 
but  we  on  this  side  are  perhaps  stricter  in  exacting 
legal  evidence.  JOSEPH  BAIN,  F.S.A.Scot. 

COLLEGIUM  GRASSIN^DM  (7th  S.  i.  67). — If 
MR.  A.  F.  HERFORD  had  looked  back  in  the 
indexes  of  *  N.  &  Q  '  for  a  few  years  he  would  have 
found  (6th  S.  v.  236)  an  answer  to  his  question, 
what  and  where  and  when  was  this  institution.  I 
may  supplement  the  information  there  given,  and 
answer  the  second  part  of  MR.  HERFORD'S  query, 
by  stating  that  the  College  des  Grassins  was  a 
college  of  the  University  of  Paris,  situate  in  the 
Rue  des  Amandiers,  de  la  Montagne-Sainte-Gene"- 
vieve,  and  that  it  was  founded  by  the  will  of  Pierre 
Grassin  in  1569.  Books  from  the  college  library, 
generally  bound  in  brown  morocco,  seme  defleurs- 
de-lys,  and  with  the  name  of  the  college  and  the 
arms  and  motto  of  the  founder  on  the  sides,  are 
not  uncommon.  The  arms  are,  Gules,  three  garden 
lilies  argent,  two  in  chief  and  one  in  base  ;  and  the 
motto,  "  Lilium  interspinas."  JOHN  CREE. 

[This  reply  is  corroborated  by  MR.  THOMAS  KERSLAKB, 
who  repeats  much  of  the  information.  Some  conjectural 
replies,  apparently  inaccurate,  are  kept  back.] 

KELLY'S  SALOON  (7th  S.  i.  49).— This  was  at  the 
angle  of  Pall  Mall  and  Market  Lane,  the  latter 
thoroughfare  occupying  the  position  now  filled  by 
the  Opera  Arcade  (or  avenue  of  melancholy-mad 
bootmakers,  accordingly  to  Mr.  Sala),  and  culmi- 
nating in  St.  James's  Market,  the  remains  of 
which  still  exist.  Kelly's  house  was  on  the 
eastern  side  of  Market  Lane,  and  abutting  upon 
the  Opera  House,  to  which  it  was  intended  to 



[7*  S.  I.  FEB.  6,  '86. 

answer  the  purpose  of  an  "early  door."  See 
'  Reminiscences  of  Michael  Kelly,'  1826,  ii.  181; 
and  Annual  Biography,  1827,  p.  50. 

16,  Parliament  Street,  S.W. 

FLEMING  FAMILY  (6th  S.  xii.  207,  317).— Since 
the  appearance  of  mj  reply  to  MR.  BROWN'S 
queries  on  the  subject  of  the  Dinwiddie  MSS.  I 
have  received  from  that  gentleman  a  more  extended 
extract  from  the  MSS.,  which  confirms  my  previous 
impression  as  to  its  accuracy. 

I  mentioned  that  no  pedigree  of  Fleming  of 
Ferme  was  procurable ;  and  I  should  like  to  state 
that  I  have  now  received  the  following  information 
from  a  most  trustworthy  source.  It  shows  that  the 
Ferme  baronetcy  is  the  same  as  that  imperfectly 
and  erroneously  entered  in  Burke's  'Extinct 
Baronetage'  as  "  Fleming,  Bart.,  of  Glasgow" 
(see  p.  621),  under  which  title  it  is  also  entered  in 
Solly's  '  Titles  of  Honour.' 

The  Dinwiddie  MS.  aspires  to  connect  the 
Ferme  family  with  the  old  Earls  of  Wigton  by 
stating  that  the  first  baronet  was  grandson  of 
Malcolm  (?  John),  first  Earl  of  Wigton.  It  is  not 
unlikely  that  there  was  some  connexion,  but  there 
is  no  authority  for  any  connexion  so  close  and 
direct  as  the  MS.  pretends.  The  pedigree,  as 
communicated  to  me,  is  as  follows  : — 

Archibald  Fleming,  merchant,  of  Glasgow,  mar.  Eliza- 
beth Lennox. 

William,  burgess  of  Glasgow,  and  Clerk  of  the  Commis- 
sariot  there,  d.  Sept.,  1636. 

Archibald,  of  Ferme,  &c.,  advocate  and  commissary  of 
Glasgow,  and  Rector  of  the  Glasgow  University,  mar., 
1637,  Agnes,  dau.  and  heir  of  David  Gibson,  notary 
and  burgess  of  Glasgow  ;  created  a  baronet  in  1661 
(this  being  the  third  Nova  Scotia  baronetcy  created 
after  the  Restoration)  ;  d.  January,  1662. 

Sir  William,  second  baronet,  also  commissary  at  Glasgow, 
mar.  Margaret,  dau.  of  Archibald  Stewart  of  Scots- 
toun,  and  d.  Feb.  6,  1707  (his  dau.  was  second  wife  of 
William  Somerville  of  Kennox). 

Sir  Archibald,  third  baronet,  mar.  (contract  dated  Aug.  3, 
1692)  Elizabeth,  eldest  dau.  of  Sir  George  Hamilton, 
Bart.,  of  Binny,  &c.,  and  d.  April  14,  1714,  leaving, 
with  a  son,  who  went  to  France  (and  is  stated  in  the 
Dinwiddie  MS.  to  have  settled  in  America  and  left 
descendants  there),  and  ten  daughters  (one  of  whom 
mar.  Alexander  Dinwiddie,  and  was  mother  of  the 
writer  of  the  MS.),  a  son 

Sir  William,  fourth  baronet,  lieutenant  in  Handasyde's 
Horse,  mar.  a  dau.  of  Lennox  of  Woodhead,  and  d.  at 
Elgin,  Oct.  25, 1745,  leaving  a  son 

Sir  Collingwood,  fifth  baronet,  d.s.p.  in  Virginia,  April  17, 
1763,  and  was  succeeded  by  his  brother 

Sir  James,  sixth  baronet,  who  d.  Oct.  1,  1763,  since 
which  date  the  title  seems  to  have  been  considered  as 

The  Dinwiddie  MS.'adds  that  the  family  estate 
was  lost  in  the  time  of  the  third  baronet,  who 
became  surety  for  the  debts  of  his  father-in-law, 
Sir  George  Hamilton,  Bart.,  "  one  of  the  proudest 
and  most  extravagant  men  that  ever  existed." 

I  may  add  that  the  MS.  mentions  that  Alexander 
Dinwiddie,  who  mar.  Elizabeth  Fleming,  was  born 
March  15, 1694  (O.S.),  and  that  his  son  Alexander, 
the  writer  of  it,  was  born  April  17,  1738. 

I  doubted  the  existence  of  any  "  Hamiltons  of 
Barntoun,"  but  wish  to  correct  myself.  I  find  the 
full  title  of  the  family  referred  to  was  "  Hamilton, 
Bart.,  of  Binny,  Barnton,  and  Tulliallan,"  created  in 
1692.  Their  pedigree  is,  however,  like  that  of  the 
Flemings  of  Ferme,  apparently  unpublished. 


CAREW  EALEIGH  (6th  S.  xii.  448,  527;  7th  S.  i. 
57). — May  not  the  difficulty  pointed  out  by  MR. 
PINK  on  p.  57  be  explained  by  the  fact  of  Kelling- 
ton  being  a  different  place  from  Callington  ?  At 
any  rate,  in  Cooke's  '  Topographical  Description  of 
Cornwall '  Kellington  is  mentioned  as  a  place 
where  a  fair  is  held,  as  well  as  Callington,  and  the 
dates  given  for  the  fair  days  in  each  differ  also.  I 
have  two  editions  of  Cooke's  book,  and  in  both 
Callington  is  thus  distinguished  from  Kfllington. 

W.  S.  B.  H. 

CASTLES  (7th  S.  i.  69).— For  a  list  of  these  see 
Freeman's  *  History  of  the  Norman  Conquest,' 
vol.  v.,  note  N,  pp.  806-808 ;  and  Sir  Henry 
Ellis's  *  Introduction  to  Domesday,'  vol.  i.  pp.  211- 
224.  W.  E.  BUCKLEY. 

STANGNUM  (7th  S.  i.  68).— This,  no  doubt,  is  the 
genitive  of  s<agmwm=stangnum,  a  purely  classical 
word,  and  a  derivative  of  sto,  to  stand.  Its 
meaning  in  English  is  a  pool  or  pond,  from  which 
we  get  also  our  word  stagnant.  We  meet  with 
it  constantly  in  the  best  Latin  authors.  Thus  :  — 

Undique  latius 
Extenta  visentur  Lucrino 

Stagna  lacu. — Hor.,  '  Carm.,'  ii.  15. 
Addidit  et  fontes,  immensaque  ftagna,  lacusque. 

Ovid,  'Metam.,'  i.  38. 

Non  inexplorata  stagni  vada. — Liv.  xxvi.  48. 
Cocyti  stagna  alta  vides. — Virg., '  J£n.,'  vi.  323. 
As  connected  with  molendini,  it  means,  of  course, 
a  mill  pond.     In  addition  to  this  meaning,  Du- 
cange  gives  that  of  a  kind  of  metal,  or,  in  fact,  tin. 
He  says:  "  Stagnum,  pro  Stannum,  Kavo-iTcpov, 
Gall.  Estain.  EDMUND  TEW,  M.A. 

Stangnum  molendini  =  mill-pond.  "Stank,  a 
pool,  a  tank,  once  a  common  word"  (Skeat),  is  still 
the  usual  word  in  Lowland  Scots.  A  stank  hen  = 
a  moor-hen.  HERBERT  MAXWELL. 

ESQUIRE  (6th  S.  xii.  495  ;  7th  S.  i.  34,  74).— The 
following  is  the  reading  of  the  passage  according 
to  Theobald  :  "Robert  Shallow,  Esq.,  in  the  county 

.  I.  FEB.  6,  '86.] 



of  Gloucester,  Justice  of  the  Peace,  and  Coram." 
What  could  Shallow  owe  his  title  of  esquire  to, 
except  to  his  office  of  magistrate  1  According  to 
all  authorities,  "  nothing  can  be  more  absurd  than 
the  commonly  received  notion  that  a  certain  pro- 
perty constitutes  a  man  an  enquire." 


[Ms.  ALFRED  JONAS  obliges  with  the  passages  from 
Camden  bearing  upon  esquires.  The  subject  in  its 
general  bearing  has,  however,  been  so  fully  discussed, 
especially  in  5th  S.  vii.,  viii.,  and  ix.,  we  dare  not  reopen 


MUST  (7th  S.  i.  47,  71).— Must  is  a  past  tense, 
or  historic  tense,  which  has  in  lapse  of  time  become 
a  present  or  primary  tense  as  well  as  a  past,  and 
rather  than  a  past.  But  the  older  usage  can  easily 
be  traced.  The  meaning  also  has  changed  (as  have 
the  meanings  of  other  auxiliary  verbs,  can,  shall), 
and  while  formerly  "  I  must"  was  equivalent  to  "  I 
might,"  now  it  means  "I  am  compelled."  At 
first  we  find  a  verb  pres.  indie,  mot  (second  person 
most),  with  a  past  tense  moste,  without  infinitive 
form.  This  present  has  died  out,  except  as  a  poetical 
archaism  mote.  But  must  remains  in  a  slightly 
varied  sense,  and  is  used,  as  grammarians  say,  for 
past  time  as  of  old,  and  for  present  time  also  in 
place  of  mote,  for  the  connexion  between  these  two 
words,  as  that  between  wot  and  wist,  and  between 
dare  and  durst,  became  not  very  apparent.  A  pas- 
sage from  the  'A.S.  Chronicle  E,'  A.D.  1123,  shows 
how  must  was  of  past  time,  like  would  and  should 
in  dependent  clauses :  "  J?a  bed  se  cyng  heom 

]»aet    hi    scoldon    cesen    hem    aercebiscop ac 

iedon  ealle  samodlice  to  J?one  kyng  and  ieorn- 
den  J?aet  hi  mosten  cesen  of  clerchades  man." 

The  king  bad  that  they  should  choose; and 

they  desired  that  they  must  (might)  choose." 
In  modern  English  we  may  write  as  paral- 
lel sentences:  "He  tells  them  that  they  may, 
can,  shall,  must  choose  a  bishop,"  or  "He  told 
them  that  they  might,  could,  should,  must  choose 
a  bishop."  We  cannot  explain  grammatically  the 
sequence  of  tenses  in  these  clauses  without  saying 
that  in  the  former  sentence  may,  can,  shall,  must 
are  all  present  or  primary  tenses,  must  being  =  are 
bound  to  choose,  and  in  the  latter  might,  could, 
should,  must  are  all  past  or  historic  tenses,  must 
being=were  bound.  It  is  not  easy  to  show  must 
as  a  past  tense  in  a  principal  clause,  because  when 
"  he  must  do"  had  come  to  have  a  present  meaning 
also,  "he  mote  do,"  "he  is  obliged  to  do,"  debetfacere, 
a  new  form  of  periphrastic  past  tense  was  got  by 
changing  the  idiom  into  "  he  must  have  done  "  for 
"  he  was  obliged  to  do,"  debuitfacere.  In  like  manner 
the  past  ought  has  driven  out  its  present  owe,  and 
"  he  ought  to  do  "  for  past  time  has  become  "  he 
ought  to  have  done,"  while  we  use  "  he  ought  to  do  " 
for  the  present  "  he  owes  to  do."  To  avoid  ambi- 
guity we  say,  "  I  was  bound"  instead  of  "  I  must " 

go  there  yesterday.  The  suggested  phrase  "  I  have 
must"  is  "out  of  the  question,"  just  as  "I  have 
could "  or  "  I  have  should  "  are  out  of  the  ques- 
tion, because  must,  could,  should  are  historically 
indicative  past  tenses,  and  are  not  participles,  the 
verbs  mot,  can,  shall,  to  which  they  belong,  being 
defective,  and  so  unable  to  supply  the  participles 
which  are  the  materials  for  this  periphrastic  form. 

0.  W.  TANCOCK. 

The  information  I  sought,  so  far  from  needing 
several  pages  of  this  journal,  could  literally  be 
contained  in  a  nutshell.  What  I  want  to  know 
is,  whether  any  writer,  say,  from  Shakespeare 
down  to  the  present  time  employs  must  in 
the  sense  of  the  German  verb  musste,  i.e.,  as 
a  past  tense.  I  have  followed  PROF.  SKEAT'S 
advice,  and  consulted  his  '  Dictionary,'  art. 
"Must";  but  though  it  bears  upon  my  query, 
it  does  not  answer  it.  I  found  the  following 
passage  :  "  This  verb  must  is  extremely  defective ; 
nothing  remains  of  it  but  the  past  tense,  which 
does  duty  both  for  past  and  present."  I  am 
thankful  for  this  information;  but  if  must  "does 
duty"  for  a  "past  tense,"  where  are  the  instances 
to  be  found  ?  My  difficulty  will  become  apparent 
by  supposing  a  foreigner  to  take  up  PROF.  SKEAT'S 
observations  and  act  upon  them  by  saying,  "  The 
French  ministers  must  resign  several  times  in 
1860,"  or  "I  must  stop  at  home  yesterday;  I  was 
ill,"  &c.  Why  may  not  the  verb  be  employed  in 
such  cases,  if  able  to  "do  duty  for  the  past  "  ?  I 
know  that  grammatical  rules  must  not  be  sought 
for  in  dictionaries  ;  still  the  observations  there  are 
based  upon  grammar. 


ALMANAC  (7th  S.  i.  70).— Francis  Murphy  died 
in  London,  December,  1847.  The  following  is 
from  the  Illustrated  London  News  of  December  11 : 

"Mr.  Murphy,  whose  lucky  predictions,  some  few 
years  since,  nearly  cost  Messrs.  Whittaker,  the  publishers 
of  his  almanack,  the  destruction  of  their  premises,  owing 
to  the  rush  of  customers  anxious  to  secure  copies  of  hie 
lucubrations,  died  suddenly  on  Wednesday  last,  at  his 
lodgings.  He  had  just  completed  arrangements  for  the 
issue  of  an  edition  of  his  almanack  for  1848,  and  was 
with  his  publisher,  Mr.  Effingham  Wilson,  in  perfect 
health,  only  a  few  hours  prior  to  his  death." 


For  the  results  of  Murphy's  predictions  during 
the  year  1838,  and  other  particulars  respecting 
his  almanac,  see  Chambers's  'Book  of  Days.' 
The  almanac  was  certainly  issued  for  the  following 
year;  but  as  there  were  no  less  than  196  days 
during  1838  when  his  forecasts  were  decidedly 
wrong,  the  sale  was  very  limited. 

71,  Brecknock  Road. 

ORIGIN  OF  SATING  (7th  S.  i.  70).— Interpret 
thus:— "If  the  worst  [which  can  be  imagined] 



L7'h  8. 1.  FEB.  6,  '86. 

come  to  [i.e.,  coincide  with]  the  worst  [which  shall 
actually  happen]."  C.  F.  S.  WARREN,  M.A. 

VOLUME  OF  SERMONS  (7th  S.  i.  69). — In  my 
copy  the  title  is  as  follows  ;  "  '  Englands  Remem- 
brancer :  Being  a  Collection  of  Farewel-Sermons 
Preached  by  divers  Non-Conformists  in  the  Coun- 
try.' Revel,  iii.  3.  '  Remember  how  thou  hast  re- 
ceived, and  heard,  and  hold  fast.' London, 

Printed  in  the  year  1663."  Title,  preface,  and 
errata,  four  leaves,  not  paged,  but  making  a  half- 
sheet  A.  Text  pp.  I  to  5 10,  signatures  B  to  KK  7,  last 
blank.  This  is  succeeded  by  *  Ultimum  Vale  : 
or  the  Last  Farewel  of  a  Minister  of  the  Gospel  to 
a  beloved  People,'  by  Matthew  Newcomen,  M.A., 
&c.,  London,  printed  in  the  year  1663,  pp.  78, 
sm.  8vo. 

The  companion  volume  is  entitled  " '  The  Fare- 
well Sermons  of  the  late  London  Ministers, 
Preached  August  17th  1662.'  By  M'  Calamy, 
Dr  Manton,  Mr  Caryl,  Mr  Case,  Mr  Jenkins, 
Mr  Baxter,  Dr  Jacomb,  Dr  Bates,  M  Watson, 
Mr  Lyes,  Mr  Mede,  Mr  Ash,  Fun.  Ser.  Heb.  x.  23. 
Let  us  hold  fast  the  Profession  of  our  Faith  with- 
out wavering,  for  he  is  faithfull  that  promised. 
Printed  in  the  year  1662."  Sm.  8vo.  There  is 
an  engraved  frontispiece,  containing  the  portraits  of 
the  twelve  preachers,  with  their  names  in  the  centre. 
After  the  title  there  is  a  "  Notice  to  the  Reader," 
one  leaf  ;  then  the  sermons,  eighteen,  with  signa- 
tures A  to  A  A  8,  partly  and  irregularly  paged,  viz., 
I  to  M,  paged  1  to  64  ;  N  to  p,  189  to  236  ;  the  rest 
not  paged,  as  if  several  printers  had  been  engaged 
at  once  on  different  sheets.  W.  E.  BUCKLEY. 

'A  Compleat  Collection  of  Farewell  Sermons 
preached  by  London  and  Countrie  Ministers 
(ejected),  Aug.  17th,  1662,'  Lond.,  1663,  sra.  8vo. 
With  a  frontispiece  containing  fourteen  portraits. 
Another  edition,  Lond.,  1663,  sm.  4to.,  with  a 
frontispiece  containing  portraits.  Reprinted  with 
an  historical  and  biographical  preface,  Lond.,  1816 
(Lowndes,  p.  2243).  ED.  MARSHALL. 

UPTON  (6th  S.  xi.  128,  277,  512  ;    xii.  52,    155 
358,  397). — I  am  surprised  that  no  reference  has 
been  made  to  the  very  exhaustive  articles  in  th 
First  Series  of  N.  &  Q.'  on  the  office  of  iurcopoliei 
in  the  Order  of  St.  John  of  Jerusalem.*     From 
those  articles    MR.  W.    H.  UPTON  will  probably 
learn  all  that  is  to  be  discovered  about  the  Gran! 
Prior  of  England,    Sir  Nicholas   Upton,    and   if 
(as  is  frequently  recommended)  he  had  searched 
the  indexes  before  submitting  his  query,  a  good 
deal  of  valuable  space  might  have  been  saved.     It 
would  seem   that  MR.   C.  H.  E.  CARMICHAEL  is 
right  in  his  conjecture  that  Burke,  in  his  *  Landed 

*  See  1"  S,  vii.  407;  viii,  189;  ix,  80  ;  x.  378  ;  xi.  21, 

178,  200, 

Gentry,'  erroneously  refers  to  Nicholas   Upton 
under  the  name  of  John.  W.  F.  P. 

CANTANKEROUS  (7th  S.  i.  87).— Surely  a  mere 
mrlesque  of  cankerous,  in  the  sense  of  cankered. 
'  In  the  North  of  England  a  cankered  fellow  is  a 
:ross,  ill-conditioned  person  "  (Ray). 

Therein  a  cancred  crabbed  carle  doth  dwell. 

'  P.  Q.,'  in  Todd. 


t6). — In  reply  to  MR.  J.  E.  BAILEY,  I  beg  to  say 
,hat  in  my  copy  of  Dr.  Dee's  work  (printed  in 
1659),  in  the  eleventh  leaf  (verso,  top  line),  are  the 
etters  "  B.  V.  of  T."  H.  OLIVER. 

]  44,  Broad  Lane,  Sheffield. 

BELDAM  (6th  S.  xii.  405, 434, 473).— I  have  waited 
for  some  other  correspondent  to  suggest  what  to 
me  seems  obvious,  viz.,  that  beldam  is  neither 
more  nor  less  than  Anglican  for  vieille  dame. 
Becate  says  to  the  witches,  " Beldams  as  you  are." 
Banquo's  address,  "  Ye  should  be  women  :  and 
yet  your  beards,"  &c.,  precludes  the  idea  of  beauty. 
I  can  see  no  analogy  between  beldam  and  beau- 
pere,  beau-fils,  &c.  I  believe  that  the  latter  was 
originally  a  prefix  of  conventional  courtesy,  like 
"  Fair  sir."  When  Edward  III.  arrested  Mor- 
timer at  Nottingham  Castle,  his  own  mother, 
Queen  Isabella,  said,  "Beau  fils,  epargnez  le 
gentil  Mortimer." 

WILLIAM  FRASER  of  Ledeclune,  Bt. 

xi.  367,431;  xii.  198,  350,  398,  473).— The  well- 
known  large-paper  copy  of  '  Gulliver's  Travels '  in 
the  Forster  Collection  at  South  Kensington,  has,  I 
believe,  the  inscription  beneath  the  oval  portrait, 
and  belongs,  therefore,  to  the  first  of  the  three 
issues  of  the  first  edition.  Are  any  large-paper 
copies  known  of  the  other  two  issues  ?  I  have 
never  heard  of  any. 

I  am  almost  certain  I  have  a  copy  of  the  second 
volume  of  the  third  issue,  but  as  it  is  amongst  my 
books  at  home,  I  cannot  speak  positively.  I  can 
only  say  that,  to  the  best  of  my  recollection,  the 
pages  are  numbered  consecutively,  and  that  there 
is  no  indication  on  the  title-page  of  its  being  a 
"  second  edition."  The  plates  are  numbered  as  in 
the  first  and  second  issues.  W.  F.  PRIDEAUX. 

RANGERS  "  (6th  S.  xii.  484  ;  7th  S.  i.  96).— These 
are,  no  doubt,  the  gabriel-raches  or  -ratchets,  or 
gabble-retchets  of  Yorkshire  and  Staffordshire — a 
name  for  a  yelping  cry,  heard  at  night,  resembling 
the  yelping  of  dogs,  and  taken  as  an  omen  of  ap- 
proaching death.  See  gabriel-ratchet  in  Atkinson's 
'Cleveland  Glossary.'  Bishop  Kennett  states  in 
his  glossarial  collections  that  "  in  Staffordshire  the 
ooaliers  going  to  their  pits  early  in  the  morning 

7th  S.  I.  FEB.  6,  '86.] 



hear  the  noise  of  a  pack  of  hounds  in  the  air,  to 
which  they  give  the  name  of  Gabriel's  hounds" 
('  Promptorium/  Appendix,  p.  Ixv,  note  6). 



A  Genealogical  and  Heraldic  Dictionary  of  the  Peerage 
and  Baronetage,  together  with.  Memoirs  of  the  Privy 
Councillors  and  Knights.  By  Sir  Bernard  Burke, 
C.B.,  LL.D.,  Ulster  King  of  Arms.  Forty-eighth 
Edition.  (Harrison  &  Son.) 

SIK  BEKNAED  BTJRKE'S  '  Peerage  and  Baronetage '  main- 
tains its  well-won  reputation.  On  more  than  one  occa- 
sion its  contents  have  been  the  subject  of  an  analysis  in 
'  N.  &  Q.'  more  elaborate  than  can  be  maintained  in  the 
case  of  a  work  which  is  an  annual.  Thanks  to  the  expe- 
rience he  has  gained  and  the  assistance  which  is  rendered 
him,  Sir  Bernard  can  put  forward  the  hope,  scarcely 
distinguishable  from  a  claim,  that  his  present  volume  is 
"in  all  respects  complete."  There  are  few  products  of 
human  labour  of  which  the  same  can  be  said ;  and  it  is 
probable  that,  allowing,  as  we  are  compelled,  the  author 
to  have  a  right  to  choose  his  own  standpoint,  the  vaunt 
may  be  sustained.  It  might,  perhaps,  be  urged  that 
alliances  of  which  a  noble  family  is  not  proud  are  not 
always  chronicled  in  these  pages,  or  in  those  of  any  other 
peerage.  Take,  for  instance,  the  marriage  of  John  Beard, 
the  vocalist,  to  Lady  Henrietta  Herbert,  daughter  of  the 
first  Earl  of  Waldegrave  and  widow  of  Lord  Edward 
Herbert,  second  son  of  William,  second  Marquess  of 
Powis,  of  which  nothing  is  said.  These  are,  however, 
minor  matters,  and  the  volume  contains  all  the  facts 
concerning  the  titled  classes  which  the  public  is  anxious 
to  possess.  The  past  year  has  witnessed  many  creations 
and  some  important  changes.  What  Sir  Bernard  calls 
"  the  grand  old  Earldom  of  Mar  "  has  been  restored,  and 
the  succession  of  the  historic  Earldom  of  Lauderdale  has 
been  settled.  Baronies  of  the  United  Kingdom  have 
been  bestowed  on  Lord  Powerscourt  and  Lord  Henley. 
"The  Earl  of  Breadalbane  has  received  a  Marquisate, 
Lord  Fife  an  Earldom  of  the  United  Kingdom,  and  Lord 
Wolseley  a  Viscounty."  In  addition,  twelve  peerages 
have  been  created:  Iddesleigh,  Halsbury,  Rothschild, 
Revelstok.  Monkswell,  Hobhouse,  Lingen,  Ashbourne, 
St.  Oswald,  Wantage,  Esher,  and  Deramore.  Of  all 
these  a  full  account  is  given,  and  the  genealogical  infor- 
mation is  the  amplest  to  be  expected.  All  that  needs  be 
said,  indeed,  is  said  in  asserting  that  the  work  is  true  to 
its  traditions,  and  remains  indispensable  to  those  inter- 
ested in  social  precedence  and  engaged  in  genealogical 
and  historical  study. 

The  County  Families  of  the  United  Kingdom  ;  or,  Royal 
Manual  oj  the  Titled  and  Untitled  Aristocracy  of 
England,'  Wales,  Scotland,  and  Ireland.  By  Edward 
Walford,  M.A.  Twenty-sixth  Annual  Publication. 
(Chatto  &  Windus.) 

MR.  WALFORD'S  '  County  Families  of  the  United  King, 
dora  '  is  now  in  bulk  a  rival  to  the  most  comprehensive 
peerages.  This  it  may  well  be,  seeing  that  its  twelve 
hundred  and  odd  pages  contain,  in  addition  to  an  index 
to  the  seats  of  the  principal  landed  gentry  and  other 
matters  convenient  for  purposes  of  reference,  many 
thousands  of  biographies.  The  volume  has,  it  is  need- 
less to  say,  been  corrected  up  to  date  so  as  to  include  the 
results  of  the  last  general  election.  '  County  Families ' 
is,  of  course,  a  comprehensive  title,  seeing  that  it  includes 
all  peers  and  baronets,  and  most  of  those  who  hold  any 
prized  social  distinctions,  and  gives  in  addition  the  heads 

of  all  families  holding  landed  estates.  Practically  it  is  a 
guide  to  the  squirearchy  of  England.  In  a  race  so  ener- 
getic and  so  pushing  as  our  own  a  very  short  period  suf- 
fices to  elevate  a  family  into  the  possession  of  acres  if 
not  exactly  into  that  mysterious  position,  the  County 
Families.  A  review  is  not  the  place  for  a  story.  An  ex- 
ception may  be  made,  however,  in  favour  of  one,  for  the 
truth  of  which  we  are  in  a  position  to  vouch.  Staying 
with  a  well-known  astronomer,  the  Laureate  through  a 
powerful  telescope  looked  at  the  milky  way,  and  saw  the 
mass  resolve  itself  into  worlds  and  systems.  Upon  quit- 
ting his  post  he  simply  observed,  "  I  don't  think  much 
of  our  County  Families."  Heresy  such  as  this  was,  per- 
haps, pardonable  under  the  circumstances.  The  County 
Families,  however,  think  much  of  themselves,  and  enjoy 
a  fair  measure  of  social  consideration.  To  all  who  have 
a  claim  to  be  within  the  charmed  circle  Mr.  Walford's 
book  is  a  trustworthy  guide.  Its  advantages,  how- 
ever, extend  beyond  these  limits.  It  is  useful  to  all  who 
are  concerned  with  questions  of  precedence,  and  espe- 
cially useful  to  mothers  who  desire  to  distinguish  be- 
tween "  eligibles  "  and  "  detrimentals."  Finally,  it  has  a 
solid  value  to  all  concerned  in  genealogical  pursuits. 
Like  all  Mr.  Walford's  work,  it  is  conscientiously  and 
laboriously  done.  It  may,  in  short,  be  held  to  furnish  a 
complete  clue  to  everybody  who,  in  conventional  lan- 
guage, is  anybody  at  all.  That  tlie  majority  of  scholars 
and  workers  in  the  higher  profession  come  in  none  of 
the  categories  described  is,  at  least,  not  the  fault  of  the 
compilers  of  guides. 

The  Official  Baronage  of  England,  showing  the  Succes- 
sions, Dignities,  and  Offices  of  every  Peer  from 
1066  to  1885.  With  1,600  Illustrations.  By  James  E. 
•Doyle.  Vols.  I.,  II.,  III.  Dukes -Viscounts.  (Long- 
mans &  Co.) 

MR.  DOYLE  has  devoted  to  the  prosecution  of  an  ambi- 
tious and  a  useful  scheme  very  many  years  of  arduous 
industry.  His  task  is  as  yet  far  from  completed,  but  an 
important  instalment  of  his  labours  has  now  seen  the 
light.  More  than  a  century  and  a  half  has  elapsed  since 
Arthur  Collins,  the  famous  antiquary  and  genealogist, 
began  an  English  Baronage  upon  an  extended  scale.  No 
more  than  one  volume  of  this  was  published.  An  ana- 
logous scheme  has  now  been  carried  half  way  to  comple- 
tion, and  the  moiety  now  supplied  will  be  welcome  to  all 
students  of  history  and  genealogy.  The  original  inten- 
tion of  Mr.  Doyle  was  to  deal  only  with  the  period  be- 
tween the  Norman  Conquest  and  the  Revolution  of  1688. 
The  folly  of  dealing  with  the  most  difilcult  part  of  his 
subject  and  overcoming  the  most  formidable  obstacles 
and  sparing  the  lighter  labour  which  would  assign  his 
work  actual  interest  and  commend  it  to  a  new  class  of 
subscribers,  appears  to  have  struck  him  during  his  pro- 
gress, and  the  portion  of  the  work  now  issued  covers  the 
entire  space  of  English  history  between  the  Conquest 
and  the  year  just  ended.  So  far  the  work  deals  with  the 
highest  grades  of  the  peerage— dukes,  marquises,  earls, 
viscounts — reserving  for  a  continuation  those  to  whom 
modern  practice  has  confined  the  term  baron. 

Resentment  has  been  begotten  among  some  of  Mr. 
Doyle's  rivals  by  his  use  of  the  word  "  ofiicial."  This 
use  is  not,  however,  intended  to  imply  that  a  special 
sanction  of  authority  denied  to  other  works  ia  accorded 
this.  A  special  and  distinctive  aim  of  his  book  is  to 
give  in  detail  the  offices  held  by  each  peer,  with,  where 
obtainable,  the  dates  at  which  an  office  was  conferred  or 
withdrawn,  and  it  is  in  this  respect  that  the  «  Baronage  ' 
claims  to  be  official.  This  is  at  once  the  most  valuable 
part  of  the  work  and  that  in  which  shortcoming  is  most 
naturally  to  be  expected.  On  this  much  labour  has 
been  remuneratively  employed,  The  task  of  noting 



[7'h  S.  I.  FEB.  6,  '86. 

deficiencies  and  suggesting  additions  is  likely  to  occupy 
many  minds  and  to  supply  matter  to  future  volumes 
of  '  N.  &  Q.'     It  is  sufficient  at  present  to  acknow- 
ledge the   service    Mr.    Doyle    has   rendered,    and    to 
hope  for  the  continuation  of  his  volumes.     A  reference 
to  a  name  such  aa  that  of  the  first  Duke  of  Newcastle, 
in  which  there  is  no  dispute  of  pedigree  or  succession, 
will  show  the  method  adopted.     First  comes  the  name 
William  Cavendish,  son  of  Sir  Charles  Cavendish,  Knt., 
followed  by  all  the  titles  subsequently  acquired.      In 
separate  lines  follow  the  date  of  birthplace,  of  education, 
and  dates  of  the  conferring  of  different  honours,  with, 
on  the  right-hand  margin,  the  authorities  for  statements. 
The  left-hand  margin,  meanwhile,  supplies  an  engraving 
of  a  portrait  by  Van  Dyck  and  contemporary  comment 
upon  the  duke,  viz.,  the  description  of  his  personal  ap- 
pearance from  the  admirable  biography  of  him  by  his 
duchess,  and  the  words  of  Clarendon,  "  He  was  a  very 
fine  gentleman,"  "  a  person  well  bred."     Thirty-eight 
different  facts,  such  as  his  two  marriages,  his  military 
and  civil  appointments,  and   the  like  are  given,  with 
their  dates,  ascertained  or  approximate.    In  the  case  of 
his  son  Henry  Cavendish,  who  succeeded,  the  full  titles 
are  again  supplied.   The  year  following  his  death  without 
male  issue  the  title  of  Newcastle  was  bestowed  upon  his 
son-in-law,  John  Holies,  Earl  of  Clare.     From  this  brief 
description  the  plan  of  the  work  may  be  understood. 
No  attempt  has  been  made  to  treat  anew  the  question  of 
succession.     Full  investigation  into  such  questions  has, 
however,  been  made.  Great  gain  attends  the  reproduction, 
from  the  valuable  series  on  the  margin  of  the  '  Chronicle ' 
of  Matthew  of  Paris  or  from  the  oldest  blazon  that  can  be 
found,  of  the  ancient  armorial  bearings.     The  advantage 
is  not  slight,  moreover,  of  obtaining  from  early  represen- 
tations portraits  of  personages  of  eminence,  which,  though 
often  inexact  as  likenesses,  at  least  portray  the  general 
appearance  of  the  man.    For  so  much  of  the  work  as  has 
appeared  we  are  thankful.    Space  is,  of  course,  wholly 
wanting  in  this  portion  of  '  N.  &  Q.'  to  attempt  the 
exposure  of  shortcoming  or  error,  such  as  in  the  genea- 
logical portion  may  be  indicated.    We  elect  instead  to 
welcome  a  work  which  cannot  fail  to  be  of  highest  service, 
and  to  furnish  every  inducement  towards  its  completion. 
IN  the  Fortnightly  Review  Lady  Dilke  continues  in 
'  France  under  Colbert '  the  studies  of  French  life  she 
began  with  '  France  under  Richelieu.'    To  Colbert  she 
assigns  the  distinction  of  having  "  foreseen  not  only  that 
the  interests  of  the  modern  state  were  inseparably  bound 
up  with  those  of  industry,  but  also  that  the  interests  of 
industry  could  not  without  prejudice  be  divorced  from 
art."     Mr.  Theodore  Child  gives  a  vivacious  account  of 
life  in  the  United  States,  and  the  Rev.  Wm.  Barry  writes 
on  '  The  Church  and   the  World.' — In  the  Nineteenth 
Century  Prof.  Huxley  fires  his  final  shot  in  his  battle 
with  Mr.  Gladstone  on  '  Genesis.'    Side  by  side  with  his 
communication  appears  a  second,  different  in  purport, 
from  Prof.  Henry  Drummond.     '  William  Cobbett'  is  the 
subject  of  a  paper  by  Mr.  C.  Milner  Gaskell,  M.P.,  and 
'  Food  Accessories  '  of  an  important  contribution  by  Dr. 
Burney  Yeo. — In  Macmillan  the  clever  skit '  The  Great 
Gladstone  Myth,'  the  authorship  of  which  may  easily  be 
guessed,  causes  much  amusement;    Mr.  Rider  Haggard 
makes  in  characteristic  form  a  first  appearance;  and  there 
is  an  amusing  mock  epic, '  The  Arolliad  :  an  Epic  of  the 
Alps.' — Mr.  J.  Theodore  Bent  contributes  to  the  Gentle- 
man's '  Idyls  of  Karpathos,'  one  of  his  valuable  studies 
of  Hellenism  as  it  exists  to-day.    Mr.  H.  8.  Salt  writes 
intelligently  concerning  '  Classical  Learning.' — A  bright 
number  of  the  Cornhill  has   nothing   in  it   appealing 
directly  to  our  readers. — In  the  English  Illustrated  Mr. 
Traill's  admirable  *  A  Month   in  Sicily '  is  continued. 
Miss  Zimmern  supplies  a  good  account  of  Ulm,    These 

subjects,  admirably  suited  to  the  draughtsman,  are,  of 
course,  abundantly  illustrated,  as  is,  indeed,  the  whole 
magazine. — Longman's  has  a  valuable  paper  by  Mr.  P.  G, 
3amerton  on  '  The  Care  of  Pictures  and  Prints,'  and  one 
by  the  Rev.  M.  G.  Watkins  on  '  The  Keeper's  Gibbet,1 
which  we  should  like  to  have  circulated  broadcast  in 
agricultural  districts. — '  Chronicles  of  English  Counties  ' 
n  All  the  Year  Round  deal  with  Kent  and  Sussex. — 
STotes  and  queries  still  constitute  a  prominent  feature  in 
the  Red  Dragon. 

THE  monthly  publications  of  Messrs.  Cassell  include 
;he  Encyclopaedic  Dictionary,  Part  XXV.,  beginning  a 
new  volume,  extending  from  "Destruction"  to  "  Dirted," 
with  specially  characteristic  articles  on  "  Development," 
'Die,"  "Diluvial."  &c.,— Greater  London,  by  Edward 
Walford,  Part  VII.,  which  conducts  the  reader,  by 
Canons,  Whitchurch,  Bushey,  Aldenham,  and  Radlett,  to 
Henley,  Barnet,  Hadley,  and  Friern  Barnet,  and  has 
abundant  views  of  objects  of  interest, — Egypt,  Part  X., 
with  a  series  of  striking  views  of  the  citadel  arid  the  interior 
of  Cairo, —  Our  Own  Country,  Part  XIII.,  dealing  with 
Durham,  Derbyshire,  down  the  Wye,  Derwent,  the  Menai 
Straits,  illustrated  by  views  of  Durham  Cathedral,  Car- 
narvon Castle,  Chatsworth,  &c., — Gleanings  from  Popular 
Authors,  Part  VI.,— and  CasseWs  History  of  India,  PartV. 

£ctfccj*  to  CorreslponUenW. 

We  must  call  special  attention  to  the  following  notices : 

ON  all  communications  must  be  written  the  name  and 
address  of  the  sender,  not  necessarily  for  publication,  but 
as  a  guarantee  of  good  faith. 

WE  cannot  undertake  to  answer  queries  privately. 

To  secure  insertion  of  communications  correspondents 
must  observe  the  following  rule.  Let  each  note,  query, 
or  reply  be  written  on  a  separate  slip  of  paper,  with  the 
signature  of  the  writer  and  such  address  as  he  wishes  to 
appear.  Correspondents  who  repeat  queries  are  requested 
to  head  the  second  communication  "  Duplicate." 

W.  A.  P.  ("Vox  populi,  vox  Dei").— The  origin  of 
this  phrase  is  uncertain.  It  was  used  by  Walter  Rey- 
nolds as  the  text  of  the  sermon  at  the  coronation  of 
Edward  III.,  and  is  spoken  of  as  a  proverb  by  William  of 
Malmesbury,  "  Recogitans  illud  proverbium,  Vox  populi, 
vox  Dei ?'  ('  De  Gestis  Pont.,'  1.  i.  f.  114,  ed.  Savile).  The 
phrase  is  quoted  in  the  '  Aphorismi  Politic!  ex  Ph.  Comi- 
neo,'  Lugd.  Bat.,  1639.  It  is  used  by  Eadmar  and  by  Alain, 
the  last  being  the  earliest  use  recorded.  Sir  W.  Hamilton, 
in  his  edition  of  Reid,  traces  it  dubiously  to  the  '  Works 
and  Days'  of  Hesiod,  "In  man  speaks  God."  See  also 
G.  Cornewall  Lewis,  'On  the  Influence  of  Authority  in 
Matters  of  Opinion ';  and  see f  N.  &  Q.,'  1st  S.  passim. 

REGINALD  BARMCOTT.— '  The  New  Timon,  a  Romance 
of  London,'  1846,  is  by  the  late  Lord  Lytton,  and  is  easily 
obtainable  in  many  forms. 

A.  F.  is  anxious  to  know  where  can  be  found  some  lines, 
incorrectly  quoted  by  her,  in  which  "cassowary"  rhymes 
to  "  missionary,"  and  "  hymn-book  too  "  to  "  Timbuctoo." 
She  also  asks  who  is  the  author. 

F.  A.  C.  ("Registers  of  Kirkburton  ").— Next  week. 


Editorial  Communications  should  be  addressed  to  "  The 
Editor  of  '  Notes  and  Queries '  " — Advertisements  and 
Business  Letters  to  "  The  Publisher  "—at  the  Office,  22, 
Took's  Court,  Cursitor  Street,  Chancery  Lane,  E.G. 

We  beg  leave  to  state  that  we  decline  to  return  com- 
munications which,  for  any  reason,  we  do  not  print  j  and 
to  this  rule  we  can  make  no  exception. 

I.  FEB.  13,  '86.] 




CONTENTS.-^  7. 

NOTES :— History  of  the  Thames,  121— 'New  State  of  Eng- 
land,' 123— Oriental  Sources  of  Chaucer,  124— Steele  and  the 
West  Indies— Entries  in  Eegister— Gallic  English— "Of  that 
ilk,"  126— Breton's  Book  of  Worthies,  127. 

QUERIES  :— Joseph  Gay— Birthplace  of  Dee— Elias  Ashmole 
— "  The  Twenty-fourth  Grain  " — Cantarela — Algernon  Sid- 
ney, 127— Sir  T.  Scott— Pearls -Pronunciation  of  Heron— 
S.  Wydown — St.  Tiracius — Nero  and  Heliogabalus— Twiggery 
—Meldrumsheugh  —  Forbes  of  Sheals  —  Author  Wanted— 
Inns  at  Oldham,  128— Marischal  College,  Aberdeen-W. 
Marshall— Surname  of  Pauli— Green  Grief  to  the  Grahams 
—Merry  weather -Latin  Grammar— Sir  W.  Curtoys— Last 
Duel  in  ED  gland— Authors  Wanted,  129. 

REPLIES  :— The  '  Decameron '  in  English,  130— Revised  Ver- 
sion of  the  Old  Testament,  131  —  Weathercocks— Bristol 
Pottery — Dunstanborough  Castle,  132— Terms  used  by  Tan- 
ners— Katherine,  Lady  Savage— Scottish  Religious  Houses— 
Ostreger  —  Manors  in  England,  133  — Absentee  Gentry— 
Kalendar — Cronebane  Halfpenny,  134  —  Hogmanay— John 
Stock-"  From  Bloom  till  Bloom,"  135— Anecdote  of  Person 
—Descendants  of  Dr.  H.  King— Sibley— "  Son  of  a  sea  coote" 
—Heraldic,  136  —  Woldiche  —  Lubbock— Porter  of  Calais- 
Lewis  Way— Deaths  in  1885— Conquer— Robinson  Cruso, 
137— Sir  W.  Raleigh  —  Epigram  by  Macaulay  —  Esquire— 
Authors  Wanted,  138. 

NOTES  ON  BOOKS  :— '  The  Lauderdale  Papers,'  Vol.  III.— 
•  Our  Parish'—'  Storia  Universal  di  Cesare  Cantu.', 

Notices  to  Correspondents,  &c. 



But  I  have  not  yet  done  with  ^Eachylus.  An- 
other fragment  of  *  Prometheus  Unbound '  contains 
a  reference  which  may  possibly  also  be  claimed  for 
our  island  : — 

Unto  a  people  next,  of  mortal  men 
Most  honest  and  most  kindly,  shalt  thou  come, 
Hight  Lifeless,  where  no  tiller  cleaves  the  glebe 
With  plough  nor  spade,  but  all  the  fields,  self-sown, 
Proffer  their  food  ungrudgingly  to  men.* 

The  name  of  the  people  which  I  have  translated 
"  Lifeless "  ("  Abioi ")  occurs  also  in  Homer,f 
where  it  has  sorely  exercised  the  righteous  souls 
of  Homeric  commentators,  ancient  and  modern. 
Some  opine  that  it  is  really  a  proper  name,  others 
regard  it  as  merely  an  epithet.  One  believes  that 
it  means  poor,  another  is  persuaded  it  means 
rich,  a  third  feels  confident  it  means  feeble,  a 
fourth  is  quite  certain  it  means  strong,  a  fifth  has 
no  hesitation  in  saying  it  means  long-lived,  a  sixth 
assures  us  that  it  means  destitute  of  any  organized 
social  system, while  a  seventh  congratulates  himself 
on  the  discovery  that  it  means  the  reverse  of  violent. 
No  word  of  a  meaning  so  obvious  was  ever  so 

ambiguous.  Not  a  single  one  of  all  the  mighty 
army  of  scholiasts  and  editors  and  annotators 
would  hesitate  for  a  moment  about  translating 
the  word  " lifeless"  if  only  it  had  occurred  in 
another  connexion.  But  "  lifeless  "  as  applied  to 
a  living  people  was  on  the  face  of  it  sheer  non- 
sense, and  how  could  the  divine  Homer  talk  non- 
sense ?  So,  Homer  being  infallible  and  the  plain 
meaning  out  of  the  question,  the  poor  word  has 
been  so  hunted  and  harried  and  badgered  and 
worried,  turned  upside  down  and  inside  out,  that 
at  last  its  best  friends  have  failed  to  recognize  it. 
Yet  that  it  is  rightly  translated  "  lifeless,"  and, 
further,  that  "  lifeless  "  is  a  half- religious,  half- 
sentimental,  wholly  Greek  euphemism  for  "dead," 
becomes  abundantly  clear  the  moment  we  are  able 
to  locate  this  "lifeless"  people  in  their  own  proper 
country.  Evidently  neither  ^Eschylus  nor  Homer 
regarded  them  in  the  light  of  mere  ghosts.  Homer 
classed  them  with  Thracians,  the  breeders  of 
horses,  and  Mysians,  the  fighters  hand  to  hand — 
with  the  drinkers  of  koumiss  and  nomads  with 
waggons  for  houses  in  the  steppes  of  Scythia. 
^Escbylus  seems  to  have  thought  of  them  as  a  folk 
dwelling  yet  further  beyond  the  haunts  of  articu- 
lately speaking  men,  far  away  to  the  West,  yet 
near  of  kin  to  the  pious  barbarians  whose  home 
was  at  the  back  of  the  north  wind,  nigh  that  "  an- 
cient kingdom  "  where  the 

Gryphon  through  the  wilderness 

With  winged  course  o'er  hill  or  moory  dale 

Pursues  the  Arimaspian. 

But  ghosts  I  take  them  to  have  been  originally. 
The  faith  which  placed  the  home  of  the  dead  in 
the  land  of  the  setting  sun  had  long  before  the 
days  of  Homer  peopled  the  Far  West  with  a  Life- 
less folk.  The  sinner,  the  slave,  and  the  plebeian 
went,  of  course,  to  the  underworld,  and  were 
gradually  extinguished  out  of  sight  of  the  sun  ; 
but  the  "just" — those,  at  least,  of  them  who  were 
of  noble  birth,  who  had  not  committed  perjury, 
or  who  had  married  a  relative  of  the  gods— went 
away  to  fields  Elysian  in  "the  immortal  ends 
of  all  the  earth," 

Where  Rhadamanthus  rules,  and  where  men  live 
A  never-troubled  life,  \vhere  snow  nor  showers 
Nor  irksome  winter  spends  his  fruitless  powers, 
But  from  the  ocean  Zephyr  still  resumes 
A  constant  breath  that  all  the  fields  perfumes.* 

Homer,  it  is  true,  sends  only  a  single  soul — that 
of  Menelaus— to  Elysium,  and  that  only  on  the 
score  of  his  having  married  Helen,  the  daughter 
of  Zeus ;  but  other  writers  and  other  races  were 
less  puritanically  exclusive,  and  the  belief  that 
all  the  souls  of  the  dead  went  away  to  a 
land  of  the  West  is  probably  older  and  more 
widely  spread  than  that  which  consigned  the 
immense  majority  to  the  underworld.  And  in  the 
earlier  stages  of  the  Aryan  progress  westward, 

*  JEsch.,  'Frag.,'  184. 

Chapman's  Homer, '  Od.,'  iv.  760. 



S.  I.  FEB.  13,  '86. 

while  there  yet  remained  a  broad  stretch  of  terra 
incognita  to  the  West  and  North,  the  advancing 
immigrants  could  hold  the  creed  without  encoun- 
tering any  practical  refutation  of  its  accuracy. 
It  was  not  until  the  advanced  guard  of  the  Aryan 
army — or  rather,  perhaps,  the  pioneers  of  Aryan 
commerce — began  to  bring  back  tidings  that  the 
land  supposed  to  be  peopled  by  the  dead  of  their 
own  race  was  in  reality  occupied  by  alien  bar- 
barians of  flesh  and  blood  that  any  difficulty  arose. 
It  was  capable,  however,  of  several  solutions.  One, 
perhaps  the  simplest, was  to  accept  the  inference  that 
the  actual  denizens  of  the  land  were  those  who  had 
all  along  been  supposed  to  dwell  there — the  dead, 
or,  as  Homer  and  ^Eschylus  prefer  to  call  them, 
the  Lifeless.  This,  as  I  read  it,  is  the  true  his- 
tory of  the  Abioi,  and  I  venture  to  think  that  if 
anything  worth  calling  a  science  of  mythology  had 
existed  in  the  days  of  the  Seven  Wise  Masters 
whose  interpretations  I  have  recorded,  not  one  of 
the  seven  interpretations  would  have  existed  to 

Another  solution  of  the  difficulty  entailed  by  ad- 
vancing geographical  knowledge  was  almost  equally 
obvious,  and  this  was  from  time  to  time  to  shift 
the  happy  hunting-grounds  of  the  dead  further  and 
further  to  the  West  and  North- West.  This  ex- 
pedient seems  also  to  have  been  freely  adopted, 
but  the  process  could  not  be  indefinitely  repeated, 
and  by  the  time  that  the  new-comers  had  reached 
the  westernmost  shores  and  islands  of  Europe  the 
difficulty  returned  in  a  form  to  which  the  earlier 
solutions  were  inapplicable.  It  was  no  longer 
possible  to  believe  that  the  Silent  Folk  still  dwelt 
visibly  in  valleys  from  which  the  invaders  had 
ousted  all  their  former  occupants,  or  along  the 
frequented  coasts  of  a  now  familiar  ocean. 

Nothing  remained,  therefore,  but  to  transfer 
the  spirits  of  the  dead  to  mansions  underground, 
or  in  the  depths  of  the  sea,  or  upper  regions  of  the 
air ;  or  else  to  make  them  invisible  as  well  as 
dumb,  so  that  their  presence  might  not  obtrude 
itself  on  the  every-day  life  of  the  actual  denizens  in 
the  land.  None  of  these  alternatives  presented 
any  obstacle  to  the  pathetic  faith  of  our  forefathers 
— indeed,  all  of  these  beliefs  had  long  taken  root 
among  some  or  other  of  the  populations  of  Europe. 
Lucan,  who,  in  his  '  Pharsalia,'  contrasts  the 
teaching  of  the  Gaulish  Druids  with  the  accepted 
creed  of  pre-Christian  Rome,  seems  to  think  that 
the  Druids  have  the  best  of  the  argument.  "  You," 
he  exclaims,  "  teach  us  that  our  departed  shades 
seek  not  the  silent  mansions  of  Erebus  and  the 
pale  realms  of  subterranean  Dis,  but  that  the  same 
soul  animates  their  limbs  in  another  world,  and 
that  death  is  intermediate  to  a  prolonged  life."* 
What  Lucan  may  have  meant  by  "another 
world  "  (orbe  olio)  has  been  much  debated.  Some 

*  Lucan, 'Phars./i.  447. 

think  he  refers  to  the  moon,  others  to  the  island 
of  Britain.*  There  is  much  to  be  said,  as  we  shall 
see  presently,  in  favour  of  both  suggestions. 
Meanwhile,  if  we  could  only  cross-examine  the 
Cordovan  poet  on  the  subject,  I  think  it  quite  as 
probable  as  not  that  we  should  get  the  answer 
Mrs.  Hemans  vouchsafes  to  the  inquisitive  little 
boy  who  asks  the  same  question  : — 

I  hear  thee  speak  of  a  Better  Land. 

Mother,  ah,  where  is  that  happy  strand  1 

Is  it  where  the  feathery  palm-trees  rise  ?  &c. 
To  which  the  ideal  mother  replies,  with  maternal 
intrepidity,  that  the  Better  Lind  is  nowhere  on 
earth,  but 

Beyond  the  world  and  beyond  the  sky, 
an  answer  quite  sufficiently  definite  for  its  imme- 
diate purpose. 

However  this  may  be,  the  local  names  and 
traditions  of  many  places  on  the  west  and  north- 
west coasts  of  Europe  prove  incontestably  that 
once  on  a  time  they  were  regarded  as  the  homes 
of  departed  spirits,  and  it  seems  likely  that  the 
seas  were  thought  to  be  quite  as  eligible  residences 
as  the  shores.  At  all  events,  in  the  case  of  the 
sea  known  to  the  Cimbri  as  Morimarusa,  the  Dead 
Sea  of  the  North,  the  name  suggests  that  Zeus 
Kronides,  who  once  made  a  home  for  the  souls  of 
heroes  beside  the  deep-eddying  ocean,  had  been 
evicted  from  the  land  and  taken  refuge  with  his 
ghostly  lieges  beneath  the  whirlpools.  Coming  to 
Northern  Britain,  Macpherson  can  tell  us  of  a 
boat  which  bears  the  souls  of  Oasianic  heroes  to 
Flaith-Innis,  the  green  island  home  of  the  de- 
parted, which  lies  calm  among  the  storms  of  the 
Western  Ocean.  Passing  thence  into  Brittany, 
the  dog  of  the  Cure  de  Brasparts  still  guides 
over  to  our  own  island  the  rickety  old  car  the 
wheels  of  which  may  at  times  be  heard  creaking 
in  the  air  with  the  weight  of  departed  Breton 

Southward  again,  in  Gallicia,  is  the  river  Lethe, 
or  Oblivion,  which,  as  Livy  tells  us,  the  Roman 
soldiers  were  afraid  to  pass  till  Decimus  Brutus 
snatched  the  eagle  from  the  standard-bearer  and 
led  the  way  in  person.  Yet  further  south,  again, 
are  the  Canaries,  in  which  later  ages  have  appa- 
rently decided  to  recognize  the  real  Fortunate  Isles 
of  the  blessed  dead,  the  Hesperides  which  were  the 
Earthly  Paradise  of  the  classic  world,  t 

{To  be  continued.) 

*  For  alter  orbis  as  applied  to  Britain,  •».  Solinus, 
c.  xxv.;  Claudian,  '  De  Cons.  Stil.,'  iii.  149;  Floras, 
1.  3,  &c. 

f  Cf.  Baring-Gould,  '  Curious  Myths  of  the  Middle 
Ages,'  "  The  Terrestrial  Paradise  "  and  "  The  Fortunate 
Islands,"  with  the  marvellous  collection  of  references  to 
this  subject  in  Tylor,  'Primitive  Culture.'  vol.  ii.  c.  13. 
For  Morimarusa  and  the  Cronian  Sea,  Pliny,  '  N.  H.,' 
iv.  27,  30.  River  Lethe,  Smith, '  Diet.  Geog.,'  *.  v.  "  Gal- 
Uecia."  Cf.  De  Villemarque, '  Barz  Breiz,'  i.  193,  &c. 

7'h  S.  I.  FEB.  13,  '86.] 



au  de  la  France  dans  sa  perfection,  contenant 
les  particularitez  de  1'Histoire,  &  le  rang 

'THE  NEW  STATE  OP  ENGLAND,'  1691-1707, 

In  the  first  edition  of  Edward  Chamber-lay ne's 
'  Angliae  Notitia,'  London,  1669,  the  author 
observes,  in  his  Address  to  the  Reader,  that  the 
work  "  will  shortly  be  translated  into  the  French 
Tongue  ;  whereby  may  be  extinguisht  in  some 
measure  the  Thirst  which  Forreigners  generally 
have  to  know  the  Present  State  of  this  Considerable 
Monarchy."  I  would,  however,  point  out  that 
the  scheme  of  Chamberlayne's  book  was  neither 
original  nor  indeed  new  to  French  readers  ;  the 
idea  of  the  English  work  having  been  in  all 
probability  suggested  by  the  publication  of  "L'Estat 

que  tiennent  les  Princes,  Dues,  &  Pairs,  &  Officiers 
de  la  Couronne.  Ensemble  1'Estat  des  Maisons 
Royales,  Gages,  Privileges,  Prerogatives,  &  Exemp- 
tions des  Officiers  comme  en  Caux  de  leurs  Majestez. 
Le  tout  reveu,  corrige,  augment^  &  mis  dans 
un  Meilleur  Ordre  que  les  autres  Editions  qui 
ont  este"  imprimis  jusques  a  present.  Enrichy 
de  nouvelles  Figures,  &  de  tous  les  Blazons  des 
Officiers  de  la  Couronne.  A  Paris,  chez  Jean 
Baptiste  Loyson,  rue  Saint  Jacques  a  la  croix 
Royale  proche  la  Poste.  MDCLXI.  avec  Privilege 
du  Roy."  Though  this  appears  from  the  word- 
ing of  the  title  not  to  have  been  the  first  year 
of  publication,  I  have  not  met  with  an  earlier 
edition.  The  preface  mentions  a  rival  work,  called 
the  '  Vray  Estat,'  of  which  I  have  not  seen  a  copy. 
There  is,  then,  every  reason  to  believe  that  the 
English  Chamberlayne  (first  published  in  1669) 
was  founded  upon  the  lines  of  one  or  other  of  these 
French  works,  though  the  English  compiler  some- 
what ungenerously  ascribesevery  bad  habit  orcustom 
unworthy  of  imitation  to  "our  neighbours  the 
French,"  the  fact  that  the  idea  of  a  comprehen- 
sive view  of  the  state  of  England  was  itself  borrowed 
being  carefully  suppressed  in  tfce  preface  to  the 
various  editions  of  the  English  series.  Indeed, 
from  the  pages  of  Chamberlayne  we  are  given  to 
understand  that  no  good  thing  can  come  out  of 
France,  and  constantly  reminded  that  England 
is  the  model  community  from  which  all  other 
nations  derive  their  most  valued  institution?. 

In  1669  a  free  translation  of  the  second  edition 
of  Chamberlayne  was  published  at  Amsterdam 
under  the  title  of  '"L'Estat  Present  deL'Angleterre, 
Avec  plusieurs  reflexions  sur  son  ancient  Estat '; 
Traduit  de  1'Anglois  D'Ediiard  Chamberlayne  de 
la  Societe  Royale.  A.  Amsterdam  Chez  Jean  Blaeu 
MDCLXIX."  The  success  of  the  English  publication 
led  to  three  editions  of  Chamberlayne's  work 
appearing  in  the  same  year  (1669),  a  fact  which 
has  been  already  commented  on  in  the  columns  of 

4N.  &  Q.'  Lowndes,  in  ascribing  the  first  edition 
to  1667,  probably  fell  into  this  error  from  seeing  a 
copy  of  the  third  edition  bearing  the  date  1669. 

Though  but  little  variation  occurs  in  the  text  of 
the  second  and  third  editions,  a  few  slight  altera- 
tions may  be  noted,  in  order  to  show  clearly  that 
the  French  translation  was  taken  from  the  second, 
and  not  from  the  third  issue  of  the  English 
version.  At  p.  261  of  both  English  editions 
considerable  discrepancies  occur  in  the  description 
of  the  Kings  at  Arms,  the  names  of  the  Masters  of 
Requests  are  inserted  in  different  order,  and  at 
p.  412  of  the  second  edition,  the  last  of  the  barons' 
names  is  given  as  "  Thomas  Butler,  Lord  Butler 
of  More  park,"  and  in  the  third  edition,  also  at 
p.  412,  as  "Henry  Howard,  Lord  Howard  of 
Castle-Rising."  The  French  translation  follows 
the  second  edition.  I  only  note  these  variations 
here  to  illustrate  their  bearing  on  the  Amsterdam 
translation,  though  in  treating  at  full  length  of  the 
bibliography  of  the  whole  series  of  Chamberlayne 
it  will  be  necessary  to  refer  to  them  again.  At 
present  I  am  only  concerned  with  the  kindred 
publications  and  rivals  which  the  *  Present  State 
of  England '  called  into  existence,  and  I  shall  be 
deeply  grateful  to  any  reader  of  '  N.  &  Q.;  who 
may  favour  me  with  any  corrections  and  additions 
to  my  catalogue  of  these  books,  more  especially 
with  reference  to  Guy  Miege's  *  New  State,'  of 
which  the  series  preserved  in  the  British  Museum 
is  far  from  complete. 

In  1682  a  small  12mo.  volume  was  published, 
called  "  '  Scotiae  Indiculum  ;  or,  the  Present  State 
of  Scotland.'  Together  with  divers  Reflections 
upon  the  Antient  State  thereof.  By  A.  M. 
Philopatris.  In  Magnis  Voluisse  sat  est.  London, 
Printed  for  Jonathan  Wilkins  at  the  Star  in 
Cheapside  next  Mercer's  Chappel.  1682."  In  1683 
an  independent  and  supplementary  volume  to  Cham- 
berlayne's work  appeared  under  the  title  of  "  The 
third  part  of  the  'Present  State  of  England,'  wherein 
is  set  forth  the  Riches,  Strength,  Magnificence, 
Natural  Production,  Manufactures  Wonders  and 
Rarities,  Progress  of  Learning,  Arts  and  Ingenuities, 
etc.,  with  a  more  perfect  and  Methodical  Catalogue 
of  the  Nobility,  with  their  Seats,  than  any  hitherto 
extant.  London,  Printed  for  William  Whitwood 
next  the  George  Inn  in  Little  Britain.  1683."  I 
have  not  been  able  to  discover  any  reissue  of  this 
additional  volume. 

After  sixteen  editions  had  been  issued  by  Edward 
Chamberlayne,  there  appeared,  in  1691,  a  new 
competitor  for  public  favour,  entitled  " '  The  New 
State  of  England  under  their  Majesties  K.  William 
andQ.  Mary.'  In  Three  Parts.  Containing:  I.  A 
Geographical  Description  of  England  in  General, 
and  of  Every  County  in  Particular  ;  with  usefull 
and  Curious  Remarks.  II.  An  Account  of  the 
Inhabitants,  their  Original,  Genius,  Customs, 
Laws,  Religion,  and  Government ;  of  their  Present 



I.  FEB.  13,  '86. 

Majesties,  their  Court,  Power,  Kevenues,  etc 
III.  A  Description  of  the  several  Courts  of  Judica 
ture  ;  viz.,  the  High  Court  of  Parliament,  Privy 
Council,  and  all  other  Courts  ;  with  a  Catalogue 
of  the  Present  Officers  in  Church  and  State, 
By  G.  M.  London  :  Printed  by  H.  C.  for  John 
Wyat,  at  the  Golden  Lion  in  St.  Paul's  Church- 
yard, 1691."  This,  the  first  edition  of  Guy  Miege's 
*  New  State  of  England/  contains  a  frontispiece, 
representing  Britannia  seated,  attended  by  King 
William  and  Queen  Mary,  inscribed  "I.  Sturt 
Sculp  in  ye  Old  Change."  The  work  is  dedicated 
"  to  the  most  Honourable  Thomas  Marquess  of 
Caermarthen  Earl  of  Danby,  Viscount  Latimer, 
Baron  Osborn  of  Kiveton,  Lord  President  of  his 
Majesties  most  Honourable  Privy  Council  and 
knight  of  the  Most  Noble  Order  of  the  Garter." 

The  Earl  of  Danby  had  previously  accepted  the 
dedication  of  the  ninth  edition  of  Chamberlayne's 
'Anglise  Notitia,'  published  in  1676.  The  first 
edition  of  the  '  New  State  of  England '  contains 
357  pages  in  the  first,  269  in  the  second,  and  240 
in  the  third  part ;  with  a  separate  title  to  each 
part  dated  1691.  The  preface  announces  that 
"  Tis  the  late  Eevolution  that  has  given  birth  to 
this  new  Piece  of  Work ;  a  new  Face  of  Things 
required  a  New  State  of  England,"  and  the  author 
acknowledges  his  indebtedness  to  "  that  Ingenious 
Piece  De  Eepublica  Anglorum,  written  in  Latin  by 
Sir  Thomas  Smith." 

A  more  detailed  account  of  England  and  the 
principal  towns  is  given  in  the  '  New  State '  than 
in  the  former  editions  of  Chamberlayne,  but  the 
arrangement  of  subjects  is  inferior  to  that  of  the 
older  publication,  and  the  catalogue  of  officers, 
&c.,  less  full  and  more  incorrect.  However,  the 
new  venture  would  appear  to  have  met  with 
considerable  success,  as  a  second  edition,  "  with 
great  Improvements  and  Alterations,"  was  brought 
out  in  1693.  In  the  Address  to  the  Eeader  the 
compiler  states  that  "near  two  thousand  "  of  the 
first  impression  were  sold  in  a  year's  time.  In 
the  same  year  as  the  '  New  State '  first  appeared 
an  opportunity  was  afforded  to  readers  of  this  class 
of  work  of  comparing  the  state  of  France  and  the 
constitution  of  the  French  Court  with  that  of  this 
country,  by  the  appearance  of  " '  Galliae  Notitia  ; 
or,  the  Present  State  of  France.'  Containing  a 
General  Description  of  that  Kingdom.  Translated 
from  the  last  edition  of  the  French.  Enriched 
with  Additional  Observations  and  Remarks  of  the 
New  Compiler,  and  digested  into  a  Method  Con- 
formable to  that  of  the  Present  State  of  England. 
By  E  W.,  M.  A.  London :  Printed,  and  are  to  be 
Sold  by  John  Taylor,  at  the  Ship  in  St.  Paul's 
Church-yard,  1691." 

My  copy  of  this  curious  little  book  appears  to 
have  had  a  frontispiece,  now  unfortunately  wanting. 
The  author's  name  is  given  in  an  "  Epistle  Dedica- 
tory" as  E.  Wolley,  who  it  would  seem  had 

obtained  some  appointment  in  France  through  the 
instrumentality  of  his  patron,  Eichard,  Lord 

There  appears  to  have  been  a  reissue  of  the  second 
edition  of  Miege's  '  New  State,'  some  copies  being 
reprinted  in  1694,  but,  wilh  the  exception  of  the 
altered  date  on  the  title-page,  no  corrections  seem 
to  have  been  made.  In  both  issues,  1693  and 
1694,  there  is  on  the  last  page,  after  the  table  of 
contents,  an  "  Advertisement "  relating  to  certain 
errors  in  the  printing,  and  in  both  a  gap  occurs 
from  p.  366  to  385  in  part  iii.  The  dedication  of 
the  second  edition  is  to  "  Sir  John  Trenchard,  Kt., 
Principal  Secretary  of  State."  It  contains  280 
pages  in  the  first  and  499  pages  in  the  second  and 
third  parts,  but  the  several  parts  have  not  separate 
title-pages,  as  in  the  first  edition.  The  third 
edition  bears  date  1699,  and  the  fourth  1701  (and 
in  some  copies  1702).  The  fifth  edition  was  issued 
in  1703,  and  contained  600  pages.  The  dedication 
was  accepted  by  the  Eight  Hon.  Charles,  Earl  of 
Carlisle.  The  sixth  edition  (the  last  bearing  the 
title  'New  State,'  &c.)  was  not  brought  out  till  1707, 
when  it  appeared  "  with  great  Alterations,  Addi- 
tions and  Improvements."  It  was  dedicated  to 
"  E*  Honble  William  Cowper  Esq.,  Lord  Keeper  of 
the  Great  Seal  of  England,  etc."  With  this  issue 
terminated  the  first  series  of  Guy  Miege's  work. 
Tower  Hill,  Ascot,  Berks. 

(7*o  be  continued.) 



(Continued  from  6'h  S.  xii.  509.) 
I  now  present  a  version  current  orally  among 
;he  people  of  Kashmir,  slightly  condensed  from 
Vtr.    Knowles's  useful   'Dictionary  of  Kashmiri 
Proverbs,'  a  work  which  should  be  in  the  posses- 
sion of  all  students  of  comparative  folk-lore  : 

Four  men  left  Kashmir  together  to  seek  their 
'or tunes.  On  the  way  it  came  to  pass  that  Allah, 
according  to  his  power  and  wisdom,  caused  a  large 
golden  tree  to  spring  up  suddenly,  and  to  bring 
'orth  rich  clusters  of  golden  fruit.  Seeing  this, 
.he  travellers  were  astonished,  and  at  once  resolved 
x>  proceed  no  further,  but  to  take  the  tree  home 
with  them  and  be  glad  for  ever.  In  order  to  fell 
he  tree  and  cut  it  up  into  pieces  of  convenient 
ize,  it  was  arranged  that  two  of  the  party  should 
go  to  the  nearest  village  and  procure  saws  and 
axes,  while  the  other  two  should  remain  to  guard 
he  precious  treasure  ;  and  they  went  accordingly. 
?he  other  two  who  were  left  to  watch  the  tree 
>egan  meanwhile  to  take  counsel  together  how 
ihey  might  kill  their  partners,  and  they  resolved 
o  mix  poison  with  their  bread,  which  when  they 
,te  thereof  they  would  die,  and  a  double  share  of 

7*8. 1.  FEB.  13, '86.] 



the  treasure  would  then  fall  to  themselves.  And 
ao  they  put  poison  in  part  of  the  bread.  But  the 
other  two  who  were  going  for  the  tools  also  plotted 
together  that  they  might  get  rid  of  their  partners 
left  behind  by  the  tree,  and  they  determined  to 
slay  them  with  a  stroke  of  the  axe,  and  thus  have 
a  double  share  of  the  treasure.  And  when  they 
returned  from  the  village  they  immediately  slew 
both  with  a  single  blow  of  the  axe.  Then  they 
began  to  cut  off  the  branches  of  the  golden  tree 
and  made  them  into  bundles  for  carrying  away, 
after  which  they  sat  down  to  eat.  And  they  ate 
of  the  poisoned  bread,  and  slept  the  sleep  of  death. 
Some  time  afterwards  a  party  of  travellers  passing 
that  way  found  the  four  bodies  stretched  still  and 
cold  beneath  the  golden  tree.* 

A  third  Arabian  version,  referred  to  in  the 
postscript  to  my  last  paper,  will  remind  some 
readers  of  that  interesting  class  of  European  folk- 
tales in  which  Jesus  and  St.  Peter  figure  so  pro- 
minently. Muslims,  it  is  perhaps  needless  to  say, 
while  they  deny  the  divine  nature  of  Christ,  yet 
regard  him  with  great  reverence  as  the  "  Word  of 
God,"  as  they  term  Abraham  the  "Friend  of 
God,"  and  Muhammad  the  "Beloved  of  God." 
Our  story  is  found,  with  some  curious  additions, 
in  *  An  Account  of  the  Virgin  Mary  and  Jesus  as 
given  by  Arabic  Writers,'  contributed  to  the 
Orientalist  for  February,  1884  (an  excellent 
periodical,  published  at  Kandy,  more  especially 
devoted  to  the  folk-lore  of  Ceylon),  by  Muhammad 
Casim  Siddhi  Lebbe: 

Jesus,  accompanied  by  a  Jew,  proposed  that 
they  should  put  their  loaves  together  and  make 
common  property  of  the  food  they  carried.  It 
was  found  when  this  was  being  done  that  Jesus 
had  but  one  loaf,  while  the  Jew  had  two  loaves.  In 
the  absence  of  Jesus  (to  perform  his  devotions)  the 
Jew  ate  one  of  the  loaves,  and  persistently  denied 
the  fact,  asserting  there  were  originally  but  two 
loaves.  After  Jesus  had  performed  a  number  of 
miracles,  each  time  conjuring  the  Jew  to  declare 
who  ate  the  loaf  and  the  Jew  persisting  in  his 
falsehood,  the  narrative  thus  proceeds: — 

They  came  to  a  lonely  place,  where  Jesus  made 
three  heaps  of  earth,  and  by  his  word  turned 
them  into  three  blocks  of  solid  gold.  He  then 
said  to  the  Jew,  "  Of  these  three  blocks,  one 
is  for  me,  one  for  you,  and  the  other  for 
the  man  who  ate  the  loaf."  The  Jew  instantly 
exclaimed,  "It  was  I  that  ate  the  loaf,  therefore 
I  claim  the  two  block?."  Jesus  gently  reproved 
him  for  persistently  adhering  to  a  falsehood,  and 
making  over  to  him  all  three  blocks,  left  him  and 
went  away.  The  Jew  then  endeavoured  to  take 

*  '  A  Dictionary  of  Kashmiri  Proverbs  and  Sayings.' 
Explained  and  illustrated  from  the  rich  and  interesting 
folk-lore  of  the  Valley.  By  J.  Hinton  Knowles.  Bom- 
bay, 1885.  Pp.  45,  46. 

up  the  blocks  of  gold,  but  found  them  too  heavy 
to  be  moved.  While  he  was  thus  wasting  his 
strength  Jesus  returned,  and  said  to  him,  "  Have 
nothing  to  do  with  these  heaps  of  gold  ;  they  will 
cause  the  death  of  three  men.  Leave  them  and 
follow  me."  The  man  obeyed,  and  leaving  the 
gold  where  it  lay,  went  away  with  Jesus. 

Three  travellers  happened  to  pass  thnt  way,  and 
were  delighted  to  discover  the  gold.  They  agreed 
that  each  should  take  one  of  the  blocks.  Finding 
it,  however,  impossible  to  remove  them,  they 
arranged  that  one  of  them  should  go  to  the  city 
for  carts,  and  food  for  them  to  eat,  whilst  the  two 
others  should  watch  the  treasure.  So  one  of  the 
travellers  set  out  for  the  city,  leaving  his  two  com- 
rades to  guard  the  gold.  During  his  absence  the 
thoughts  of  those  two  were  engaged  in  projecting 
some  means  whereby  they  should  become  posses- 
sors of  the  whole  treasure,  and  finally  they  resolved 
to  kill  their  companion  on  his  return  from  the 
city.  The  like  diabolical  design  had  seized  the 
mind  of  the  latter  in  reference  to  his  two  com- 
rades. He  bought  food  and  mixed  poison  with  it, 
and  then  returned  to  offer  it  to  them.  No  sooner 
had  he  arrived  than,  without  a  word  of  warning, 
his  comrades  fell  upon  him  and  belaboured  him 
to  death.  This  foul  deed  done,  they  began  to 
eat  the  food  which  was  in  its  turn  to  de- 
stroy them,  and  as  they  were  partaking  of  the 
poisoned  repast  they  fell  down  and  expired  in 
great  agony. 

Soon  after  this  Jesus  and  the  Jew  were  return- 
ing from  their  journey  along  that  road,  and  seeing 
the  three  men  lying  dead  beside  the  gold,  Jesus 
exclaimed,  "  Such  will  ever  be  the  end  of  the 
covetous  who  love  gold  ! "  He  then  raised  the 
three  men  to  life,  and  elicited  from  them  a  con- 
fession of  their  guilt.  They  repented,  and  thence- 
forward became  disciples  of  Jesus.  Nothing, 
however,  could  make  the  Jew  overcome  his 
avarice.  He  persisted  in  his  desire  to  become 
the  possessor  of  the  gold  ;  but  whilst  he  was 
struggling  to  carry  away  the  blocks,  the  earth 
opened  and  swallowed  him  up  and  the  gold  along 
with  him.* 

It  will  be  observed  that  the  first  of  the  three 
Arabian  versions  corresponds  exactly  with  Chau- 
cer's, while  the  second  agrees  with  the  Buddhist 
original  (cited  in  my  first  paper,  'N.  &  Q.,'  6th  S. 
xii.  422)  in  there  being  but  two  thieves,  but 
otherwise  it  is  much  corrupted.  In  the  Kashmiri 
version  the  number  of  men  is  doubled,  and  the 
devices  adopted  for  each  other's  slaughter  are 
reversed,  those  left  behind  to  guard  the  treasure 
employing  poison,  and  those  sent  to  the  village 
killing  their  comrades  with  an  axe.  The  third 
Arabian  version,  from  which  the  first  (in  the 
Breslau  printed  text  of  the  *  Nights  ')  seems  to 

*  The  Orientalist,  rol.  i.  p.  47. 



[7*  S.  I.  FEE,  13,  »8«. 

have  been  derived,  is  also  identical  with  Chaucer's 
story  in  the  principal  details. 

233,  Cambridge  Street,  Glasgow. 

(.To  be  continued.) 

STEELS  AND  THE  WEST  INDIES. — In  an  in- 
teresting article  which  appeared  recently  in  the 
West  Indian  Quarterly  (vol.  i.  part  iii.,  Demerara, 
1885),  Mr.  Darnell  Davis  annotates  very  freshly 
some  of  '  The  Spectator's  Essays  relating  to  the 
West  Indies.'  Unfortunately,  Mr.  Davis  is  unable 
to  identify  Steele's  first  wife,  who  was  a  native  of 
Barbadoes,  and  who  left  him  an  estate  in  that 
island;  and  he  makes  an  urgent  appeal  to  the 
"scholarly  sons  of  that  colony"  to  search  its 
records  for  traces  of  Steele  as  an  absentee  pro- 
prietor, and  of  his  wife's  family. 

Many  of  your  readers  must  have  lately  refreshed 
their  acquaintance  with  Steele  by  the  aid  of  Mr. 
Austin  Dobson's  charming  *  Selections/  and  will 
remember  the  '  History  of  Brunetta  and  Phillis,' 
therein  reprinted  from  No.  80  of  the  Spectator. 
Mr.  Dobson,  in  his  notes,  quotes  what  at  first  sight 
seems  to  be  a  happy  suggestion  of  Mr.  H.  B. 
Wheatley,  that  Steele  may  have  borrowed  the 
idea  of  making  Brunetta  dress  her  servant  in  the 
remnant  of  her  rival's  brocade,  "  from  the  course 
taken  by  Lewis  XIV.  when  Charles  II.,  in  order 
to  abolish  French  fashions,  invented  the  so-called 
'  Persian  habit.'"  But  Mr.  Davies  points  out  what 
was  almost  certainly  the  source  of  Steele's  story, 
brocade  and  all.  He  finds  it  among  the  Sloane 
MSS.  2302,  in  the  British  Museum,  in  a  letter 
written  by 

"  Captain  Walduck,  a  resident  for  fourteen  years  in 
Barbadoes,  and  addressed  to  *  Mr.  James  Petiver,  Apothe- 
cary to  the  Chartreux,'  and  Fellow  of  the  Royal  Society 
in  Alderggate  Street,  London.  Here  is  Captain  Wai- 
duck's  own  account  of  the  incident : — 

" '  I  must  add  one  piece  of  folly  more  that  I  knew  and 
advised  in.  There  are  two  gentlewomen  in  this  Island 
of  the  best  rank  that  have  ever  endeavoured  to  outvie 
one  ye  other,  as  well  in  housekeeping  as  in  housewifery, 
and  above  all  in  making  a  figure  in  this  little  world.  One 
of  these  ladies  bought  her  a  charming  matito  and  petti- 
coat of  bragade  silk ;  the  richest  that  ever  came  to  this 
Island.  This  she  appeared  at  a  ball  in,  where  the  other 
lady  was,  with  such  a  porte  and  air  that  increased  envy 
in  ye  other  lady.  The  emulator  went  all  over  the  Town 
and  to  every  shop  to  furnish  herself  with  as  good  a  silk, 
but  the  country  could  not  afford  such  another  or  come 
anything  near  it,  but  this  lady  learning  where  the  other 
lady  bought  her  silk,  went  there  where  there  was  a  rem- 
nant left  of  pome  yards,  which  she  bought  with  the  same 
trimming  that  the  other  lady  had,  and  with  this  she 
privately  made  a  petticoat  for  her  negro  woman  that 
waited  on  her,  and  contrived  an  entertainment  for  the 
other  la<ly  to  appear  at  in  all  her  glory,  where  she  like- 
wise  cttrne,  waited  upon  by  her  negro  woman  with  this 
petticoat,  on  which  when  ye  other  lady  saw  she  fell  into 
a  fit,  went  home  and  unrobed  herself,  arid  has  appeared 
in  Norwich  stuffs  ever  since.'  " 

Steele  probably  made  Petiver's  acquaintance  at 

the  Charterhouse,  and  in  after  years,  when  a  Bar- 
badoes proprietor,  may  have  helped  Petiver  with 
his  natural  history  collections,  which  are  now, 
through  Sir  Hans  Sloane,  in  the  British  Museum. 
It  is  not  difficult,  therefore,  to  understand  how 
Steele  may  have  heard  the  story  of  the  rival  Bar- 
badians which  he  has  worked  up  so  charmingly. 

In  another  of  Steele's  Spectator  papers,  *  On 
giving  False  Characters  to  Servants'  (No.  493, 
also  reprinted  by  Mr.  Dobson)  he  illustrates  the 
danger  of  such  practices  by  relating  how  a  certain 
unpopular  West  Indian  acting-governor  was  bribed 
to  retire  by  his  colonists  granting  him  a  flattering 
testimonial,  and  how  this  testimonial  enabled  him 
to  obtain  a  "pucka"  appointment  to  the  same 
colony.  Mr.  Davis  thinks  Steele  had  in  his  mind 
Sir  Eichard  Dutton,  twice  Governor  of  Barbadoes 
(c.  1683),  whose  fortunes  tally  pretty  well  with  the 
circumstances  narrated  in  the  Spectator. 

In  his  essay  *  On  the  Little  Arts  of  making  In- 
terest with  Men  in  Power,'  Steele  says  the  Bar- 
badians, "  a  shrewd  people,  manage  all  their  ap- 
peals to  Great  Britain  by  a  skilful  distribution  of 
citron  water  among  the  whisperers  about  men  in 
power."  In  a  note  on  this  long-vanished  liqueur 
Mr.  Davis  quotes  Oldmixon  (without  reference)  as 
saying  that  Addison  after  his  marriage  drowned 
his  sorrows  in  citron  water — or,  as  he  calls  it,  "  eau 
de  Barbade  "—and  "  it  was  thought  the  frequent 
use  of  it  destroyed  his  life."  The  story  of  the 
un happiness  of  Addison's  marriage  and  his 
consequent  intemperance  is  as  familiar  as  it  is 
doubtful ;  but  I  do  not  remember  to  have  seen 
Oldmixon  quoted  in  support  of  it ;  nor  do  I  re- 
member any  "historical  character"  except  the 
lamented  George  IV.  being  accused  of  taking  his 
liqueurs  "  in  a  moog."  J.  D.  C. 

Albert  Hall  Mansions,  S.W. 

ENTRIES  IN  EEGISTER.— In  the  burial  register 
of  St.  Dunstan's,  Canterbury,  the  following  entries 
occur  side  by  side  :  "  Thomas  Bankes,  kild  his 
wife  bur  January  the  20th  1657."  "Dorothy 
Menuill  for  burneing  hir  child  bur  the  20th 
January,  1657."  The  burial  of  the  victims  is  not 
entered.  J.  M.  COWPER. 


GALLIC  ENGLISH.— On  previous  occasions  you 
have  permitted  me  to  record  some  curious  mis- 
prints. The  following,  from  the  catalogue  of 
M.  A.  Durel,  of  Paris,  seems  worthy  to  keep  them 
company  : — 

"The  Ktepsake  por  1840.  edited  by  The  Ladu  E. 
Stuart  Woshoy,  London,  1841.  gr.  in-8,  v.  rouge  12 
figures  sur  acier." 


24,  Victoria  Grove,  Chelsea. 

"  OF  THAT  ILK." — In  p.  74  your  correspondent 
rrom  Philadelphia  uses  this  phrase,  but  wrongly. 
The  true  meaning  is,  as  given  by  Jamieson,  "  de- 

7<h  8. 1.  FEB.  13,  '86.] 



noting  that  he  who  is  thus  designed  has  a  title 
the  same  with  his  surname."  Douglas  of  Douglas 
is  Douglas  of  that  ilk. 


In  the  bright  and  interesting  collectanea  which  Mr. 
Andrew  Lang  contributes  to  the  February  number 
of  Longman's  Magazine,  under  the  title  of  'At  the 
Sign  of  the  Ship/  he  confesses  to  some  misgivings 
as  to  whether  he  has  justly  named  the  new  series 
of  biographies  which  he  is  editing  a  series  of 
English  worthies.  He  admits  that  not  all  those  to 
whom  he  has  given  a  place  were  "  worthy  "  or 
"  worthies"  in  a  strictly  moral  sense.  To  justify 
his  choice  of  title  he  appeals  to  Nicholas  Breton, 
a  too-long  neglected  poet  and  pamphleteer,  and 
credits  Breton  with  having  used  the  word  "  worthy  " 
in  a  neutral  sense,  which  embraces  men  of  both 
good  and  bad  moral  character.  Nicholas  Breton 
(Mr.  Lang  tells  us,  on  the  authority  of  Messrs. 
Robson  and  Kerslake's  catalogue),  published  in 
1643  'England's  selected  Characters,  describing 
the  good  and  bad  worthies  of  the  Age,  &c.'  But, 
as  a  matter  of  fact,  Breton  did  nothing  of  the  sort. 
By  1643  he  had  lain  in  his  grave  for  some  seventeen 
years,  and  in  1616  he  had  issued  the  same  book 
under  a  very  different  title.  He  christened  it 
'  The  Good  and  the  Badde,  a  Description  of  the 
Worthies  and  Unworthies  of  the  Age.'  Only  the 
bookseller,  therefore,  who  was  responsible  for  the 
1643  reprint,  and  not  Breton  himself,  used  the 
word  "  worthy  "  in  a  neutral  sense.  Probably 
Fuller's  *  Worthies  '  gives  the  title  of  Mr.  Lang's 
series  all  the  justification  of  which  it  stands  in 
need.  S.  L,  L. 

We  must  request  correspondents  desiring  information 
on  family  matters  of  only  private  interest,  to  affix  their 
names  and  addresses  to  their  queries,  in  order  that  the 
answers  may  be  addressed  to  them  direct. 

JOSEPH  GAY.  —  I  have  a  copy  of  a  work  entitled 
"  '  The  Petticoat  :  an  Heroi-Comical  Poem.'  In 
Two  Books.  By  Mr.  Gay.  The  Second  Edition 
Corrected."  The  dedication  to  this  work,  "  To  the 
Ladies,"  bears  the  signature  "Joseph  Gay."  In 
the  course  of  making  a  collection  of  the  works  of 
John  Gay,  of  Barnstaple,  author  of  '  The  Beggar's 
Opera/  'Fables/  &c.,  I  stumbled  on  this  work, 
and  at  first  sight  took  it  for  granted  that  it  was 
an  undescribed  work  by  John  Gay,  especially  as 
the  title-page  was  an  almost  exact  counterpart  of 
other  plays  of  the  same  writer.  But  as  I  could 
nowhere  find  a  trace  of  the  work  in  the  list  of 
Gay's  writings  in  the  British  Museum  Catalogue, 
in  Lowndes,  or  elsewhere,  I  thought  that  further 
search  was  necessary.  But  on  further  reference  to 
Lowndes,  I  discovered  the  name  of  "  Joseph  Gay  " 
as  the  assumed  name  of  Capt.  John  Durant 

Breval,  who  wrote  'The  Confederates'  (1717), 
<  Progress  of  a  Rake  '  (1733),  '  The  Lure  of  Venus ' 
[1733).  But,  singularly  enough,  there  is  no  men- 
tion of  '  The  Petticoat/  my  copy  of  which  is  dated 
1716.  Can  any  of  your  readers  tell  me  who  this 
)apt.  Breval  ("  Joseph  Gay  ")  was,  and  under  what 
circumstances  the  "  heroi-comical  poem"  'The 
Petticoat'  was  produced  ? 

W.  H.  K.  WRIGHT,  F.K.H.S. 
Public  Library,  Plymouth. 

DR.  JOHN  DEE'S  BIRTHPLACE. — It  seems  un- 
certain where  this  noted  astrologer  was  born.  In 
Dugdale's  '  England  and  Wales  '  the  place  of  birth 
of  Dr.  John  Dee  is  stated  to  be  the  town  of  Upton- 
upon-Severn,  in  Worcestershire,  whilst  at  p.  164 
of  the  '  History  of  Radnorshire/  by  the  late  Rev. 
Jonathan  Williams,  M.A.,  Dr.  Dee  is  stated  to 
have  been  born  in  the  parish  of  Bugaildu,  near 
Knighton,  in  Radnorshire.  Wood,  in  the  'Athense 
Oxonienses/^merely  says  Dr.  Dee's  father  was 
Rowland  Dee,  who  was  descended  from  the  Dees 
of  Nanty  Groes,  in  Radnorshire.  Dr.  Dee  died  at 
Mortlake  in  1608.  HUBERT  SMITH. 

is  the  meaning  of  "  christened  "  in  the  following 
entries,  copied  from  the  'Diary  of  Elias  Ash- 
mole  '  1— 

"  1645,  Sept.  14tb._I  christened  Mr  Fox  his  son  at 
Oxford  4  P.M."— P.  12. 

"  1661,  July  12th.— [  christened  Mr  Buttler  the  Gold- 
smith's son,  William."— P.  38. 

"1662,  Deer  5th.— I  christened  Captain  Wharton's 
daughter."— P.  39. 

Did  Ashmole  practise  lay  baptism,  or  merely  at- 
tend the  ceremony  as  a  sponsor  ?    J.  MASKELL. 

"  THE  TWENTY-FOURTH  GRAIN." — In  a  fine  of 
land  in  Derbyshire  levied  in  the  thirty-sixth  year 
of  King  Henry  III.  the  following  clause  occurs: — 

"  Et  prseterea  iidem  Ricardus,  Sara.  &c.,  concesserunt 
pro  se  et  heredibua  ipsarum  Sarae,  Leticiae,  &c.,  quod 
omnes  manentes  in  prsedictis  tenementisde  cetero  molent 
bladum  et  brasium  suum  ad  molendinum  ipsius  personae 
et  successorum  suorum  ecclesise  de  Esseburne,  ad  vice- 
simum  quartum  granum  in  perpetuum." 

What  is   the    meaning    of   this  "twenty-fourth 
grain"?  W.  H.  HART,  F.S.A. 

CANTARELA  is  mentioned  in  history  as  the 
poison  of  which  Pope  Alexander  VI.  died,  having 
drunk  of  the  bottle  which  he  had  intended  for 
certain  cardinals  he  had  invited  to  sup  with  him. 
Bembo  Guicciardini,  Jovius  Tomasi,  and  other  con- 
temporaries attest  the  fact,  which  Voltaire,  in  his 
'  General  History  of  Europe/  chooses  to  call  in 
question.  Is  it  known  what  the  poison  called 
cantarda  was  ?  C.  A.  WARD. 

Haveratock  Hill. 

ALGERNON  SIDNEY.— In  a  recent  review  in  your 
pages  of  a  book  by  Miss  Gertrude  Irelande  Black- 



I.  FBB.  13,  'I 

burne,  you  mention  as  authorities  on  the  life  of 
the  above  statesman  a  work  from  the  pen  of  Mr. 
Meadley  and  the  more  modern  'Sidney  Papers. 
I  am  interested,  however,  to  know  whether  the 
volume  about  him  to  which  MR.  HEPWORTH 
DIXON  refers  at  1st  S.  v.  318  ever  saw  the  light. 
I  have  searched  the  notice  of  MR.  DIXON  in 
'  Men  of  the  Time,'  but  no  mention  is  there  made 
of  any  such  book.  Information  relative  thereto 
would  oblige.  T.  CANN-HUGHES,  B.A. 

The  Groves,  Chester. 

SIR  THOMAS  SCOTT. — In  the  '  Memorials  of  the 
Scott  Family,'  p.  195,  it  is  stated  that  this 
Elizabethan  worthy  published  a  book  on  horses  or 
horse  breeding.  Can  any  one  give  me  the  authority 
for  this,  or  refer  me  to  the  book  ? 


PEARLS. — Can  any  of  your  readers  inform,  me 
how  long,  approximately,  it  takes  for  a  pearl  to  be 
grown  in  the  oyster  to  attain  the  size  of  a  pea,  and 
how  foreign  substances  are  introduced  into  the 
animal  on  which  to  form  pearls  ? 

A.  B.  POWELL. 

Southwick  Harbour,  Sussex. 

[The  artificial  production  of  pearls,  by  introducing 
small  foreign  substances  into  the  shell  of  a  species  of 
mussel,  has,  it  is  alleged,  long  been  known  to  the  Chinese. 
Sir  Joseph  Banks  is  said  to  have  had  in  his  possession 
specimens  of  the  shell  of  a  chama  in  which  there  were 
several  pieces  of  iron  wire  incrusted  with  a  matter  of  a 
perfectly  pearly  nature.  This  process  of  incrustation  is 
supposed  to  take  several  years.  In  1761  Linnaeus  in- 
formed the  King  of  Sweden  that  he  had  discovered  a 
method  by  which  mussels  might  be  made  to  produce 
pearls,  and  this  he  offered  to  disclose  for  the  benefit  of 
the  kingdom.  His  offer  was,  however,  not  accepted,  and 
he  subsequently  disposed  of  the  secret  for  the  sum  of 
five  hundred  ducats  (about  240Z.).  Bechmarm  relates 
that  Linnaeus  showed  him  pearls  that  had  been  thus 
produced,  remarking,  "Hos  uniones  confeci  artificio 
meo ;  sunt  tantum  quinque  annorum  et  tamen  tarn 
magni."  According  to  this,  it  would  require  about  five 
years  to  complete  a  pearl  of  fair  size.  Bechmann  dis- 
cusses Linnaeus's  method  at  some  length,  and  comes  to 
the  conclusion  that  it  consisted  in  making  a  perforation 
in  the  shell,  but  without,  apparently,  the  introduction 
of  any  foreign  substance.] 

Chambaud's  French  dictionary  (as  edited  by  Car- 
rieres  and  published  in  1805)  I  was  surprised  to 
read,  under  the  English  word  "Heron,"  "com- 
monly pronounced  hern."  I  have  never  heard  it 
so  pronounced,  and  believe  that  to  most  persons 
brought  up  in  the  neighbourhood  of  London  hern 
would  now  be  almost  as  unintelligible  as  handsaw 
(the  old  corruption  for  hernshaw  as  the  name  of 
the  bird).  Halliwell  gives  hern  as  a  provincial 
form  of  heron,  without  indicating  in  what  parts  of 
the  country  that  form  is  used.  Perhaps  this  query 
may  elicit  the  information  from  those  readers  of 
*  N.  &  Q.'  who  have  heard  the  pronunciation  in 
question.  W.  T.  LYNN. 

SAMUEL  WYDOWN,  said  to  have  been  in  the 
British  navy  with  one  or  two  brothers  (one  of 
whom  fought  under  Nelson);  said  to  have  run 
away  witb  a  Miss  Smith,  cousin  and  ward  of  the 
then  Lord  Carrington,  and  to  have  become  a  Bap- 
tist minister,  whereupon  he  left  the  service  ;  was 
caught  with  numerous  English  residents  in  Hol- 
land by  Napoleon's  famous  decree  ;  and  finally  in 
1805  (?)  came  to  the  United  States.  His  numerous 
descendants  will  be  very  grateful  for  any  authentic 
information  about  him  and  his  wife. 

S.  DE  VERB. 

University  of  Virginia,  Va.,  U.S. 

ST.  TIRACIUS.— In  Ecton's  'Thesaurus,'  p.  169, 
under  the  "  Deanery  of  Sottersden,"  appears  this 
entry:  — "01.06.08.  St.  Tiracius  Cbap.  De- 
struct.  00:02:08."  I  cannot  find  this  nauie  in  Sir 
H.  Nicolas's  'Alphabetical  Calendar  of  Saints,'  or 
any  name  like  it,  and  therefore  I  ask,  Who  was  he  ? 
What  is  known  about  the  destroyed  chapel,  of 
which  the  rating  in  the  King's  Books  and  the  Yearly 
Tenths  are  given  above  ?  BOILEAU. 

NERO  AND  HELTOGABALUS.  —  Eeferences  or 
details  as  to  the  tame  sparrow  and  starling  kept 
respectively  by  these  emperors  will  be  gratefully 
received  by  A.  B.  POWELL. 

Southwick  Harbour,  Southsea. 

TWIGGERY.  —  A  friend  of  mine  hunting  with 
harriers  in  Cheshire  asked  a  labouring  boy  if  he 
had  seen  the  hare.  The  boy  answered,  "  Oo  was 
making  for  th'  twiggery," — a  willow  or  osier  bed. 
Is  the  word  used  or  known  elsewhere  ? 


MELDRUMSHEUGH. — Where  is  Meldrumsheugb, 
the  seat  of  Patrick  Eichardson,  burgess  of  Edin- 
burgh, father-in-law  of  Adam  Bothwell,  Bishop  of 
Orkney  ?  V.H.I.L.I.C.I.V. 

FORBES  OF  SHEALS.— On  the  external  north  wall 
of  the  sacristy  of  the  Church  of  St.  John  the  Baptist, 
Maddermarket,  Norwich,  there  is  a  small  tablet 
with  the  following  inscription  : — 

Here  Lieth  ye  Body  of 


of  Sheals  in  ye  County  of 

Aberdeene  Scotland 

wlio  departed  this  Life  ye 

14th  Of  Qct:  1718  Aged  49 

To  which  branch  of  the  Forbes  family  did  George 
Forbes  belong  ?  WM.  VINCENT. 

AUTHOR  WANTED.  —  Can  any  reader  of 
*  N.  &  Q.'  tell  me  who  is  the  author  of  '  Ogbury 
Barrows,' 'An  Old  Master,' &c.,  published  lately 
n  the  Cornhill,  and  state  whether  he  has  written 
anything  beside  these  papers  ?  A.  I. 

INNS  AT  OLDHAM. — Can  any  of  your  readers 
tell  me  the  names  of  the  principal  inns  and  hostel- 

7*  S.  I.  FEB.  13,  '86.] 


ries  of  Oldham,  Lancashire,  in  1794,  with  any  of 
their  occupants  and  streets  where  they  were 
situated  ?  T.  H.  D. 

College  was  founded  by  George,  fifth  Earl  Maris- 
chal, in  1593.     In  the  accounts  of  the  Aberdeen 
Town  Council  for  that  year  occurs  the  entry: — 
"  To  Mr.  Thomas  Cargill  [Master  of  the  Grammar 
School]  to  caus  print  certaine  verse  in  Latin  in 
commendatioune  of  my  Lord  Marischeall  for  ereck- 
ing  the  new  College  in  Aberdeen,  at  the  Counsallis 
command.     31."    The  opening  lines  of  Mr.  Car- 
gill's  ode- 
Quod  meritis  Marischalle  tuis  Regalibus  illis, 
JEternum  addictaa  obstrinxti  foedere  Musas, 
O  quantus  te  expectat  honos  ! — 

are  quoted  on  p.  15  of  Prof.  William  Ogston's 
'  Oratio  Funebris  in  Obitum  Georgii  Marischalli 
Comitis,'  Aberdeen,  1623.  Is  anything  further 
known  of  this  poem  ?  It  was  probably  printed  in 
Edinburgh,  as  no  printing  press  existed  in  Aber- 
deen for  twenty- nine  years  after  the  college  was 
founded.  In  1715,  when  -the  Pretender  was  at 
Fetteresso,  near  Aberdeen  (the  seat  of  George, 
tenth  and  last  Earl  Mariscbal,  great-great-grand- 
son of  the  fifth  earl),  the  principal  and  professors  of 
MarischaJ  College  waited  upon  him  there,  and  pre- 
sented an  address  of  welcome.  They  were  in  conse- 
quence deposed  by  a  Koyal  Commission  of  Visita- 
tion, 1716-17.  Similar  addresses  were  presented  by 
the  magistrates  and  by  the  non-juring  clergy  of 
Aberdeen,  and  these  are  given  in  most  histories  of 
the  rebellion  ;  but  I  have  failed  to  find  the  address 
from  Marischal  College.  Is  it  known  to  exist  ?  In 
all  probability  it  was  printed  in  a  separate  form  in 
1715,  as  the  other  two  addresses  undoubtedly 
were.  See  Mr.  J.  P.  Edmond's  'Aberdeen 
Printers/  p.  164.  P.  J.  ANDERSON. 

2,  East  Craibstone  Street,  Aberdeen. 

any  reader  of  '  N.  &  Q.'  tell  me  whereabouts  this 
watchmaker  lived  in  London  ?  He  was  a  maker  of 
celebrated  repeaters  in  the  latter  half  of  the  last 
century.  EDWARD  R.  VTVYAN. 

SURNAME  OF  PAULI. — Can  any  of  your  readers 
give  me  information  regarding  the  origin,  derivation, 
and  localization  of  the  above  surname  ?  By  what 
means  could  I  obtain  information  concerning  the 
pedigree  of  that  branch  which  was  settled  in 
Silesia?  Who  was  Simon  Paulli,  M.D.,  who 
lived  in  the  early  part  of  the  seventeenth  century, 
and  wrote  several  works  on  medicine  and  botany  ? 
Was  he  of  Danish  or  German  birth?  Direct 
answers  will  greatly  oblige.  W.  K.  PAULI. 

Luton,  Beds. 

of  your  readers  refer  me  to  any  account  of  the 
superstition  that  for  any  member  of  the  family  of 

Graham  to  wear  green  is  unlucky  ?  I  can  find 
no  reference  to  this  common  belief  in  the  indexes 
to  the  five  series  of  «  N.  &  Q.' 


MERRTWEATHER. — Is  anything  known  of  this 
"  Gentleman  of  Cambridge,"  who  translated 
Browne's  '  Keligio  Medici '  into  Latin  ? 

C.  A.  WARD. 

LATIN  GRAMMAR. — I  am  in  possession  of  a 
manuscript  Latin  grammar,  temp.  Elizabeth, 
written  by  one  Thomas  Robertsone,  apparently 
for  a  school.  Any  particulars  respecting  him 
would  confer  a  great  favour.  J.  0.  H.-P. 

SIR  WILLIAM  CURTOTS. — Can  any  one  supply 
me  with  further  information  about  the  career 
of  Sir  William  Curtoys  ?  He  was  ambassador 
from  the  king  of  Spain  to  the  court  of  Lucca,  and 
died  some  time  during  the  last  century.  Though 
an  Englishman  by  brith — the  son  of  the  rector  of  a 
small  Wiltshire  living — he  changed  his  religion 
and  his  nationality,  becoming  a  Eoman  Catholic 
and  a  Spaniard.  He  left,  as  I  believe,  two  sons, 
Pedro  and  Joachim,  about  whose  descendants  I 
should  be  glad  to  hear.  J.  H.  G. 

THE  LAST  DUEL  IN  ENGLAND. — In  the  Lady's 
Newspaper  for  May,  1853,  it  is  stated  that  on  the 
27th  ult.  a  duel  took  place  between  Sir  Robert 
Peel  and  Mr.  Bernal  Osborne,  M.P.  for  Middle- 
sex. "  The  ball  from  Mr.  Osborne's  weapon," 
adds  the  writer,  "  passed  through  his  antagonist's 
coat-sleeve,  and  the  affair  happily  terminated  with- 
out bloodshed."  Was  this  the  last  "affair  of 
honour "  in  London  ?  If  not,  what  was  the  last, 
and  when  did  it  take  place  ?  I  always  thought 
that  the  affair  between  Lord  Cardigan  and  Capt. 
Harvey  Tuckett  gave  to  duelling  its  coup  de  grace. 


Time  hath  no  measure  in  eternity. 

G.  R. 

"As  long  as  woman  and  sorrow  exist  in  this  world 
Christianity  will  never  die  out."  JAMBS  B.  GUYER. 

Weep  not,  if  thou  lov'st  me  well ; 
I  'm  happier  than  the  weeper. 


His  place,  in  all  the  pomp  that  fills 
The  circuit  of  the  summer  hills, 
Is  that  his  grave  is  green. 
The  mark  of  rank  in  Nature 

Is  capacity  for  pain, 
And  the  anguish  of  the  singer 
Makes  the  sweetness  of  the  strain. 

M.  C.  HUGHES. 

'Twas  a  beauteous  day  in  summer,  bright  flowers  be- 
gemmed the  valleys  ; 

Beside  a  bubbling  fountain  in  the  forest  wild  I  lay. 
The  small  birds  sweetly  carolled  in  the  verdant  woodland 


While  high  above  the  tree-tops  shone  the  glorious  god  of 
day.  J.  T?  S. 



[7th  S.  I.  FFB.  13,  '86. 

(7th  S.  i.  3.) 

MR.  ADDY,  in  his  very  interesting  paper  on  this 
subject,  asks  for  a  reference,  in  '  The  Anatomy  of 
Melancholy/  to  the  popularity  of  Boccaccio's 
novels  in  English  families  during  Burton's  time. 
Now,  old  Burton  is  a  friend  to  whom  I  often  apply 
when  lonely  or  tired  ;  and  I  have  been  glad  to 
have  an  excuse  for  ransacking  his  treasury  during 
the  continuance  of  the  frost  and  snow.  The  result 
I  offer  to  MR.  ADDY,  premising  that  I  am  not  one 
of  the  happy  possessors  of  the  first  edition  (1621), 
and  that  the  following  is  extracted  from  the  second 
edition  (folio,  1624):— 

"  The  ordinary  recreations  which  we  haue  in  Winter, 
and  in  most  solitary  times  busy  our  mindea  with,  are 
Gardes,  Tables,  &  Dice,  Shouel-board,  Ckesse-play,  the 
Philosophers  game,  small  trunkes,  balliardes,  musicke, 
maskes,  singing,  dancing,  vlegames,  catches,  purposes, 
questions,  merry  tales  of  errant  Knights,  Kings,  Queenes, 
Louers,  Lords,  Ladies,  Giants,  Dwarfes,  Theeues,  Fayries, 
&c.,  such  as  the  old  women  told  Psyche  in  Apuleius, 
Bocace  Nouells  and  the  rest."— Part  ii.  sec.  ii.  memb.  iv. 
p.  230. 

The  italics  are  used  as  above  in  the  original,  the 
extract  being  (as  it  is  desirable  that  all  extracts 
printed  in  *N.  &  Q.'  should  be)  presented  as 
accurately  as  the  exigencies  of  modern  typography 
will  allow.  It  is  clear  from  this  passage  that  the 
'  Decameron '  was  well  known  in  Burton's  day ; 
indeed,  he  frequently  refers  familiarly  to  the 
stories,  in  the  style  of  one  who  expects  his  readers 
to  be  equally  well  informed  with  himself.  Thus 
(p.  420,  ed.  cit.)  he  quotes  the  tale  of  Cymon  and 
Iphigenia,  prefacing  it  with  the  information  that 
"  Bocace  hath  a  pleasant  tale  to  this  purpose, 
which  he  borrowed  from  the  Greekes,  and  which 
Beroaldus  hath  turned  into  Latine,  Bebelius  into 
verse,  of  Cymon  and  Iphigenia  ";  and  (p.  395)  he 
illustrates  Chaucer's  well-known  lines — 

That  whereas  was  wont  to  walke  an  Elfe, 
There  now  walkes  the  Limiter  himselfe, 
In  every  bush  and  vrider  every  tree 
There  needs  no  other  Incubus  but  he — 
by  adding,  "  and  the  good  Abbesse  in  Bocace  may, 
in  some  sort  witnesse,  that  mistooke  and  put  on 
the  Friers  Breeches  instead  of  her  vaile  or  hat." 
Thus  much  concerning  Burton. 

I  am  reminded  by  MR.  ADDY'S  query  of  the 
existence  of  a  curious  little  book  which,  although  not 
particularly  scarce,  does  not  appear  to  be  much 
known.  The  title  is,  "Human  Prudence:  |  or, 
the  Art  |  By  which  a  |  Man  may  Raise  Himself  | 
and  his  |  Fortune  |  to  |  Grandeur.  |  Corrected  and 
very  much  Enlarged.  \  The  Eleventh  Edition.  | 
[Quot.]  |  London,  |  Printed  for  Eichard  Sare,  at 
Gray's  Inn-  \  Gate  in  Holborn.  M.DCCXVII." 
Duodecimo.  The  dedication,  "To  the  Virtuous 

and  most  Ingenious  Edw.  Hungerford,  Esq.,"  is 
signed  by  "  W.  de  Britaine,"  an  author  whom 
Lowndes  only  recognizes  by  the  registration  of  a 
quarto  pamphlet  on  '  The  Dutch  Usurpation,'  1672, 
reprinted  in  the  third  volume  of  the  Harleian  Mis- 
cellany. The  title  I  have  now  quoted  is  not  in  the 
'  Bibliographer's  Manual,'  yet  the  book  must  have 
had  some  share  of  popularity,  or  it  would  not  have 
arrived  at  the  dignity  of  an  eleventh  edition.  I 
have  no  record  of  its  first  appearance,  but  the 
notes  in  my  interleaved  Lowndes  record  the  second 
edition  in  1682,  the  sixth  in  1693,  the  ninth  in 
1702,  and  the  tenth  in  1710.  Mr.  Hazlitt  ('Col. 
and  Notes,'  ii.  161)  registers  the  seventh  edition 
in  1697.  The  dedication,  evidently  addressed  to 
a  very  young  man,  concludes  with  these  words : 
"  I  will  not  detain  you  any  longer  at  present,  than 
to  intreat  you  to  look  into  this  Mirror,  as  made 
up  of  other  Men's  Crystals,  and  my  own  Errors  ; 
wherein  you  may  see  what  you  are,  as  well  as 
what  you  ought  to  be."  The  work  mainly  consists 
of  aphorisms,  culled  from  various  authors,  inter- 
spersed with  little  jokes,  anecdotes,  and  verses, 
introduced  by  way  of  illustration  and  in  order  to 
lighten  the  tedium  of  an  otherwise  heavy  discourse. 
Amongst  the  stories  are  several  of  the  novels  of 
Boccaccio,  rather  cleverly  paraphrased  and  con- 
densed, the  first  being  'The  Paternoster  of  St. 
Julian ';  and  I  am  much  disposed  to  think  that 
Mr.  W.  de  Britaine  must  have  had  access  to  a 
translation  differing  in  some  degree  from  any  which 
we  know.  Here  is  an  example  of  the  colloquial 
style  employed  : — 

"His  [Rinaldo]  Servant  with  his  Valise  (which  was 
all  the  Hope  he  had  left  him)  was  not  as  yet  come  up ; 
His  Horse,  it  seems,  having  cast  a  Shoe  by  the  Way,  but 
he  was  got  near  enough,  however,  to  see  the  Encounter, 
and  to  show  himself  Rogue  enough  to  leave  his  Master 
in  the  lurch,  and  save  his  own  Bacon  by  scowring  away 
cross  the  Fields  to  the  best  Inn  in  the  Town,  where  his 
Master  was  to  have  quarter'd  that  Night,  and  there  was 
he  Fuddling  and  making  good  Chear,  while  poor  Rinaldo 
was  groping  out  his  Way  up  to  the  Ears  in  Mud." 

Another  story  commences  thus  : — 

"  There  was  a  couple  of  young  Sparks,  for  Age,  Birth 
and  Breeding  much  alike,  and  their  Names  Spinelloccio 
Tavena,  and  Zeppa  di  Mino  ;  These  Blades  living  within 
a  door  one  of  another,  were  almost  perpetually  together, 
and  a  Brace  of  very  handsome  young  Women  they  had 
to  their  Wives,"  &c. 

Only  in  one  instance  is  the  source  of  any  of  the 
stories  hinted  at;  this  is  on  p.  210: — 

"  Boccace  hath  given  us  a  Novel  of  a  covetous  rich 
Chufi' newly  in  Office,  that  had  a  very  fine  Woman  to 
his  Wife,  &  wanted  a  fine  Horse,"  &c. 

If  Sir  Koger  L'Estrange  ever  translated  the 
'Decameron,'  these,  one  would  think,  are  speci- 
mens of  his  free-and-easy  method. 

I  have  the  following  references  to  Mr.  De  Bri- 
taine, but  neither  of  them  is  at  present  available 
for  my  use :  '  N.  &  Q.,'  I8'  S.  x.  67 ;  Gent.  Mag., 
1793,  pp.  124,  711.  ALFRED  WALLIS. 

7<"  S.  I.  FEB.  13,  '86.] 



Probably  the  1684  edition  of  Boccaccio  is  cor- 
rectly described  as  the  "  fifth,"  for  I  can  give  par- 
ticulars of  two  editions  which  appear  to  be  totally 
unknown  to  MR.  ADDY  and  other  bibliographers. 
The  first  is  a  small  8vo.,  printed  in  1634  by  Thomas 
Coates.  A  copy  is  described  in  Ellis  &  White's 
No.  45  Catalogue.  And  another  edition,  of  1657, 
was  described  in  one  of  Ridler's  catalogues  about 
a  year  ago  as  follows  :  "  Boccace  (J.),  Decameron, 

containing  an  Hundred  Pleasant  Novelles 

2  vols.  in  1.  thick  12mo.,  curious  woodcuts,  1657." 

K.  K. 

Boston,  Lincolnshire. 

Perhaps  the  following  quotation  from  the  'Ana- 
tomy of  Melancholy '  may  be  that  alluded  to  by 
MR.  ADDY  in  his  note  on  the  above  subject.  Bur- 
ton gives  a  long  list  of  "  the  ordinary  recreations 
which  we  have  in  winter,  and  in  most  solitary 
times  busie  our  selves  with," and  concludes  thus: — 
"  Merry  tales  of  errant  knights,  queens,  lovers, 
lords,  ladies,  giants,  dwarfes,  theeves,  cheaters, 
witches,  fayries,  goblins,  friers,  &c.,  such  as  the  old 
woman  told  Psyche  in  Apuleius,  Bocace  novels 
and  the  rest"  (' Exercise  Rectified,' vol.  i.  pt.  ii. 
sect.  ii.  p.  413,  ed.  1804). 

There  is,  however,  an  earlier  reference  to  those 
stories.  Roger  Ascbam,  in  his  '  Schoolmaster/ 
begun  about  1563  and  first  published  1570-1,  says, 
when  speaking  of  Lady  Jane  Grey: — "I  found  her 
in  her  Chamber,  reading  Phsedo  Platonis  in  Greek, 
and  that  with  as  much  Delight,  as  some  Gentle- 
men would  read  a  merry  Tale  in  Boccace."  Later 
on  he  laments  the  increasing  taste  for  Italian 
literature,  which  he  considers  more  corrupting 
than  the  romances  formerly  studied  for  amuse- 
ment— "  And  yet  ten  Morte  Arthurs  do  not 
the  tenth  Part  so  much  Harm,  as  one  of  these 
Books  made  in  Italy,  and  translated  in  England" 
— declaring  that  his  countrymen  "have  in  more 
Reverence  the  Triumphs  of  Petrarch,  than  the 
Genesis  of  Moses,  they  make  more  Account  of 
Tully's  Offices,  than  S"  Paul's  Epistles;  of  a  tale 
in  Bocace,  than  the  Story  of  the  Bible  "  (first  book). 

Warton,  in  an  exhaustive  chapter  on  the  Eliza- 
bethan translators,  also  quotes  the  above  extracts 
from  Ascham  and  Burton  ('  History  of  English 
Poetry,  from  the  Eleventh  to  the  Seventeenth 
Century,'  sec.  lx.,  pp.  924  and  931,  reprint,  Lon- 
don, Ward,  Lock  &  Tyler). 

In  the  same  section  of  this  work,  p.  927,  MR. 
ADDY  will  find  the  identical  passage  which  he  has 
transcribed  from  Wright's  introduction  to  the  edi- 
tion of  the  *  Decameron '  published  by  Chatto  & 
Windus,  showing  that  it  must  have  been  taken 
from  Warton,  who  is  therefore  responsible  for  the 
ambiguity  pointed  out : — 

"  Before  the  year  1570,  William  Paynter,  clerk  of  the 
Office  of  Arms  within  the  Tower  of  London,  and  who 
seems  to  have  been  master  of  the  school  of  Sevenoaks  in 
Kent,  printed  a  very  considerable  part  of  Boccace's 

novels.  His  first  collection  is  entitled,  « The  Palace  of 
Pleasure,  the  first  volume,  containing  sixty  novels  out  of 
Boccaccio,  London,  1566.'  It  is  dedicated  to  lord  War- 
wick.* A  second  volume  soon  appeared,  '  The  Pallace 
of  Pleasure,  the  second  volume  containing  thirty-four 
novels,  London,  1567.'t  This  ia  dedicated  to  sir  Geo. 
Howard ;  and  dated  from  his  house  near  the  Tower,  as 
is  the  former  volume." 

Authorities  consulted, 

1.  Burton's  '  Anatomy  of  Melancholy,'  1804. 

2.  'The  Schoolmaster,'  by  Koger  Ascham.  corrected 
and  revised,  with  explanatory  notes  by  the  llev.  James 
Upton,  A.M.      "  London  :  printed  for  Benj.  Tooke,  at 
the  Middle-Temple  Gate  in  Fleet-street.     MDCCXI." 

3.  '  The  History  of  English  Poetry,  from  the  Eleventh 
to  the  Seventeenth  Century,'  by  Thomas  Warton,  B.D. 
A  full  reprint,  text  and  notes,  of  editions  London  1778 
and  1781.      London,  Ward,   Lock  &  Tyler,   Warwick 
House,  Paternoster  Row,  E.G. 


(6th  S.  xii.  517).—  Some  months  since  an  unmis- 
takably learned  correspondent,  though  but  an  occa- 
sional one,  of  '  N.  &  Q.,'  was  in  my  study,  when, 
on  one  of  the  minute  details  of  the  R.V.  coming 
up,  he  suggested  that  we  should  refer  to  my  Cor- 
nelius. I  might  almost  venture  to  say  that  of 
course  we  found  it  all  there.  So,  adopting  the 
same  course  on  the  present  occasion,  I  turn  to 
Jerem.  xxxiii.  16,  and  from  the  note  on  the  pas- 
sage make  the  following  extract  :  — 

"  Bum.  —  Hebraice,  hoc  est  nomen  quod  vocabit  earn, 
scilicet  Jerusalem,  id  est  Ecclesiam  :  Dominus  justitia 
nostra,  id  est  Christus  justificator  noster,  ipse  noster  est 
Dominus.  ipse    noster  est    Deus  :    Hebraice  enim  est 
Jehova.    Nomen  ergo  Christi,  illi  impositum  cap.  xxiii.  6, 
communicatur  hie  Ecclesiae,  imo  Christus    ipse   euum 
nomen  8U33  sponsae  de  more  communicat  .......  P.Gordonus, 

'  Controv.,'  i.  cap.  x.  vult  hunc  locum,  uti  et  alios,  a 
Judaeis  esse  depravatum,  ne  Christum  esse  Deum  fateri 
cogantur.  Nam  tarn  noster  (seil.  Vulg.  Int.)  quam 
Septuaginta  et  Chaldaei  vertunt  vocalunt  eum,  scilicet 
Christum,  non  earn  scilicet  Jerusalem.  Verum  Fran- 
ciscus  Lucas  in  Notis  ostendit  contrarium,  scilicet  non 
Hebrgeurn,  sed  Latinum  textum  hie  esse  corruptum  ;  et 
S.  Hieronymus  [cor.  urn]  non  eum  sed  earn  vertisse  :  quia 
undecim  exemplaria  Latina  MSS.  habent  earn,  non  eum. 
Veneta  quoque  editio  Chaldaea  habet  H?  la  id  est  eamf 
non  n^>  le,  id  est  eum.  Videtur  ergo  lectio  cap.  xxiii.  6, 
hue  translata,  ut  pro  earn  irrepserit  eum  ;  eo  quod  ilia 
lectio  scribis  esset  notior  ;  eo  quod  ilia  tempore  Adventus 
quotidie  legatur  in  ecclesia."  —  Corn,  a  Lapide,  '  Com- 
ment. in  Jerem.' 


TYNE,  in  requesting  information  as  to  the  cor- 
rectness of  the  personal  pronoun  iu  Jer.  xxxiii.  16, 
refers  to  Blayney,  who  *'  pointed  out  that  in  the 
original  not  the  feminine  affix,  but  the  masculine 
......  is  used."  The  original  reads  thus  :  — 


"  *  A  second  edition  was  printed  for  H.  Binneman, 
Lond.,  1575,  4to." 

"  f  A  second  edition  was  printed  by  Thomas  ^Marsh, 
in  octavo.  Both  volumes  appeared  in  1575,  4to. 



I.  FEB.  13,  '86. 

From  this  it  may  be  seen  that  to  describe  the 
relation  of  the  pronoun  to  the  verb  as  that  of  an 
affix  is  irregular.  The  word  H/  is  in  the  dative 
case,  third  person  singular,  feminine  gender.  This 
personal  pronoun,  retaining  its  full  form,  is,  for 
purposes  of  grammatical  construction,  connected 
with  the  preceding  verb  N^p?  and  with  the  ante- 
precedent  relative  pronoun  "1^8  by  the  conjunc- 
tive Hebrew  signs  called  makkephs.  It  is  super- 
fluous to  add  that  in  Hebrew  an  affix  does  not 
retain  its  full  form,  but  is  shortened  when  blended 
with  a  verb.  The  personal  pronoun  in  question  is 
of  the  feminine  gender  in  the  original,  as  agreeing 
with  the  proper  name  Jerusalem,  in  accordance 
with  the  rule  of  Hebrew  grammar  that  names  of 
countries,  provinces,  and  cities  are  classed  among 
feminine  nouns.  Certain  interpreters,  neverthe- 
less, either  arbitrarily  making  the  pronoun  agree 
in  sense  with  the  antecedent  proper  name  Judah 
or  with  the  succeeding  Jehovah,  ungrammatically 
render  it  in  the  masculine  gender.  Luther  (only, 
however,  following  the  Vulgate)  is  an  instance  : 
"  Und  man  wird  ihn  nennen  :  Der  Herr,  der  unsere 
gerechtigkeit  ist."  JAMES  GRAHAM. 

1,  White  Friara,  Chester. 

WEATHERCOCKS  (6ft  S.  xii.  515;  7th  S.  i.  56).— 
In  addition  to  the  note  upon  this  may  be  men- 
tioned the  origin  of  the  weathercock,  which  Pol. 
Vergil  thus  describes.  It  refers,  of  course,  to  the 
temple  of  the  Druids  at  Athens  :— 

"Andronicus  Cyrrhestes :  is  Athenis  teste  Vitruvio, 
[lib.  1.  c.  vi.]  locavit  turrim,  et  in  singulis  lateribus 
imagines  ipsorum  ventorum  exsculptas,  contra  cujusque 
flatus,  eupraque  metam  marmoream  posuit  ac  in  ea 
Tritonem  aereum  dextera  manu  virgam  porrigentem, 
quern  ita  fabricates  est,  ut  vento  circumageretur,  staret- 
que  semper  contra  venti  flatum,  virga  interim  ad  ejus 
venti  imaginem  versa." 

He  further  states: — 

"  Per  hunc  modum  Andronicus  Cyrrhestes  ostendit, 
unde  certi  ventorum  flatus  spirarent,  quern  nunc  ubique 
gentium  servant,  positis  in  summitate  locorum  pinnis 
aerieis,  per  quaa  ventorum  flatus  indicentur."— '  De  Jn- 
ventoribus  Rerum,'  lib.  i.  cap.  xvii.,  "  De  Invent.  As- 
trol.,"  p.  56,  Amst.,  1671. 

In  reference  to  the  cock  Keble's  lines  on  the 
view  of  Oxford  from  Bagley  at  8  A.M.  may  be 
noticed: — 

Lo  !  on  the  top  of  each  aerial  spire 

What  seems  a  star  by  day,  so  high  and  bright, 

It  quivers  from  afar  in  gulden  light; 

But  'tis  a  form  of  earth,  though  touched  with  fire 

Celestial,  raised  in  other  days  to  tell 

How,  when  they  tired  of  prayer,  Apostles  fell. 

'  Lyra  Apostolica,'  cxlviii ,  Derby,  1836. 

BRISTOL  POTTERY  (7th  S.  i.  69). — So  early  as 
Edward  I.'s  reign  pottery  was  made  at  Bristol ;  but 
it  was  not  until  the  eighteenth  century  that  it  pro- 
duced the  dated  "Dutch"  tiles  which  are  now 
treasured  in  museums.  At  that  time  Richard 

Frank  was  a  well-known  potter,  and  somewhat 
later  came  the  Ring  family  and  their  successors 
Pountney  and  Allies.  Price,  Hope,  Patience, 
Alsop,  and  Powell  produced  brown  salt-glazed 
stoneware.  Bristol  Porcelain  Works  were  estab- 
lished by  Richard  Champion,  who  was  born  in 
1743.  The  whole  of  this  information  and  more  is 
to  be  found  in  'English  Pottery  and  Porcelain/ 
published  at  the  Bazaar  office.  It  makes  mention 
of  a  book  your  correspondent  might  do  well  to  con- 
sult, 'Two  Centuries  of  Ceramic  Art  in  Bristol,'  by 
Hugh  Owen,  F.S.A.  ST.  SWITHIN. 

According  to  A.  H.  Church's  handbook  on 
English  earthenware,  there  were  two  men  who 
seemed  to  work  about  the  same  time  (i.e.,  about 
the  end  of  the  seventeenth  century),  these  were 
Richard  Frank  and  Joseph  Flower.  The  earlier 
of  these  was  Frank  ;  his  works  (Delft)  were  founded, 
in  all  probability,  during  the  last  quarter  of  the 
seventeenth  century ;  some  things  were  turned  out 
at  least  as  early  as  1706.  Flower  does  not  appear 
to  have  anything  of  earlier  date  than  1741.  Here 
is  even  an  earlier  date.  The  marriage  of  "Thomas 
Frank,  gallipot  maker."  is  recorded  in  1697.  But 
the  earliest  dated  piece  is  1706.  G.  S.  B. 

MR.  HUGHES  will  find  much  information  on 
this  subject  (probably  all  he  needs)  in  Llewellynn 
Jewitt's  '  Ceramic  Art  of  Great  Britain,'  new  edi- 
tion (?  second  edition),  chap.  xi.  p.  208,  Virtue  & 
Co.,  Ivy  Lane,n.d.  (preface  to  second  edition  dated 
1883).  W.  SYKES,  M.R.C.S. 


See  Mr.  Hugh  Owen's  exhaustive  history  of  this 
special  subject.  THOMAS  KERSLAKE. 

"  The  first  record  of  Bristol  pottery  appears  to 

have  been  in  the  reign  of  Edward  I At  the 

close  of  the  seventeenth  century  delf  was  made." 
See  Wm.  Chaffers's  '  Marks  and   Monograms  on 
Pottery  and   Porcelain,'  and  'Two   Centuries   of 
Ceramic  Art  in  Bristol,'  by  Hugh  Owen,  F.S.A. 

34,  St.  Petersburg  Place,  W. 

[CELER  ET  AUDAX  has  been  obliging  enough  to  copy 
from  Chaffers's  '  Marks  and  Monograms  '  the  information 
therein  conveyed.  This  we  shall  be  glad  to  forward  to 
MR.  HUGHES  if  he  has  riot  access  to  it.] 

DUNSTANBOROUGH  CASTLE  (7th  S.  i.  69). — The 
history  of  this  place  is  fully  treated  in  Hartshorne's 
'  Feudal  and  Military  Antiquities  of  Northumber- 
land,' 1858.  It  is  picturesquely  situated  on 
pillared  basaltic  columns,  which  on  the  north  and 
east  rise  to  about  a  hundred  feet  above  the  sea 
shore.  In  the  eastern  part  there  are  many  fissures 
filled  with  metamorphosed  shale  and  sandstone  ; 
and  it  is  in  these  that  crystals  of  quartz,  some 
white  and  transparent  and  others  of  a  violet  hue, 
have  occasionally  been  found.  Such  minerals  are 
not  common  in  Northumberland,  and  they  are 

7<h  8. 1.  FEE,  13,  '86,] 



popularly  called  Dunstanborough  diamonds  and 
amethysts.  The  castle  and  estate  were  sold  in 
1869  by  Lord  Tankerville  to  the  Eyre  Trustees,  of 
Leeds,  and  they,  on  the  representation  of  the  Ber- 
wickshire Naturalists'  Club,  expended  a  consider- 
able sum  in  1885  in  repairing  Queen  Margaret's 
tower,  which  was  rapidly  going  to  destruction. 


The  context  of  the  passage,  referred  to  by  your 
correspondent  E.  R.  W.,  in  the  Gentleman's  Maga- 
zine for  February,  1756,  offers  a  solution  which  is 
doubtless  right.  This  castle  is  built  on  a  basaltic 
crag,  but  its  walls  are  made  of  a  rough  sandstone 
(from  the  mouutain  limestone  series),  which  is  full 
of  large  quartz  crystals.  These  crystals  being  re- 
leased from  the  crumbling  walls,  and  found  among 
the  grass,  have  given  rise  to  a  report  of  a  North- 
umbrian Golconda.  A.  H.  D. 

Ii>  Camden's  '  Britannia  '  it  is  said  that  "  near 
Dunstanburgh  is  found  a  kind  of  spar  called 
Dunstanburgh  diamonds,  said  to  rival  that  of 
St.  Vincent's  Rock,  near  Bristol."  The  Dunstan- 
borough diamonds  no  doubt  were  crystallized 
quartz,  the  same  as  the  "  Bristol  diamonds," 
"  Irish  diamonds,"  and  "  Cornish  diamonds." 



OLD  TERMS  USED  BY  TANNERS  (7th  S.  i.  48). 
— If  MR.  EARWAKER  will  refer  to  the  article 
"Leather"  in  Chamber's  ' Encyclopaedia,'  1874, 
there  is  a  diagram  which  shows  the  exact  limits  of 
the  "butt"  and  "pieces"  in  a  hide;  and,  presum- 
ing that  "  ossles "  may  be  a  misreading  for 
14  offals,"  the  description  of  this  term  also.  They 
are  still  trade  terms.  There  are  two  pairs  of 
"  shank  pieces "  to  each  hide,  and  the  "  pieces," 
when  cut  off,  are  called  "  offals."  The  terms 
"  hides,  backs,  and  butts  "  and  "  pieces  of  offal " 
occur  in  the  Act  concerning  tanners  of  1  James  I., 
p.  41,  reprint  Lond.,  1697.  ED.  MARSHALL. 

KATHERINE,  LADY  SAVAGE  (6th  S.  xii.  449). — 
In  the  Visitation  of  Cheshire,  1580,  Sir  John  Savage 
of  Clifton,  grandson  of  Sir  John  Savage,  made 
knight  banneret  at  the  battle  of  Agincourt,  is  said 
to  have  married  Katherine,  sister  to  Thomas  Stan- 
ley, the  first  Earl  of  Derby.  One  of  their  sons 
was  Sir  Humphrey  Savage.  Sir  John  died  1495, 
and  is  buried  in  Macclesfield  Church  with  his  wife 
Katherine.  He  wears  a  Yorkist  collar  of  suns  and 
roses  ;  and  a  print  of  the  tomb  is  in  Helsby's 
'  Cheshire.'  Katherine  wears  a  mitre  head-dress. 

In  the  same  visitation,  in  the  pedigree  of  Stan- 
ley of  Weever,  Katherine  Savage  is  mentioned 
with  more  particulars  of  her  family,  her  father 
being  Sir  Thomas  Stanley,  first  Lord  Stanley, 
Comptroller  of  the  Household  to  Henry  VI. ,  and 
her  mother  Joan,  daughter  and  heir  of  Sir  Robert 

Gowsell  and  his  wife  Ellen,  daughter  of  Richard, 
Earl  of  Arundel,  and  widow  of  T.  Mowbray,  Duke 
of  Norfolk. 

Sir  Humphrey  Stanley  of  Pipe,  who  died  in 
1505,  was  the  son  of  John  Stanley  of  Elford,  who 
was  first  cousin  of  Sir  Thomas  Stanley. 

Sir  Thomas  Stanley  was  the  father  of  the  first 
Earl  of  Derby,  not  the  Earl  himself,  as  put  in  the 
"  Savage  "  pedigree.  B.  F.  SCARLETT. 

This  lady  was  the  daughter  of  Thomas,  Lord 
Stanley,  and  sister  of  Thomas,  first  Earl  of  Derby. 
The  monument  referred  to  is  in  St.  Michael's 
Church,  Macclesfield,  Cheshire,  and  is  fully  de- 
scribed in  Earwaker's  '  East  Cheshire,'  vol.  ii. 
pp.  493-4. 

In  1 662  Randle  Holmes  found  a  Latin  inscrip- 
tion on  the  tomb  as  follows:  "  Hie  jacent  corpora 
Johannis  Savage  militis  et  dnse  Katherinse  uxoris 
ejus  filiae  Thomae  Stanley  dni  ac  sororis  Thomee 
primi  comitis  Darbiae."  The  inscription  has  long 
since  disappeared. 

There  was  a  Sir  Humphrey  Stanley  of  Pipe,  co. 
Stafford,  who  died  March,  1504/5.  He  was  a 
grandson  of  Thomas,  third  son  of  Sir  John  Stanley 
of  Lathom,  which  Sir  John  was  great-grandfather 
of  the  first  earl.  Consequently,  Dame  Katherine 
Savage  and  this  Humphrey  would  be  second  cousins. 


Westbank,  Macclesfield. 

Katharine,  Lady  Savage,  was  the  second  daugh- 
ter of  Thomas,  first  Baron  Stanley,  and  sister  of 
Thomas,  first  Earl  of  Derby.  See  Collins's  '  Peer- 
age of  England' (1812),  p.  56.  G.  F.  R.  B. 

SCOTTISH  RELIGIOUS  HOUSES  (7th  S.  i.  68). — 
The  mitred  abbey  of  Paisley  was  a  possession  of 
the  Clugniac  monks  of  the  order  of  St.  Benedict. 
It  was  burnt  by  order  of  the  Lords  of  the  Council 
in  1561.  J.  WOODWARD. 


The  abbey  of  Paisley  was  founded  A.D,  1163, 
colonized  by  Prior  Humbald  and  thirteen  Clugniac 
monks  from  St.  Milburga's,  Much  Wenlock.  The 
Clugniac  was  an  order  of  Reformed  Benedictines. 
Paisley,  made  an  abbey  in  1220,  was  burned  in 
1561  by  order  of  the  Lords  in  Council. 


OSTREGER  (6th  S.  xii.  306,  452).— 

"  They  be  called  Ostringers,"  says  Markham,  "  which 
are  the  keepers  of  Goshawkea  or  Tercelles,  and  those 
which  keepe  Sp*rrow-hawkes  or  Muskets  are  called 
Spervitera,  and  those  which  keepe  any  other  kinde  of 
hawke  being  long-winged  are  termed  Falconers."—'  Gen- 
tleman's Academic,  or  Booke  of  S.  Albans/  fol.  8. 



MANORS  IN  ENGLAND  (7th  S.  i.  68).— The 
'  Nomina  Villarum,'  in  the  Public  Record  Office, 
or  the  transcript  of  these  MSS.  from  1316  to  1559, 



[7th  S.  I.  FEB.  13,  '* 

in  the  British  Museum,  Harl.  MS.  6281.  C.  M. 
will  recollect  that  since  the  statute  "Quia  em- 
plores"  there  can  be  no  fresh  manors  by  sub- 
division. ED.  MARSHALL. 

ABSENTEE  GENTRY  (6th  S.  xii.  491). — Absentee- 
ism was  not  confined  to  Christmastide  in  Scotland, 
as  the  following  Act  of  the  Scottish  Parliament 
shows : — In  the  seventh  Parliament  of  James  VI., 
"  halden  and  begun  at  Edinburgh  the  xxiiij  dale 
of  October  the  zeir  of  God  1581  zeires,"  the  follow- 
ing Act  was  passed  : — 

"  116.  Against  the  abuse  of  sum  landid  Qentil-men,  and 
utheris  forbearing  to  keepe  house  at  their  awin  dwelling- 

"  Porsameikle,  as  of  lait  there  is  croppen*  in  amangis 
Bum  Noble  men.  Prelate,  Baronnes,  and  gentil-men,  in 
certaine  pairts  of  this  Realme,  being  of  gude  livinges, 
great  abuse  contrair  the  honour  of  the  Kealme,  and 
different  from  the  honest  frugalitie  of  their  Forebeares,f 
passing  to  Burrows,  Townes,  ClauchannesJ  and  Aile- 
houses  with  tbeir  househaldes,  and  sum  abiding  in  their 
awin  places,  usis  to  buird§  themselves  and  uthers  to 
their  awin||  servands,  as  in  hostillaries.  quhairon  skaith- 
ful  and  scbameful  inconvenients  dailie  falls  out,  to  the 
offence  of  God,  defrauding  of  the  pure  of  their  almes, 
eclander  of  the  cuntrie,  and  hurt  of  the  authours.  For 
remeid  quhairof,  Our  Soveraine  Lord,  with  advise  of  his 
three  Estaites  of  this  present  Parliament,  hes  statute  and 
ordained  :  That  every  Prelate,  Lord,  Baronne,  &  landed 
gentil-man,  sal  make  bis  ordinar  dwelling  and  residence 
at  his  awin  house  with  his  familie,  in  all  time  cumming, 
after  the  publication  of  the  Acts  of  this  present  Parlia- 
ment, for  setting  fordward  of  policie  and  decoration  of 
their  saidis  dwelling  places,  supporting  of  the  pure  with 
almes,  and  interteining  of  friendschip  with  their  Nicht- 
boures  be  al  gude  and  honest  meanes  :  And  that  they 
forbeare  the  said  unhonest  forme  of  buirding  of  them- 
pelues.  and  their  families  and  househaldes  in  Burrowes, 
Clauchannes  and  Aile-houses,  or  in  their  awin  houses, 
under  the  paines  following,  That  is  to  say:  Ilk  Lord  and 
Prelate  vnder  the  paine  of  500.  markes,  ilk  great  Baronne 
vnder  the  paine  of  300.  markes,  and  ilk  landed  Gentil- 
man  under  the  paine  of  200.  markes.  and  gif  they  failzie, 
being  called  and  ordourlie  convict  of  transgressing  this 
present  Act,  the  saidis  paines  to  be  vp-lifted  to  our 
Soveraine  Lords  vse." 


KALENDAR  (7th  S.  i.  89).— I  can  say  where  two 
sets  of  the  verses  often  seen  at  the  end  of  the 
calendar  of  each  month  in  early  missals  and 
breviaries  may  be  found.  Those  which  give  good 
advice  as  to  keeping  in  health  may  be  seen  in  the 
'  Flos  Medicines  Scholae  Salerni,'  one  set  in  pars  i. 
cap.  ii.  art.  iv.,  the  other  set  in  pars  v.  cap.  i. 
(see  Salvatore  de  Renzi,  *  Collectio  Salernitana,' 
Napoli,  1852,  t.  i.  pp.  446,  486).  There  are  many 
variations  between  the  text  given  by  De  Renzi  and 
that  given  in  most  of  the  liturgical  books  ;  but 
there  can  be  no  doubt,  I  think,  that  both  have  a 
common  origin,  though  in  some  lines  the  two  texts 
vary  so  much  that  they  can  be  hardly  recognized 

*  Crept. 
§  Board. 

f  Forefathers. 
II  Own. 


as  the  same.  On  the  whole,  the  text  given  by 
the  liturgical  books  seems  preferable  to  that  of  De 
Renzi,  though  this  latter  is,  he  tells  us,  the  fruit 
of  much  collation. 

A  couple  of  years  or  so  ago  I  was  shown  by  a 
young  physician  an  almanac  with  maxims  for  each 
day  and  month  of  the  year  as  to  the  best  means 
of  keeping  in  health ;  and  he  was  somewhat 
disappointed  to  find  that  his  idea,  which  he 
thought  was  quite  novel,  had  been  anticipated  by 
something  like  four  hundred  years. 


47,  Green  Street,  Park  Lane. 

CRONEBANE  HALFPENNY  (6th  S.  xii.  469;  7th  S. 
i.  17). — One  of  the  most  interesting  things  about 
these  artistic  and  well-executed  little  tokens  is 
their  variety.  An  Irish  coin  collector,  now  dead, 
informed  me  that  for  five  years  they  formed  the 
principal  copper  currency  of  Ireland;  and  I  re- 
member very  well  that  up  to  the  period  of  the 
issue  of  the  present  bronze  coins  many  "Cron- 
banes"  were  still  in  circulation,  though  they  were 
generally  regarded  as  "  bad  ha'pence."  They  were 
very  much  worn,  which  is  not  to  be  wondered  at, 
considering  they  had  been  in  circulation  since 
1789  and  the  three  or  four  succeeding  years. 
About  a  dozen  "  Cronbanes  "  are  now  before  me. 
The  general  type  is: — Obv.,  a  mitred  bishop's  head 
looking  to  left  (of  coin),  CRONBANE  HALFPENNY; 
rev.,  a  shield  of  arms,  shovels,  picks,  and  a  hunting 
horn;  crest,  a  windlass;  ASSOCIATED  IRISH  MINERS 
ARMS,  1789.  The  head  has  fine  flowing  hair  and 
beard,  and  a  dignified  and  venerable  appearance. 
I  presume  it  is  intended  for  St.  Patrick.  Three 
of  these  tokens,  which  are  precisely  alike,  have  the 
following  different  inscriptions  on  the  edge: — 
"Payable  at  London  Birmingham  or  Bristol"; 
"Payable  in  Lancaster  London  or  Bristol"; 
"  Payable  by  I  Simmons  Staplehurst."  Another 
variety  has  the  addition  of  a  decorated  pastoral 
staff  in  front  of  the  face.  On  four  of  these  I  find 
the  following  inscriptions  on  edge: — "  Payable  at 
Oronbane  Lodge  or  in  Dublin";  "Payable  at 
Anglesea  London  or  Bristol";  "Payable  at  Lon- 
don or  Dublin";  "Payable  at  Clougher  or  at 

Another  typehas: — Obv.,  the  same;  rev.,  figure  of 
Hibernia,  seated;  HIBERNIA.  On  one  of  these  the 
edge  inscription  reads :  "  Payable  in  London, 
Bristol  and  Lancaster." 

I  find  that  one  with  the  same  head  on  obv.  has: — 
MAY  IRELAND  FLOURISH  ;  rev.,  a  ship  in  full  sail. 


Another  has  : — Rev.,  a  shield  of  arms  and  crest 
(not  the  Irish  miners')  and  inscription,  PAYABLE 
IN  DUBLIN  NEWRY  OR  BELFAST  ;  and  on  edge, 


The  last  I  shall  have  to  mention  has,  instead  of 
St.  Patrick,— Obv.,  a  hooded  Druid's  head,  face  to 

7th  S.  I.  FEB.  13,  '86.] 



right  (of  coin),  surrounded  by  an  oak  wreath  (like 
the  well-known  Anglesea  tokens;  ;  rev.,  the  asso- 
ciated Irish  miners'  arms,  with  usual  inscription, 
and  date  1793;  on  edge,  "Payable  in  London 
Liverpool  or  Bristol. 

A  larger  collection  of  these  tokens  would  pro- 
bably contain  a  still  greater  variety  of  inscriptions. 
Cronebane,  in  Wicklow,  is  well  known  for  its 
copper-mines,  and  I  presume  these  "  Cronbanes  " 
were  made,  or  were  supposed  to  be  made,  of  copper 
from  these  mines.  It  is  worthy  of  note  how  fre- 
quently the  word  "Bristol"  occurs  on  these  tokens; 
this  suggests  that  they  may  have  been  struck  there. 
If  it  could  be  shown  that  Bristol  merchants  re- 
ceived the  production  of  the  Cronebane  mines  it 
would  give  a  colour  to  this  supposition. 



HOGMANAY  (7th  S.  i.  85).— Menage  says,  "  En 
basse  Normandie,  les  pauvres,  le  dernier  jour  de 
Tan,  en  demandant  Paumone  disent  Hoguinanno." 
Brand  says  that  he  "found  in  the  handwriting  of 
the  learned  Mr.  Robert  Harrison,  of  Durham,  the 
following,  '  Scots  Christmass  Carroll  by  the 
Guisearts"':  '''Homme  est  ne"  corrupted  to 
"  Hogmenay,"  and  "  Trois  Kois  la  "  to  "  Troleray  " 
or  "  Trololey  " — a  suggestion,  I  suppose,  of  even 

less  value  than  that  of 


au  gui  rnenez. 

JOHN  STOCK  (7th  S.  i.  67).— In  Park's  '  History 
of  Harnpstead'  (p.  281)  MR.  WARD  will  find  a 
long  account  of  the  will  of  "  John  Stock,  citizen 
and  draper,  many  years  painter  at  his  Majestey's 
dock-yards."  In  addition  to  legacies  of  3,0001.  to 
Christ's  Hospital,  1,00<U  to  Corpus  Christi  College, 
Cambridge,  1,OOOZ.  to  the  minister  and  parishioners 
of  St.  John's,  Hampstead,  and  many  smaller 
legacies,  be  left  upwards  of  6G,OOOZ.  to  the  Wor- 
shipful Company  of  Painter-Stainers,  to  be  paid  in 
pensions  of  101,  per  annum  to  aged  blind  persons 
and  to  poor  lame  painters,  &c.  The  funds  from 
this  and  other  bequests  are  distributed  with  the 
most  careful  consideration,  and  under  the  control 
of  the  Charity  Commissioners,  to  about  two  hun- 
dred old  and  needy  persons.  At  the  annual 
dinner,  at  the  Feast  of  St.  Luke,  one  of  the  prin- 
cipal toasts  is  still  "The  pious  memory  of  John 
Stock"  (drank  in  solemn  silence);  and  his  por- 
trait hangs  in  the  court-room.  The  Worshipful 
Company  of  Painter-Stainers,  according  to  Horace 
Wai  pole,  received  their  first  charter  in  the  sixth 
of  King  Edward  IV.,  but  they  existed  as  a  fra- 
ternity in  the  time  of  King  Edward  III.  They 
were  called  Paynter-Stayners  because  a  picture  on 
canvas  was  formerly  called  a  stained  cloth,  as  one 
on  panel  was  called  a  table,  probably  from  the 
French  tableau.  In  the  pictures  of  King  Henry 
VIII.  we  find  them  always  so  distinguished,  as, 

"  Item,  a  table  with  the  picture  of  the  Lady 
Elizabeth  her  Grace";  "  Item, a  stained  cloth  with 
the  picture  of  Charles  the  Emperor."  The  minute 
books  which  the  company  still  possess  commence 
from  the  year  1623.  One  of  their  duties,  fre- 
quently exercised,  was  to  search  for  work,  to  judge 
if  it  were  well  or  ill  done,  and,  on  many  occasions, 
to  condemn  it.  On  March  10,  1673,  there  is  a 
minute,  "  That  the  Painter  of  Joseph  and  Pottifer's 
Wife  and  the  Fowre  Elements  be  fined  3Z.  6s.  8d. 
for  such  bad  work."  The  present  Painters'  Hall 
stands  on  the  site  of  the  old  one,  which  was  de- 
stroyed in  the  Fire  of  London,  and  was  bequeathed 
to  the  company  by  Sir  John  Browne,  Serjeant 
Paynter  to  King  Henry  VIII.,  by  patent  dated 
1511,  and  who  was  elected  an  alderman  of  London 
in  1522.  Sampson  Camden,  who  is  said  to  have 
painted  a  portrait  of  Queen  Elizabeth,  gave  the 
company,  in  1622,  a  silver  cup  and  cover,  in 
repousse'  work,  which  stands  two  feet  high.  It  is 
used  annually  on  St.  Luke's  Day.  Another  silver 
cup  and  cover,  with  bowl  (dated  1623),  was  be- 
queathed to  the  company  by  his  son  William 
Camden,  Clarencieux  King  at  Arms,  in  memory 
of  his  father.  A  portrait  of  Camden,  in  the  dress 
of  Clarencieux  King  at  Arms,  was  presented  to 
the  hall  by  Mr.  Morgan,  master  of  the  company, 
in  1676.  Sir  James  Thornhill,  who  was  master 
in  1728,  presented  a  cup  and  cover  in  plain  silver. 
Sir  Joshua  Reynolds  was  also  a  member  of  the 
company,  and  at  the  present  day  the  livery  has 
the  honour  to  number  amongst  its  members 
Sir  Frederic  Leighton,  the  president  of  the  Royal 
Academy,  who  was  presented  with  the  freedom  of 
the  company  in  1884.  I  am  principally  indebted 
for  these  notes  to  a  short  history  of  the  company 
by  Mr.  John  Gregory  Grace,  master  in  1880,  and 
to  an  article  in  the  Port/olio  for  1884,  by  Mr. 
Alfred  Beaver.  AMBROSE  HEAL. 

Amedee  Villa,  Crouch  End,  N. 

"  FROM  BLOOM  TILL  BLOOM  "  (6th  S.  xii.  143). 
— This  appears  to  refer  to  floral  rents,  which 
were  far  from  uncommon  in  respect  of  copy- 
hold lands,  and  particularly  what  are  known  as 
"  customary  freeholds."  The  lord  of  the  manor 
received  "  a  red  rose  "  or  "  a  gillyflower  on  the 
Feast  of  Saint  John  the  Baptist,  yearly."  This 
feast,  according  to  the  old  calendar,  would  fall  on 
our  July  5,  and  this  would  explain  the  date.  I  have 
a  cutting  from  recent  auctioneers'  particulars  of 
sale  of  the  manor  of  Oathall  (in  WivelsthVi  parish, 
Sussex)  which  quotes  a  rental  of  the  manor  in  1818, 
and  amongst  the  rents  are,  "  For  Lanus  in  Plomp- 
ton  called  Roseland.  A  red  Rose.  Heriot.,  Best 
Beast."  This  shows  that  floral  rents  are  not  yet 
extinct.  Grimm  ('Teutonic  Mythology,'  trans. 
Stallybrass,  i.  58)  refers  to  lands  in  Hessian  town- 
ships paying  a  bunch  of  May-flowers  (lilies  of  the 
valley)  every  year  for  rent,  and  he  considers  this 



[7*  8. 1.  FEB.  13,  '86.   ] 

kind  of  rents  to  be  relics  of  the  ancient  floral  sacri- 
fices. FREDERICK  E.  SAWYER,  F.S.A. 

ANECDOTE  OF  PORSON  (7th  S.  i.  87). — Perhaps 
the  word  asked  for  is  trifelous—  trifling.  It 
occurs  on  recto  A  iii.  of  the  sermon  referred  to, 
which  was  printed  by  Wynkyn  de  Worde  : — 

"  Tryfelous  thynges  that  were  lytell  to  be  regarded  she 
wolde  let  paese  by,  but  the  other  that  were  of  weyght  & 
substaunce  wherin  she  myghte  prouffyte  she  wolde  not 
let  for  ony  payne  or  laboure  to  take  vppon  hande." 

My  quotation  is  taken  from  John  Fisher's  *  Works ' 
(E.E.T.S.).  F.  C.  BIRKBECK  TERRY. 

OF  CHICHESTER  (7th  S.  i.  68).— It  is  stated  in  the 
biographical  notice  of  Bishop  Henry  King  prefixed 
by  the  Rev.  John  Hannah  (now  Archdeacon  of 
Lewes  and  Vicar  of  Brighton)  to  his  edition  of  the 
poems  of  Bp.  H.  King,  Oxford  and  London,  1843, 
that  the  bishop  left  two  sons,  the  elder  of  whom, 
John,  died  in  1671  without  issue,  and  the 
younger,  Henry,  had  two  daughters,  Mary  and 
Eliz  ibeth.  The  latter  married  Mr.  Isaac  Houblon, 
but  had  no  descendants  ;  the  former  married  Mr. 
Edmund  Wyndham,  "  a  marriage  which  I  have 
not  traced  elsewhere,"  says  the  learned  editor. 
If  this  marriage  can  be  followed  out  the  de- 
scendants, if  any,  may  be  discovered. 


SIBLEY  (6th  S.  xii.  389,453).—!  am  sorry  to 
say  I  knew  all  that  your  correspondents  have 
kindly  contributed  on  my  query,  but  I  want 
to  know  more.  Sible  Hedingham  did  not  give 
me  an  original  form.  Sibley  also  is  known  to 
me  not  only  as  a  common  surname  of  the  lower 
middle  class  in  Herts,  &c.,  but  as  a  surname  of 
the  higher  middle  class,  as  it  is  that  of  sheriff's 
of  Herts,  &c.  My  friend  MR.  CARMICHAEL  has 
not  been  able  as  yet  to  find  it  as  a  local  name, 
but  that  does  not  prove  its  non-existence  in  such 
form.  If  found  it  may  be  a  very  small  hamlet 
or  a  farm  on  the  Ordnance  map.  If  found  it  may 
assist  in  the  examination  of  an  interesting  genea- 
logical subject.  From  about  the  thirteenth 
century  it  can  be  traced  as  a  name  in  Herts, 
Essex,  and  the  neighbouring  shires,  and  conse- 
quently in  London.  Its  headquarters  seem  to 
be  in  the  east,  and  it  does  not  extend  very  far 
north.  It  is,  however,  found  much  more  freely 
now  in  some  western  counties,  as  Cornwall,  Devon, 
Somerset.  This  large  body  I  believe  to  be  an 
offshoot,  but  the  determination  of  a  local  name 
would  assist  in  the  solution.  Why  it  is  chiefly 
wanted  is  for  the  great  American  clan,  of  which 
a  history  is  now  in  preparation.  That  was  founded 
by  a  Sibley  and  his  two  sons,  who  are  said  to 
have  come  from  St.  Albans,  and  settled  in  New 
England  in  the  beginning  of  the  seventeenth 
century.  From  them  many  hundreds  of  Sibleys 

are  descended,  but  they  have  now  chiefly  mi- 
grated to  the  western  states,  where  there  is  a 
town  of  Sibley,  in  Minnesota.  They  include 
many  men  of  eminence  and  estimation,  one  of 
whom  is  the  founder  of  Sibley  College.  There 
is  every  reason  to  believe  they  are  descended, 
according  to  their  tradition,  from  John  Sibley, 
one  of  the  early  mayors  of  St.  Albans  after  its 
incorporation  ;  and  it  is  possible  the  borough 
records  may  afford  collateral  evidence.  The 
Mayor  of  St.  Albans  has  kindly  promised  me  to 
further  these  researches. 

The  hundred  millions  of  English-speaking  people 
on  the  two  shores  of  the  Atlantic  are  made  up  of 
units  such  as  the  Sibleys,  and  what  we  can  do  to 
foster  the  evidence  of  such  connexion  is  desirable 
in  our  national  interests.  Any  further  communi- 
cations will  be  thankfully  received  by  me  and 
transmitted  to  our  friends  on  the  other  side.  For 
the  evidence  of  my  own  alliance  with  the  Sibleys 
I  am  indebted  to  the  kindness  of  that  great 
friend  of  the  cause  of  English  and  American 
genealogy,  the  late  Col.  J.  Lemuel  Chester,  F.S.A. 


32,  St.  George's  Square,  S.W. 

"  SON  OF  A  SEA  COOTE  "  (6th  S.  xii.  493;  7th  S.  i. 
79). — Fishing  long  ago  off  the  coast  of  Cornwall 
with  some  old  sailors,  relatives,  one  of  them, 
angry  with  his  catch,  a  dog-fish,  all  others  having 
been  driven  away  by  this  useless  predatory  fish, 
smashed  it  on  the  side  of  the  boat,  exclaiming, 

"  d son  of  a  sea-cook."     "  Why  cook  ?  "  said 

I.  His  explanation  went  to  show  that  the 
clumsy  one,  weakling,  deformed,  or  good  for  no- 
thing else,  was  mostly  appointed  cook  on  board  ; 
the  one  they  could  spare  easiest.  W.  RENDLE. 

HERALDIC  (6th  S.  xii.  516 ;  7th  S.  i.  53).— Since 
my  former  communication  I  have  referred  to 
Edmondson's  'Peerage,'  and  under  "Exeter" 
(vol.  ii.  p.  105)  the  armorial  bearings  mentioned  by 
T.  W.  W.  S.  will  be  found  as  the  first  five  among 
the  quarterings  of  that  family;  the  sixth  is  Nevill, 
which  was  brought  in  by  the  marriage  of  Thomas, 
eldest  son  of  Lord  Burghley,  with  Dorothy, 
daughter  and  coheir  of  John  Nevill,  Lord  Latimer, 
and  could  not,  therefore,  have  been  borne  by 
Robert,  Earl  of  Salisbury.  In  the  same  '  Peer- 
age '  these  Cecil  quarterings  will  be  found  among 
those  of  Lord  Saye  and  Seal  (Nos.  20  et  sequent}, 
but  between  the  arms  of  Carleon  and  Eckington 
those  of  Dicons,  Raynes,  and  Bokard  are  inserted. 
It  appears  from  Dr.  Hutton's  MS.  collections  for 
Oxfordshire  (Rawlinson  MSS.,  Bodleian  Library, 
1163)  that  in  the  manor  house  of  Steane,  Northauts, 
was  a  shield  with  the  arms  of  Cecil  quartering 
Winston,  Carleon  (which  coat  he  describes  as 
Sa,  three  tents  (?)  a.,  in  fess  point  a  bezant),  Eck- 
ington, and  Walcot.  At  Stoneleigh  Abbey,  in  a 
window  of  the  inner  hall,  are  several  shields  of 

7">  S.  I.  FEB.  13,  '86.] 



arms  brought  from  Brereton  Hall,  Cheshire,  anc 
dated  1577.  Among  them  is  one  of  Cecil  with 
six  bearings:  1  and  6,  Cecil;  2,  Gu.,  three  mullet 
of  six  points  a.  (Hansard);  3,  the  field  indistinct 
a  lion  rampant  a.,  double-queued,  armed,  anc 
langued  gu.  (?)  ;  4,  Eckingion  ;  5,  Walcot 
Although  this  glass  was  put  up  exactly  as  it  was 
received  from  Brereton  Hall,  an  examination  of  i 
leads  me  to  think  that  the  bearings  Nos.  2  and  I 
are  of  later  date,  and  have  been  inserted  at  some 
time  in  place  probably  of  those  of  Winston  anc 
Cairleon.  I  cannot  find,  at  any  rate,  that  they 
have  any  place  among  the  quarterings  of  Cecil. 

G.  L.  G. 

WOLDICHE  (7th  S.  i.  29).— Can  this  possibly  be 
Wolvey,  a  place  about  four  miles  from  Hinckley 
and  five  from  Nuneaton  ? 


Oldish  End,  or  Olditches  End,  is  a  hamlet  oi 
Temple  Balsall,  in  Warwickshire.  This  is  probably 
the  place  inquired  for.  WM.  UNDERBILL. 

LUBBOCK  (7th  S.  i.  86).— Your  correspondent's 
suggestion  has  been  anticipated  by  Lower  in  his 
'Essay  on  English  Surnames.'  Canon  Bardsley 
in  '  English  Surnames,'  pp.  163-4,  ed.  1875,  also 
says  :— "  Lubbock,  once  written  *  de  Lubyck'  and 
'de  Lubek/  from  Lubeck  in  Saxony." 


PORTER  OF  CALAIS  (7th  S.  i.  107).— My  ancestor 
Sir  Nicholas  Wentworth,  knighted  by  Benry  VIII. 
at  Boulogne  in  1544,  was  ''Chiet  Porter  of  Calais." 
His  eldest  son,  Peter  Wentworth,  M.P.,  of  Burn- 
ham  Abbey,  has  also  sometimes  been  called  in 
pedigrees  "Porter  of  Calais,"  but  this  is  very 
"  doubtful."  I  also  should  be  glad  to  be  told  where 
to  find  a  list  of  the  porters  of  Calais.  D. 

LEWIS  WAY  (7th  S.  i.  87).— Early  in  this  cen- 
tury Lewis  Way  was  the  owner  of  Stanstead,  about 
eight  miles  from  Chichester,  on  the  border  of  the 
county.  He  had  a  craze  for  converted  Jews,  and 
had  his  house  full  of  them.  They  were  fed  on  the 
fat  of  the  land.  One  day  a  rumour  came  that 
Lewis  Way  was  a  bankrupt.  The  next  morning 
every  Jew  was  gone,  and  they  had  taken  all  the 
silver  they  could  lay  their  hands  on,  the  books 
from  the  library,  even  the  prayer  books  in  the 
chapel — everything  convertible  and  easy  of  car- 
riage. So  much  for  a  converted  Jew. 



A  full  account  of  this  remarkable  philanthropist 
can  be  read  in  the  one-volume  edition  of  '  Travels 
and  Adventures  of  Dr.  Wolff,' p.  80.  Way  devoted 
himself  to  the  conversion  of  the  Jewish  nation, 
after  receiving  an  enormous  legacy  from  a  stranger, 
with  the  condition  that  he  should  employ  it  for 
the  glory  of  God,  Wolff  says,  "  He  took  sixteen 

Jews  into  his  house,  and  baptized  several  of  them ; 
but  soon  after  their  baptism  they  stole  his  silver 
spoons."  One,  named  Josephson,  was  transported 
for  forging  Way's  signature. 


DEATHS  IN  1885  (7th  S.  i.  63).— MR.  ROBERTS 
justly  complains  that  dates  of  birth  and  death  are 
frequently  omitted  in  obituary  notices.  But  he 
lays  himself  open  to  censure  in  one  notable  instance 
by  omitting  the  date  of  birth  of  Mr.  Thorns,  given 
in  the  obituary  in  *  N.  &  Q.'  I  do  not  know  from 
what  source  MR.  ROBERTS  took  his  notices  of 
Richard  Ansdell,  R.A.,  and  Brinley  Richards. 
The  exact  date  of  death  of  each  is  given  in  the 
Athenaeum,  though  MR.  ROBERTS  only  mentions 
the  month.  The  following  information  will  help  to 
complete  the  list : — 

Ansdell,  Richard,  d.  April  20  (Ath.t  April  25,  p.  542). 
Ewing,  Mrg.  J.  H.,  b.  Aug.  3,  1841  ('Juliana  Horatia 

Ewing  and  her  Books,'  by  Horatia  K.  P.  Gatty). 
Jackson,  J.,  Bishop  of  London,  b.  Feb.  22, 1811  (Vincent's 

'  Diet,  of  Biog.,'  1877). 
Milnes,    R.   M.    (Lord  Houghton),  b.  June  19,    1809 

('Debrett,' 1883). 
Munro,  H.  A.  J.,  b.  Oct.  14, 1819   (Vincent's  '  Diet,  of 

Biog.,'  1877). 

Primrose,  Col.  E.  H.,b.  Sept.  8, 1848  ('Debrett,'  1883). 
Richards,  Brinley,  d.  May  1  (Ath.,  May  9,  p.  609). 
Thorns,  W.  J.,  b.  Nov.  16,  1803  ('fl.  &  Q.,'  6th  g.  XH. 


Walford,  C.,  d.  Sept.  28  (Daily  News,  Sept.  29). 
White,  R.  G.,  d.  April  8  ('  Whitaker's  Almanack,'  1886, 

Wordsworth,   G.,  Bishop  of  Lincoln,  b.  Oct.  30,  1807 

('  Debrett,'  1883).    MR.  ROBERTS  says  "  b.  1806." 

CONQUER  (7th  S.  i.  27,  71).— The  Kidderminster 
Shuttle,  Jan.  16,  is  responsible  for  an  anecdote  to 
the  effect  that  a  nervous  curate,  who  on  the  pre- 
vious Sunday  had  to  give  out  the  line  of  the  hymn, 
"Conquering  kings  their  titles  take,"  astonished 
the  congregation  by  reading  the  line  "  Kinkering 
koogs  their  titles  take."  It  is  very  evident,  how- 
ever, how  he  would  pronounce  the  word  conquer. 

ROBINSON  CRUSO  (7th  S.  i.  89).— There  is  no 
need  of  going  to  Norfolk  to  bring  the  name  of 

ruso  into  close  contact  with  Defoe.  When  he 
was  at  Charles  Morton's  school  at  Stoke  Newing- 
;on  he  had  amongst  his  schoolfellows  a  Cruso.  I 
enow  I  have  read  this,  but  I  cannot  at  this  moment 
ay  my  hand  upon  the  authority.  It  may  be  in 
Lee's  '  Life  of  Defoe,'  but  it  was  not  there  I  read 
t;  no  stress  was  laid  upon  it.  It  was  in  some 
>ook  such  as  Granger's  'Biographical  History, 
eeming  with  accidental  gossip.  C.  A.  WARD. 

Haverstock  Hill. 

That  Defoe  was  familiar  with  the  name  of  Cruso 
rom  the  days  (1675-80)  when  "  he  was  placed  in 
in  academy  at  Newington  Green,  under  the  direc- 
ion  of  the  Rev.  Charles  Morton,"  there  is  little 



[7«>  S.  I,  FEB.  13,  '86. 

doubt,  for  Timothy  Cruso,  afterwards  an  eminent 
divine,  was  educated  there  also — Chadwick  ('  The 
Life  and  Times  of  Daniel  De  Foe  ')  thinks  "  at  the 
same  time."  The  question  arises,  Was  Timothy  of 
the  King's  Lynn  family ;  and  was  there  a  Robinson 
Cruso  before  1719,  when  the  book  was  published  ? — 
because  "  time  immemorial "  in  pedigrees  may 
mean  as  far  back  as  the  Flood — witness  that  of  the 
Wynns  of  Wynnstay,  which  Noah  is  said  to  have 
brought  out  of  the  ark. 

34,  St.  Petersburg  Place,  W. 

SIR  WALTER  RALEIGH  (7th  S.  i.  88).— I  have 
the  pleasure  to  inform  your  correspondent  CELT 
that  the  bibliography  of  Raleigh's  works  and  the 
works  relating  to  him  has  been  carefully  compiled 
by  Dr.  T.  N.  Brushfield,  of  Budleigh  Salterton, 
Devon,  and  the  first  portion  appeared  in  the 
Western  Antiquary  for  last  month.  The  biblio- 
graphy consists  of  two  hundred  and  fifty  entries, 
with  copious  descriptive  and  explanatory  notes,  the 
whole  preceded  by  an  interesting  article  relating 
chiefly  to  Raleigh's  '  History  of  the  World.'  Dr. 
Brushfield  has  taken  pains  to  verify  the  titles  and 
collations  of  every  copy  of  the  '  History  '  to  which 
he  could  get  access,  and  his  work  bears  tokens  of 
the  most  painstaking  labours.  I  enclose  a  reprint 
of  the  eight  pages  already  published,  and  shall  be 
happy  to  supply  your  correspondent  with  a  copy 
if  he  will  send  me  his  address.  The  number  of 
the  Western  Antiquary  for  January  has  been 
already  sent  you.  W.  H.  K.  WRIGHT. 


CELT  will  find  full  information  as  to  Sir  Walter 
Raleigh  in  the  following  : — 

Cayley,  A.  Life  of  Sir  Walter  Raleigh.    London,  1805, 

Oldys,  W.  Life  of  Sir  Walter  Raleigh.    1735. 

Life  of  Sir  Walter  Raleigh.     London.  1677. 

Thomson,  Mrs.  Life  of  Sir  Walter  Raleigh.  London 

Theobald,  Lewis.  Memoirs  of  Sir  Walter  Raleigh 
London,  1719. 

Tytler,  P.  F.  Life  of  Sir  Walter  Raleigh.  "  Edinburgh 
Cabinet  Library,"  1839,  Nelson;  Edinburgh,  new  ed.j 

Whitehead,  C.  Life  and  Times  of  Sir  Walter  Raleigh 
London,  1854. 

Creighton,  Louise.  Life  of  Sir  Walter  Raleigh.  Lon 
don,  1877. 

See  also 

Gardiner,  S.  R.  History  of  England,  1603-16.  Lond 

Kingsley,  C.  Miscellanies,  vol.  i. 
Wood,  A.  Athenae  Oxonienses. 

There  is  a  bibliography  of  near  three  pages,  both 
as  to  Raleigh's  own  works  and  those  in  connexion 
with  him,  in  Lowndes's  '  Bibliographer's  Manual. 

C.  P. 

7,  Cowley  Street,  Westminster,  S.W. 

There  is  a  'Life  of  Sir  Walter  Raleigh,'  bj 
Patrick  Fraser  Tytler,  in  No.  11  of  the  "  Edin 

Durgh  Cabinet  Library,"  circa  1840.  There  is  also 
a  good  account  of  his  trial  in  '  Criminal  Trials,' 
Lond.,  C.  Knight,  1832,  vol.  i.  pp.  389-411. 


Life  of  Sir  Walter  Raleigh.  By  A.  Cayley.  Second 
edition  published  1806. 

Life  of  Sir  Walter  Raleigh.  By  P.  P.  Tytler  (Lord 
Woodhouselee).  "  Edinburgh  Cabinet  Library," second 
edition  published  1833. 

Sir  Walter  Raleigh's  Works,  with  Lives.  By  Oldyg  and 
Birch.  Oxford,  1829. 

Raleigh's  Treatise  of  the  Sea- Ports,  with  Remarks  by 
Sir  H.  Shears.  1700. 


There  is  a  good  beginning  of  a  bibliography  in 
Bohn's  '  Lowndes,'  in  five  columns  of  email  type. 
These  may  be  added  : — 

Life,  by  Wm.  Oldys,  with  Trial,  portrait  by  Vertue, 
folio,  1737. 

Memoir,  by  Samuel  G.  Drake,  portrait,  4to.,  Boston, 

Life,  by  James  A.  St.  John.  8vo.,  1869. 

W.  C.  B. 

EPIGRAM  BY  MACAULAY  (7th  S.  i.  109).— Under 
the  heading  "  Logogriphs"  in  Frederick  D'Arros 
Planche's  '  Guess  Me  :  a  Curious  Collection  of 
Enigmas,'  &c.,  "illustrated  by  George  Cruik- 
shank  and  others,"  London,  Dean  &  Son,  Ludgate 
Hill  (n.d.,  but  probably  circa  1870),  will  be  found 
the  piece  on  "Manslaughter,"  and  another  <;  logo- 
griph  "  by  the  same  author  on  the  word  "  Cod." 

[The  REV.  H.  DELEVINGNE  supplies  the  enigma  in  full, 
and  justly  calls  it  "doggerel,  which  can  scarcely  be  by 
Macfiulay."  As  it  is  too  long  for  our  pages  we  will  send  it 
to  M.  G.  D.  if  be  will  send  a  stamped  envelope  with  big 
address,  which  we  do  not  possess.  We  take  this  oppor- 
tunity of  saying  that  correspondents  who  elect  to  give 
initials  in  place  of  names  and  addresses  are  unaware  how 
frequently  they  miss  answers  that  would  be  sent  direct, 
but  are  unsuited  to  '  N.  &  Q.'J 

ESQUIRE  (6th  S.  xii.  495;  7th  S.  i.  34, 74).- 1  am 
satisfied  with  the  quarto  and  folio  readings  with- 
out Theobald's,  and  explain  my  doubts  thus.  To 
a  cursory  reader  Shallow  and  Slender  are  shallow 
vapourers.  But  to  one  who  did  not  know  that  the 
justiceship  of  the  peace  carried  with  it  tx  officio  the 
title  of  esquire,  Shakespeare's  words  were  no  proof 
that  Shallow's  title  was  thence  derived,  for,  first, 
we  know  not  his  descent,  and,  secondly,  Shake- 
speare's legal  dicta,  though  unusually  correct,  are 
never  quoted  as  "  authorities  "  by  our  judges. 


30,  79).— 

To  catch  the  eel  of  science  by  the  tail. 

In  my  edition  of  the  '  Dunciad  '  (the  second)  the  lines 
quoted  by  MR.  ED.  MARSHALL  are  11.  233-4  of  book  i., 
not  11.  275-6.  It  should  be  noted  that  Smollett,  in  '  Pere- 
grine Pickle,'  chap,  xlii,  makes  his  hero  rate  the  pedantic 
friend  of  Pallet  as  "  a  mere  index-hunter,  who  held  the 
eel  of  science  by  the  tail."  JAMES  HOOPER, 

7"i  S.  I.  FIB.  13,  '86.] 




The  Lauderdale  Papers.  Edited  by  Osmund  Airy. 
Vol.  III.,  1673-1679.  (Printed  for  the  Camden  Society.) 
THE  important  task  undertaken  by  Mr.  Airy  of  publish- 
ing a  selection  from  the  Lauderdale  Papers  is  accom- 
plished, and  a  signally  valuable  contribution  to  our 
knowledge  of  a  troublous  period  of  Scotch  history  is 
furnished.  In  no  respect  do  the  letters  now  given  to 
the  world  yield  in  interest  to  those  previously  published. 
The  principal  correspondents  in  the  present  volume  are 
the  Duke  of  Lauderdale  and  Charles  II.  There  are  many 
letters,  however,  from  the  Dukes  of  York  and  Monmouth, 
and  from  the  Earl  of  Kincardine  while  he  remained 
loyal  to  Lauderdale.  Seldom  had  a  monarch  a  more 
serviceable  tool  than  Lauderdale  shows  himself,  and 
seldom  was  a  monarch  more  consistently  staunch  than 
Charles.  When  the  opposition  to  Lauderdale  was  at  its 
height  Charles,  upon  hearing  that  Sir  Henry  Saville 
had  voted  against  him  and  urged  others  to  do  the  same, 
had  an  access  of  passion  such  as  has  been  judged  strange 
to  his  nature.  According  to  the  description  of  this  given 
by  Sir  Andrew  Forrester  to  the  Duke  (p.  140),  Charles, 
upon  the  first  sight  of  Saville,  "  fell  into  such  a  passion 
that  his  face  &  lipps  became  as  pale  (almost)  as  death, 
his  cheeks  &  armes  trembled,  and  then  he  sayd  to 
Saville,  You  Villayne,  how  dare  you  have  the  impudence 
to  come  into  my  presence  when  you  are  guilty  of  such 
basenes  as  you  have  shewne  this  day  1  L  doe  now  & 
from  hence  forth  discharge  you  from  ray  service, 
com'anding  you  never  to  come  any  more  into  my  pre- 
sence nor  to  any  place  where  I  shall  happen  to  be/' 
Similar  testimony  is  borne  by  the  Earl  of  Murray  also  in 
a  letter  to  Lauderdale.  An  animated  account  of  the 
fight  at  Lasmahago  is  supplied  pp.  162-4,  Graham  of 
Claverhouse,  one  of  Lauderdale's  correspondents,  owning 
that  they  fell  upon  a  conventicle  "little  to  our  advan- 
tage." Of  the  massacre  at  Bothwell  Bridge— for  it  was 
not  a  fight— a  good  description  is  also  furnished.  It  is 
difficult,  indeed,  to  say  how  much  interesting  and  im- 
portant matter  is  not  to  be  found  in  Mr.  Airy's  admir- 
able contribution  to  history. 

Our  Parish :  a  Medley.  By  One  who  has  never  lived 
out  of  It.  (Lewes,  Sussex  Advertiter  Office;  Hails- 
ham,  E.  H.  Baker.) 

THIS  modest  little  work  consists  of  a  series  of  short 
but  thoroughly  readable  articles  descriptive  of  village 
life  in  Hailsham,  Sussex,  during  the  present  century, 
the  author  being  Mr.  Thomas  Geering,  of  that  parish. 
It  will  be  read  with  interest  by  many,  especially 
Sussex  antiquaries,  as  the  personal  reminiscences  of 
the  author  are  pleasantly  blended  with  scraps  of  Sussex 
history,  dialect,  folk-lore,  and  customs.  The  parish  of 
Hailsham  is  close  to  Hurstmonceux,  Pevensey,  and 
Eastbourne,  and  was  formerly  the  chief  place  of  the 

of  Eastbourne  in  its  humbler  days,  when  its  children  went 
to  Hailsham  to  be  confirmed.  The  curfew  is  still  rung 
in  Hailsham,  as  we  learn,  and  many  old  customs  are 
scarcely  extinct  there. 

The  best  chapters  are  those  on  "  Ghosts,"  "  Our  Inns 
and  Public-houses,"  "The  Pillion  and  the  Harvest 
Supper,"  and  "  Our  Poet,  John  Hollamby."  This  worthy, 
who  is  designated  as  "The  Unlettered  Muse,"  was,  as 
we  learn,  for  thirty  years  grinder  and  leading  man  in 
Hailsham's  oldest  mill.  He  issued  a  small  volume  of 
poems  in  1827,  which  seems  generally  to  have  escaped 
notice,  for  we  do  not  find  his  name  in  the  list  of 

Sussex  poets,   although   from   the  quotations  given  by 
Mr.  Geering  his  work  is  evidently  worthy  of  perusal. 

Mr.  Geering  has  been  a  careful  student  of  Charles 
Lamb,  whose  style  he  has  almost  unconsciously  adopted, 
and  the  kindly  interest  he  takes  in  all  that  goes  on 
around  him  will  make  his  book  acceptable  to  many 
readers  who  avoid  more  strictly  antiquarian  works. 

S(oria    Universale  di    Cesare   Cantu.     Tenth  Edition. 

(Turin,  Unione  Tipografico-Editrice.) 
STUDENTS  of  history  will  hail  with  satisfaction  this  new 
edition  of  one  of  the  most  valuable  and  comprehensive 
works  of  the  age,  "  interamente  riveduta  dall'  autore  e 
portata  sino  agli  ultimi  eventi,"  fifty  years  after  the 
commencement  of  the  first  edition.  To  write  a  review 
of  the  '  Storia  Universale '  would  be  a  work  of  super- 
erogation at  this  time  of  day ;  but  a  special  tribute  is 
due  to  Commendatore  Cantu  from  Englishmen  for  having 
been  among  the  first  to  set  the  example  of  discarding  that 
prolixity  of  style,  that  accumulation  of  qualificatives, 
that  meandering  all  round  the  subject  in  hand  which 
makes  so  much  that  is  written  in  elegant  Italian  diction 
tedious  and  forbidding.  It  would  be  difficult  in  Cantu's 
writings  ever  to  find  a  word  that  could  be  spared.  All 
is  concise  and  to  the  point.  If  he  is  ever  the  least 
obscure  it  is  the  obscurity  of  a  telegram.  The  author's 
research,  acumen,  honesty  of  purpose,  and  other  qualities 
necessary  to  the  trustworthy  historian  are  too  well  known 
to  require  more  than  passing  mention ;  but  they  have 
specially  qualified  him  for  preparing  the  difficult  volume 
which  appeals  to  the  largest  number  of  readers,  viz.,  the 
eleventh  and  last,  treating  of  the  period  1789-1885,  so 
large  a  portion  of  which  has  passed  under  his  eye,  and 
in  the  "  making  "  of  which,  so  far  as  his  own  country  is 
concerned,  he  has  himself  been  a  prominent  factor. 
This  volume,  it  is  announced,  will  be  brought  out  in 
monthly  parts  simultaneously  with  the  first,  and  will  be 
issued  independently  of  the  rest. 

THE  Edinburgh  Review  for  January  gives  us  archaeo- 
logy in  its  articles  on  the  '  Coptic  Churches  of  Egypt ' 
and  on  '  Phoenician  Antiquities ';  home  and  foreign 
political  questions  in  its  considerations  of  England, 
Afghanistan,  and  Russia,  and  of  the  French  in  Mada- 
gascar, as  well  as  in  its  concluding  article  on  '  Popular 
Government ';  and  literary  criticism  proper  in  its  article 
on  Victor  Hugo.  This  is,  of  course,  not  an  exhaustive 
division  of  the  contents  of  the  number,  but  is  sufficient  for 
a  broad  outline.  We  are  inclined  to  think  that  Victor 
Hugo  had  more  of  the  quality  of  patience,  from  a  literary 
point  of  view,  than  he  is  credited  with  in  the  Edinburgh. 
But  his  patience,  like  his  judgment,  lacked  balance  and 
a  due  sense  of  proportion.  Still,  it  was  not  without 
effect,  and  did,  we  believe,  constitute  an  element  in  his 
success  which  should  not  be  overlooked.  The  comparison 
of  the  articles  on  home  politics  which  appear  in  the 
several  numbers  of  the  Edinburgh  and  Quarterly  would 
be  full  of  interest,  though  rather  beyond  our  scope.  We 
can  only  commend  them  to  the  careful  study  of  both 

THE  Quarterly  Review  for  January,  in  its  purely  lite- 
rary division,  takes  up  the  gauntlet  on  behalf  of  Spanish 
literature  in  its  article  on  Mr.  Ormsby's  translation  of 
'  Don  Quixote.'  It  BO  happens  that  the  Knight  of  La 
Mancha  is  attracting  notice  contemporaneously  in 
France,  where  we  have  seen  a  translation  announced  as 
the  first  French  version,  though  we  ourselves  received 
our  first  impressions  of  the  knight  from  a  French  version, 
described  as  a  new  edition  in  1849,  which  we  read  in  our 
early  days  in  the  sunny  land  of  France,  and  which  still 
cheers  us  in  nebulous  England.  The  claims  made  on 
behalf  of  Spanish  literature  as  a  "key  to  the  history  of 
Europe  "  strike  us  as  somewhat  exaggerated.  Italy,  we 



I.  FEB.  13,  '80. 

hold,  must  always  afford  us  the  master  key  to  the  com- 
plications alike  of  mediaeval  and  of  modern  story,  though 
there  are  times  when  Spain  supplies  us  with  valuable 
special  information.  It  is  a  far  cry  from  Madrid  to 
Tiryns,  but  the  account  of  Schliemann's  latest  ex- 
plorations will  be  read  with  interest.  In  'Church  and 
State'  we  have  a  subject  eminently  of  to-day,  while  in 
'  The  Patriarchal  Theory '  we  are  carried  back  to  far 
distant  ages,  when  the  father  of  the  family  was  himself, 
it  may  be  said,  Church  and  State  in  one.  Annexation 
renders  Burma  a  land  to  be  studied  by  the  reading  public 
with  an  interest  to  which  its  past  history  should  give 
added  zest. 

THE  first  number  of  Illustration,  conducted  by  Mr. 
F.  G.  Heath,  has  been  issued  by  Messrs.  Sampson  Low, 
Marston  &  Co.  It  contains  matter  of  varied  interest 
abundantly  illustrated. 

AT  the  meeting  of  the  Royal  Society  of  Literature  on 
the  27th  ult.,when  Dr.  Ingleby,V.P.,  read  an  extremely 
interesting  paper  entitled  '  Notes  on  the  History  of  the 
Shakespearian  Canon,'  there  was  an  animated  discussion, 
in  which  Dr.  Brinsley  Nicholson,  Mr.  Watkiss  Lloyd, 
Mr.  J.  Stuart  Glennie,  Mr.  E.  Gilbert  Highton,  and 
others  took  part.  The  Foreign  Secretary  announced  the 
recent  loss  of  two  distinguished  honorary  fellows,  Dr. 
Birch  and  Mr.  Fergusson. 

THE  February  number  of  the  Law  Magazine  and 
Review  will  contain,  besides  part  ii.  of  '  The  Land  Laws 
of  India,'  by  W.  H.  Rattigan,  LL.D.,  a  memoir  of  Lord 
Cairns,  from  the  pen  of  Mr.  J.  Lowry  Whittle,  M.A.,  and 
an  article  on  the  '  Origin  of  European  Land  Commu- 
nities,' by  Mr.  Julian  S.  Corbett,  LL.M. 

MRS.  FRANCES  ANN  COLLINS,  an  occasional  contributor 
to  our  columns,  is  about  to  publish  the  first  volume  of 
her  '  Transcripts  of  the  Parish  Registers  of  Kirkburton, 
co.  York.'  Jt  will  cover  the  time  1541  to  1654,  and  will 
contain  little  short  of  nine  thousand  entries  referring  to 
Yorkshire  families.  Application  should  be  made  to 
Messrs.  W.  Pollard  &  Co.,  North  Street,  Exeter. 

Jiatiretf  to 

We  must  call  special  attention  to  the  following  notices : 

ON  all  communications  must  be  written  the  name  and 
address  of  the  sender,  not  necessarily  for  publication,  but 
as  a  guarantee  of  good  faith. 

WE  cannot  undertake  to  answer  queries  privately. 

To  secure  insertion  of  communications  correspondents 
must  observe  the  following  rule.  Let  each  note,  query, 
or  reply  be  written  on  a  separate  slip  of  paper,  with  the 
signature  of  the  writer  and  such  address  as  he  wishes  to 
appear.  Correspondents  who  repeat  queries  are  requested 
to  head  the  second  communication  "  Duplicate." 

C.  T.  J.  MOORE  ("  Sack  applied  to  Wine  ").— This  ques- 
tion has  been  fully  discussed.  See  2nd  S.  xii.  287.  452 
468  ;  3rd  S.  v.  328, 488  ;  vi.  20,  55 ;  4'i>  S.  i.  481.  Two 
correspondents  speak  of  having  heard  the  word  used  and 
ta?ted  the  liquor.  What  was  the  precise  signification  of 
sack  seems  in  doubt.  According  to  Gervase  Markham's 
'English  Housewife,'  "Y<>ur  best  sack  is  of  Xeres  in 
Spain;  your  smaller  of  Gallicia  and  Portugal.  Your 
strong  tacts  are  of  the  Isles  of  the  Canaries  and  Malligo 
[Malaga]."  The  red  wine  in  use  was  claret.  Your  other 
communications  will  appear. 

PETER  J.  MULLIN  ("John  Armstrong,  Poet  and 
Divine"). — All  obtainable  information  concerning  him 
may  be  found  in  Gentleman's  Magazine,  ii. 
pp.  731-2 ;  Monthly  Magazine,  vol.  iv.  pp.  153-4;  Edin- 

lurgh  Magazine,  new  series,  vol.  x.  pp.  254,  255 ;  and 
'  Dictionary  of  National  Biography,'  vol.  ii.  p.  96. 
Happy  the  man  in  busy  schemes  unskilled, 
Who,  living  simply,  like  our  sires  of  old,  &c. 
This  is  obviously  a  rendering  of  the  ode  of  Horace, 

Beatus  ille  qui  procul  negotiis. 

If  any  of  our  correspondents  can  indicate  in  what  work 
this  version  appears  we  will  insert  the  reply. 

ALFRED  C.  JONAS  ("Dunmow  Flitch  ").— The  flitch  waa 
claimed,  as  you  say,  "  for  the  last  time  "  on  June  20, 1751. 
until  the  claim  was  revived  in  1855.  It  has  since  been 
more  than  once  made.  See  '  N.  &  Q.,'  4th  S.  iv.  199  262  • 
v.  19,  102,  392;  6"'  S.  vi.  135,  and  elsewhere.  A  book- 
on  the  subject  by  W.  Andrews  was  published  in  1879  by 
Tegg  &  Co. 

THO.  H.  SKINNER  ("  Seascapes  by  Turner ;').— Many  of 
Turner's  mezzotints  of  the  '  Liber  Studiorum  '  are  land- 
scapes, about  12  in.  by  9  in.,  and  bear  at  foot  the  signature 
you  mention.  Your  indications  are  too  vague  to  enable 
any  authority  to  say  more. 

CH.EL.  MA.— 

We  were  the  first  that  ever  burst 
Into  that  silent  sea. 
Coleridge,  'Rhyme  of  the  Ancient  Mariner.' 

EBORACUM  ("St.  Christopher ").— The  story  is  that 
St.  Christopher,  who  is  said  to  have  been  twelve  feet  in 
height,  was  in  the  habit  of  carrying  daily  across  a  torrent 
the  pilgrims  who  sought  to  pass.  One  day  he  carried  a 
child  whose  weight  almost  bore  him  down.  The  child 
in  question  proved  to  be  Christ,  who  bade  him  stick  into 
the  earth  the  staff  he  bore,  which  next  day  changed  into 
a  date  tree  laden  with  leaf  and  fruit.  The  story  has 
been  greatly  used  by  poets  and  painters,  one  of  the  last 
so  to  use  it  being  Mr.  Swinburne. 

C.  W.  PENNY  ("Only  three  crowns ").— In  'Short 
Sayings  of  Great  Men,'  by  S.  A.  Bent,  A.M.,  Lond.,  1882, 
this  answer  to  the  query  what  it  would  cost  to  enclose 
St.  James's  Park  in  the  Palace  Yard  is  said  to  have  been 
made  by  Sir  Robert  Walpole  to  Queen  Caroline.  Con- 
cerning the  truth  of  this  we  know  nothing ;  and  Mr. 
Leslie  Stephen  is  probably  right  in  presuming,  as  you 
say,  in  his  '  Life  of  Henry  Fawcett,'  second  edition, 
p.  311,  that  it  is  mythical. 

C.  E.  ("  Panjandrum  ").— The  nonsense  tale  by  Foote 
is  said  to  have  been  given  as  a  puzzle  to  test  the  memory 
of  Macklin,  who  said  in  a  lecture  he  had  brought  his 
memory  to  such  perfection  that  he  could  learn  anything 
by  rote  on  once  hearing  it. 

E.  TROTT  («•  The  Fingall  Peerage  ").— The  surname 
of  the  first  earl  was  Plunkett.  Burke's  '  Peerage  '  gives 
a  pedigree  of  the  family. 

S.  A.  B.  ("  Somerville  Family  ").— See  2nd  S.  ix.  365  • 
3rd  S.  iv.  129;  ix.  158,  247;  4th  3.  xi.  157,  201,  257,  3251 
364.  427,  493  ;  xii.  15,  76,  134,  210,  295. 

WHITEHALL  ("James").— The  correct  possessive  of 
this  word  is  James's.  Custom,  however,  has  sanctioned 
the  elision  of  the  final  s. 

CORRIGENDA.— P.  66,  col.  2, 11.  17  and  25  from  bottom, 
dele  the  e  in  "  traines "  and  "  traine."  P.  86,  before  the 
couplet  on. Chester  bells  MR.  GRAHAM  requests  readers 
to  insert  the  letter  I.  P.  115,  col.  1, 1.  4,  for  "p.  466  " 
read  p.  467. 


Editorial  Communications  should  be  addressed  to  "  The 
Editor  of  '  Notes  and  Queries '  "—Advertisements  and 
Business  Letters  to  "  The  Publisher" — at  the  Office,  22, 
Took's  Court,  Curaitor  Street,  Chancery  Lane,  E.G. 

We  beg  leave  to  state  that  we  decline  to  return  com- 
munications which,  for  any  reason,  we  do  not  print;  and 
to  this  rule  we  can  make  no  exception. 

7««  S.  I.  FEB.  20,  '86.] 




CONTENT  S.— N°  8. 

NOTES :— History  of  the  Thames,  141  — Women  Actors  — 
Shakspeariana,  143  — Carols  and  Poems,  144  —  "  Dismaill 
Dayis"— The  New  Street,  145— Hollar's  Etching— Aphis- 
Suzerain,  146. 

QUERIES  :— Berdash  —  Bergander  —  '  Macaronic  Poetry  '  — 
Etymology  of  Local  Names,  147— Litterford— Inscription  on 
Bell— T.  Purchase— Palseologus.  148— Griffaun— P.  Gray— 
O.  Holland  —  Irish  Church  —  Shrimpton — Heron  Family — 
Rondeaus— Precedence,  149— Andrew's  Day— "To  taste  of 
potato" — "Cow  and  Snuffers" — Folk-lore  of  Caterpillar- 
Cover— The  Blue  Stone— Tower  Records— Streanaeshalch— 
Pope,  150. 

REPLIES  :— 'The  Tempest,'  150— Must,  151— Azagra— Beres- 
ford  Chapel  — Sir  T.  Cornwallis  — Chained  Bibles— Scotch 
Names  of  Fishes— Ply  mouth  Brethren — Old  Chancery  Plead- 
ings—Army Lists— Munchausen,  152— Caffling— Leaps  and 
Bounds— Sibley— Song  of  'The  Broom,'  153  —  Beckford's 
« Vathek '— Birlegia-Toot  Hill,  154-Suicide  of  Animals— 
W.  Woollett  —  Browne,  155— Rev.  E.  Neale  —  Josselyn— 
Epigram  by  Macaulay — W.  Longsword,  156 — O'Donovan's 
'Merv'— A.  Colquhoun— Ghost  Story— Gundrada  de  War- 
renne,  157— Campbell  of  Craignish— Roi  de  Piques— Sitting 
Bull— Memoirs  of  O'Connell— Cruso,  158. 

NOTES  ON  BOOKS  :— Lodge's  '  History  of  Modern  Europe ' 
— Barley's  'Moon  Lore' — Basset's  'Legends  and  Super- 
stitions of  the  Sea  '— Fitzpatrick's  '  Life  of  the  Very  Rev. 
Thomas  N.  Burke,  O.P.' 

Notices  to  Correspondents,  &c. 



A  modern  instance  from  the  New  World  is 
given  in  the  '  Life  of  Christopher  Columbus.'  In 

"the  paradise  of  happy  spirits  was  variously  placed, 
almost  every  tribe  assigning  some  favourite  spot  in  their 
native  province.  Many,  however,  concurred  in  describ- 
ing this  region  as  being  near  a  lake  in  the  western  part 
of  the  island  in  the  beautiful  province  of  Xaragua." 
In  this  case  the  souls  hid  themselves  in  the  moun- 
tains during  the  day,  but  came  down  at  night  into 
the  happy  valleys  to  eat  the  delicious  mamey  fruit, 
of  which  the  living  were  considerate  enough  to  eat 
sparingly  so  that  the  dead  should  not  want.*  Mr. 
Tylor  also  records  the  still  later  case  of  certain 
Australians  "  who  think  that  the  spirit  of  the  dead 
hovers  a  while  on  earth,  and  goes  at  last  towards 
the  setting  sun,  or  westward  over  the  sea  to  the 
island  of  souls,  the  home  of  his  fathers." 

I  might  largely  increase  this  list  of  locali- 
ties inhabited  at  once  by  the  bodies  of  the 
living  and  the  souls  of  the  dead  ;  but  these 
instances  may  suffice  to  illustrate  the  pro- 
cess by  which  it  became  possible  for  Homer  and 

Washington  Irving, '  Columbus/  chap.  x. 

^Eschylus  to  speak  of  the  "Lifeless"  as  a  living 
people.  I  have  yet  to  localize  one  further  tradi- 
tion of  a  like  kind  : — 

Fronting  afar  towards  Gallia's  furthest  steep 

Lies  a  lone  haunt  amid  the  encircling  deep, 

The  shore,  'tis  said,  where  erst  Ulyxes  woke 

With  spells  and  streaming  blood  the  Silent  Folk. 

There  oft  the  rustic  hears  the  fleeting  soul 

With  faint  shrill  scream  wheel  by,  and  moans  of  dole  ; 

Oft  sees  a  pilgrim  troop  of  phantoms  pale, 

And  dead  men's  ghosts  that  glimmer  through  the  dale. 

This  is  Claudian's  account  of  the  particular  spot 
selected  by  the  Fury  Megeera  for  her  ascent  to 
this  upper  world  on  her  way  from  Hell  to  Euse  in 
Gascony  to  call  on  the  negligent  Rufinus,  who 
still  hesitated  to  attempt  the  ruin  of  the  1  toman 
world.  The  topographical  details  of  the  journey 
are  obscure,  and  matters  are  not  much  mended  by 
the  account  of  the  remarkable  acoustic  phenomenon 
which  accompanied  the  lady's  emergence  to  the 
light  of  day  : — 

In  noonday  darkness  from  that  dread  abode, 
With  shrieks  that  rent  the  sky,  the  Fury  strode. 
Her  baleful  cry  Britannia  heard  aghast, 
Senonian  Qaul  shrank  cowering  as  it  passed  ; 
Scared  from  the  shore,  the  shuddering  billows  turn, 
And  palsied  Rhine  lets  fall  his  trembling  urn.  * 

Claudian  had  high  authority  for  the  thin  stri- 
dulous  chirring  which  he  assigns  to  his  ghosts. 
Homer,  or  possibly  a  pseudo- Homer,  at  the  begin- 
ning of  the  last  book  of  the  '  Odyssey,'  speaks  thus 
of  the  souls  of  the  wooers  of  Penelope,  whose 
bodies  had  just  been  done  to  death  by  Ulysses  and 
Telemachus  and  were  still  left  littering  about  the 
dining-room  and  lobbies.  Hermes  summons  the 
ghosts  with  his  wand,  and  thereupon 

They  all  about  him  fly, 
And  as  the  Rod  directeth  them  the  way 

They  follow  all,  but  screaming  fearfully. 
As  in  some  venerable  hollow  Cave 

Where  Bats  that  are  at  roost  upon  a  stone 
And  from  the  ledge  one  chance  a  fall  to  have, 

The  rest  scream  out  and  hold  fast  one  by  one ; 
So  screaming  all  the  Souls  together  fly, 

And  first  pass  by  Oceanus  his  Streams, 
Then  by  Sol's  gate,  and  Rock  of  Leucady, 

And  then  they  passed  through  the  Town  of  Dreams 
And  in  a  trice  to  th'  Mead  of  Asphodel,  &c. 

This  is  Hobbes  of  Malmesbury's  version.  Chap- 
man, with  fine  perversity,  makes  the  ghosts  and 
the  bats  "  murmur  "  and  "grumble."  Pope,  keep- 
ing closer  to  his  original,  speaks  of  their  "  thin, 
hollow  screams."  I  have  extended  the  quotation 
beyond  the  mention  of  the  "  Eock  of  Leucady," 
because  Joshua  Barnes,  in  his  edition  of  Homer, 
identifies  "  Leucady  "  with  Albion,  as  he  had  pre- 
viously identified,  perhaps  with  rather  more 
reason,  the  "Isle  of  the  Blest"  spoken  of  by 
Euripides  at  the  end  of  his  '  Helena '  with  Britain. 
Joshua  Barnes  ought  to  be  remembered  with 
eternal  reverence  by  all  those  who  believe  that 

*  Claudian,  '  In  Rufinum,'  i.  123,  et  seq. 



g.  I.  FEB.  20,  '86. 

Lord  Bacon  wrote  Shakspere,  as  the  original 
"pious  founder"  of  their  peculiar  school  of 
thought  and  criticism.  He  held  that  Solomon 
wrote  Homer. 

Naturally  one  would  look  for  Claudian's  island 
somewhere  off  the  western  coast  of  Gaul,  where  the 
traditions  that  cluster  round  Mela's  Sena,  the  Isle 
de  Seins — or  Sein— or  des  Saints — just  at  the  en- 
trance of  the  Bay  of  Douarnenez,  might  seem  to 
identify  the  locality;  but,  on  the  whole,  to  my 
mind  the  mention  of  the  Rhine  seems  fatal  to  the 
hypothesis.  The  howling  of  Claudian's  Megsera 
was  no  doubt  a  creditable  effort  in  an  age  unac- 
quainted with  the  telephone,  but  from  the  Pointe 
du  Eaz  at  the  extreme  end  of  Brittany  to  any  point 
where  Father  Rhine  could  be  supposed  to  superin- 
tend his  urn  is,  I  think,  a  trifle  too  far  a  cry  for 
the  poet  to  have  contemplated ;  and  it  happens 
that  an  island  opposite  the  eastern  end  of  the 
French  shore  answers  the  conditions  quite  as  well 
as  the  Isle  de  Seins,  if  not  better. 

Claudian  wrote  his  account  a  few  years  before 
A.D.  400.  About  a  hundred  and  sixty  years  later 
Procopius  wrote  his  story  of  the  invasions  of 
the  Goths,  in  the  fourth  book  of  which  he 
gives  his  well-known  description  of  the  island 
of  Brittia.  This  is  Procopius's  account  as  abridged 
by  the  Scholiast  on  Lycophron  already  once  re- 
ferred to*:— 

"The  Isles  of  the  Blest  are  described  by  Hesiod, 
Homer,  Euripides,  Plutarch,  Dion,  Procopius,  Philo- 
stratus,  and  others,  as  situate  in  the  deep-eddying  Ocean, 
because  Brettania  is  an  island  lying  between  Western 
Brettania  on  the  West  and  Thule  on  the  East.  Thither, 
it  is  said,  are  the  souls  of  the  dead  ferried  over.  For  on 
the  coast  of  the  Ocean  which  surrounds  the  island  of  Bret- 
tania dwell  certain  fisher-folks,  subjects  of  the  Franks, 
but  not  paying  them  any  tribute,  by  reason,  as  they  say, 
of  their  carrying  over  the  souls  of  the  dead.  For  they  go 
their  ways  home  towards  evening  and  fall  asleep,  and 
presently  thereafter  they  become  aware  of  certain  persons 
knocking  at  the  door  and  hear  a  voice  calling  them  forth 
to  their  work.  Thereupon  they  get  up  and  go  down  to 
the  shore  as  compelled  by  some  necessity  they  know  not 
what,  and  there  they  find  boats  ready,  not  their  own,  and 
apparently  empty.  But  when  they  go  aboard  the  boats  and 
get  out  their  oars  they  feel  that  the  vessels  are  as  heavy 
as  if  they  were  full  of  passengers,  though  they  see 
nobody.  Then  with  a  single  stroke  they  arrive  at  the  island 
Brettania,  although  otherwise,  when  they  employ  their 
own  ships,  the  voyage  takes  them  at  least  one  whole  night 

*  Procopius's  account  is  given  at  full  length  in  the 
c  Mon.  Hist.  Brit.,'  and  in  Smith's  '  Diet,  of  Geog.,'  s.v. 
"  Britannia."  A  summary  of  it  is  given  in  Gibbon, 
chap,  xxxviii. ;  Sir  W.  Scott, '  Count  Robert  of  Paris,' 
chap.  v.  (quoted  in  Baring  Gould's  '  Curious  Myths  of 
the  Middle  Ages,'  "  The  Fortunate  Isles  ") ;  Tylor, '  Prim. 
Cult.,'  loc.  cit.-,  De  Belloguet,  '  Eth.  Gaul.,  Le  Genie 
Gaulois,'  p.  179  ;  and  elsewhere.  Mr.  Baring  Gould  re- 
gards Procopius's  Brettania  as  Brittany,  and  Brittia  as 
Britain.  I  have  not  seen  Wackernagel,  *  Das  Todtenreich 
in  Britann.,'  Haupt.  '  Ann.  Litt.  Germ.,'  vi.  p.  191  etsqq., 
or  F.  G.  Welker,  '  Die  Homerischen  Phaaken  und  die 
Inseln  der  Seligen,  Kleine  Schr.  zur  Griech.  Litt.,' 
Bonn,  1845,  vol.  ii.  pp.  1-79. 

and  a  day.  But  when  they  reach  the  island,  again  they 
see  nobody,  but  they  hear  the  voice  of  those  who  receive 
the  passengers  out  of  the  boats,  ranking  them  according 
to  the  family  of  the  father  and  mother  of  each,  and 
styling  each  one,  moreover,  severally  by  his  name,  with 
the  addition  of  his  dignity  or  profession.  At  last,  when 
all  the  boats  are  empty,  the  fishermen  return  home, 
again  at  a  single  stroke  of  the  oars,  Hence  many  have 
inferred  that  the  Isles  of  the  Blest  are  there,  and  that 
the  souls  of  the  dead  pass  over  thither."* 

Tzetzes,  it  will  be  observed,  calls  the  island 
Brettania,  while  Procopius,  from  whom  he  takes 
the  story,  calls  it  Brittia.  But  although  in  one 
part  of  his  narrative  Procopius  professes  to  be 
careful  in  distinguishing  Brittia  from  Brettania, 
in  another  he  obviously  confounds  their  identity, 
and  Tzetzes,  puzzled  by  the  contradiction,  cuts  the 
knot  by  making  an  eastern  and  western  Brettania 
instead  of  one  Brettania  and  one  Brittia.  With 
both  authors,  however,  the  island  of  souls  lies 
between  the  ordinary  Britain  of  commerce  and 
Thule,  by  which  name  the  southern  part  of  the 
Scandinavian  peninsula  is  clearly  intended.  It  is 
very  much  nearer  to  Britain  than  Thule,  and,  in- 
deed, the  confusion  of  it  with  the  former  shows 
that  it  was  very  closely  connected  with  Britain. 
Now  there  is  but  one  isle  which  in  any  way 
answers  the  conditions  of  the  problem,  and  that 
is  the  Isle  of  Thanet,  which  as  late  as  the  time  of 
Bede  was  separated  from  the  rest  of  Kent  by  a 
river  ("fluvius  Vantsumu ")  three  furlongs  in 
breadth, f  and  in  earlier  days  by  a  still  broader 
sea  channel.  Thanet,  therefore,  I  venture,  with 
some  confidence,  to  identify  with  the  spirit-land 
of  Procopius,  and  I  note  that  one  of  the  few  topo- 
graphical details  he  gives  with  regard  to  it  may 
be  a  fiction  founded  on  fact.  In  old  days, 
says  the  historian,  men  built  a  long  wall  cutting 
off  a  great  portion  of  the  island,  and  while  to  the 
east  of  the  wall  the  land  was  fertile  and  the  in- 
habitants like  other  people,  to  the  west  the  soil 
only  bred  vipers  and  snakes,  and  the  air  was  so 
deadly  that  man  or  beast  crossing  the  wall 
sickened  and  died  in  less  than  half  an  hour. 
This  has  been  generally  regarded  as  a  wildly  dis- 
torted account  of  one  of  the  walls  built  from  sea  to  sea 
by  the  Romans  in  North  Britain.  But  as  a  matter 
of  fact,  about  a  mile  west  of  St.  Nicholas  at  Wade, 
inthenorth-westcornerofThanet,still  exists  a  raised 
bank  and  road  known  as  Chambers  Wall,  which 
forms  a  distinct  boundary  between  the  comparatively 
hilly  ground  near  St.  Nicholas  and  the  unhealthy 
marshland  now  stretching  across  Northmouth 
Sluice — the  shabby  remnant  of  the  former  frith — as 
far  as  Reculver.  This,  I  take  it,  is  far  more  likely 
to  be  the  wall  referred  to,  for  Procopius,  it  must 

*  Tzetzes,  'Schol.  in  Lycoph.,'  §  1204,  vol.  iii.,  ed. 
M  tiller. 

f  Bede,  '  Hist.  Ecc.,'  i.  25.  The  similarity  of  name 
to  Wensum,  that  of  the  river  which  runs  through  Nor- 
wich and  falls  into  the  Yare  a  little  below,  is  remarkable. 
What  is  the  true  etymology  it  both  cases  ? 

7th  g.  I.  FEB.  20,  '86.] 



be  remembered,  writes  professedly  from  accounts 
of  persons  well  acquainted  with  the  spot,  and  a 
legend  of  the  kind  could  hardly  have  arisen  unless 
it  had  some  slight  relation  to  actual  topography. 
(To  I e  continued.) 


(See  6th  S.  xi.  285,  435;  xii.  221,  304.) 
I  send  the  opinion  of  Malone  that  Antiphon 
acted  the  woman's  part  of  Andromache,  and  not 
that  of  Astyanax,  in  the  play  of  Ennius.  This  is 
reversing  the  judgment  held  by  Watson  and 
Heberden,  that  Antiphon  played  Astyanax  and 
Arbuscula  Andromache.  It  must  be  left  to  the 
learned  in  Latin  to  decide  the  right  reading  of 
the  text  in  Cicero,  which  I  shall  be  glad  to 
know.  In  his  *  Historical  Account  of  the  English 
Stage '  (vol.  iii.,  prolegomena,  p.  122)  Malone  says  : 
"  The  practice  of  men's  performing  the  parts  of  women 
in  the  scene  is  of  the  highest  antiquity.  On  the  Grecian 
stage  no  woman  certainly  ever  acted.  That  on  the 
Roman  stage,  also,  female  parts  were  represented  by 
men  in  tragedy  is  ascertained  by  one  of  Cicero's 
letters  to  Atticus,  in  which  he  speaks  of  Antipho,  who 
performed  the  part  of  Andromache  ('  Epistol.  ad  Atti- 
cum,'  lib.  iv.c.  xv.).  Horace,  indeed,  mentions  a  female 
performer  called  Arbuscula;  but  as  we  find  from  bis  own 
authority  that  men  personated  women  on  the  Roman 
stage,  she  probably  was  only  an  emboliaria,  who  per- 
formed in  the  interludes  and  dances  exhibited  between 
the  acts  and  at  the  end  of  the  play.  Servius  calls  her 
mima,  but  that  may  mean  nothing  more  than  one  who 
acted  in  the  mimes  or  danced  in  the  pantomime  dances, 
and  this  seems  the  more  probable  from  the  manner  in 
which  she  is  mentioned  by  Cicero,  from  whom,  as  I  have 
before  observed,  we  learn  that  the  part  of  Andromache 
was  performed  by  a  male  actor  on  that  very  day  when 
Arbuscula  exhibited  with  the  highest  applause." 

The  following  is  the  note  of  Orellius,  which  may 
give  his  opinion  and  throw  light  upon  the  subject 
in  the  letter  of  Cicero  : — 

"  Quas  est  laus  ironica.  Andromacham  Ennii  quum 
ageret  sane  major  erat,  quam  parvulus  ejus  filius  Asty- 
anax, cujus  utique  partes  secundarise  erant  in  fabula 

On  the  same  question  of  women  actors  in  Eng- 
lish masques  of  the  time  of  Elizabeth  and  James, 
against  their  having  spoken  in  them,  I  subjoin  an 
extract  from  a  modern — Collins's  "  English  Clas- 
sics," '  Bacon's  Essays,'  by  Henry  Lewis,  M.A., 
Essay  xxxvii.,  "  Of  Masques  and  Triumphs." 
Speaking  of  singing  in  them,  Bacon  says  :  "  The 
voices  of  the  dialogue  would  be  strong  and  manly 
(a  bass  and  a  tenor  ;  no  treble)."  Mr.  Lewis 
attaches  a  note  to  "  no  treble  ":— 

"  He,  no  doubt,  means  that  none  but  men  should  be 
allowed  to  take  the  dialogue  parts  in  a  masque.  Women 
were  never  permitted  to  perform,  but  the  parts  nominally 
assigned  to  them  were  talen  by  boys;  he  therefore  thinks 
it  better  to  exclude  female  parts  altogether." 

How  can  this  be  reconciled  with  what  Bacon  him 
self  says  further  on  ; — "  Double  masques,  one  of 

men,  another  of  ladies,  addeth  state  and  variety"? 
Shakespere  gives  the  .musical  sense  to  "treble"  in 
a  dialogue  between  Hortensio  and  Bianca  in  '  The 
Taming  of  the  Shrew,'  III.  i.,  where  she  says  to 
him  playing  the  fiddle,  "  0  fie,  the  treble  jars." 

Ladies  appear  to  have  taken  part  in  the  dialogue 
assigned  to  them  in  the  masques  of  Ben  Jonson. 
Some  say  this  essay  of  Bacon  alludes  to  the 
masques  of  his  friend  Ben  Jonson.  He  may, 
however,  have  had  wholly  in  mind  his  own 
attempts  at  that  species  of  drama  which  Malone 
calls  the  "  spurious  offspring  of  the  Muses."  Bacon 
does  not  seem  in  this  essay  at  the  end  of  his  life 
to  have  been  in  favour  of  them.  He  speaks  rather 
contemptuously  of  them  in  the  beginning  :  "These 
things  are  but  toys  to  come  amongst  such  serious 
observations  ;  but  princes  will  have  such  things," 
&c. ;  and  he  concludes  with  the  words,  "But 
enough  of  these  toys."  W.  J.  BIRCH. 

DUNOIS     AND     THE     BASTARD    ('  KlNG     JOHN,' 

I.  i.). — Halle  relates  that  Dunois,  natural  son  of 
Louis,  Duke  of  Orleans,  preferred,  like  the  Bas- 
tard in  '  King  John,'  a  splendid  illegitimacy  to  a 
respectable  name  and  an  inheritance  attached 
thereto.  When  Dunois  was  a  year  old  his  mother 
and  nominaljfather,  "  the  lorde  of  Cauny,"  died, 
shortly  after  Orleans's  murder  in  1407.  The 
infant's  paternity  was  debated  before  the  Parlia- 
ment of  Paris  by  his  mother's  relatives  and 
"  Cauny's "  next  of  kin,  but  the  question  re- 
mained undecided  till  Dunois  was  eight  years  old, 
"atwhiche  tyme,"  says  Halle,  "it  was  demaunded  of 
hym  openly  whose  sonne  he  was :  his  frewdes  of  hia 
mothers  side  aduertised  him  to  require  a  day,  to  be 
aduised  of  so  great  an  answer,  whiche  he  asked,  &  to 
hym  it  was  grau/ited.  In  ye  meane  season  his  said 
frendes  persuaded  him  to  claime  his  inheritaunce,  as 
sonne  to  the  Lorde  of  Cawny,  which  was  an  honorable 
liuyng,  and  an  auncierct  patrimony,  affirming  that  if  he 
said  contrary,  he  not  only  slauwdered  his  mother, 
shamed  himself,  &  stained  his  bloud,  but  also  should 

haue  no  liuyng  nor  any  thing  to  take  to at  the  daie 

assigned, when  the  question  was  repeted  to  hym 

again,  he  boldly  answered,  '  my  harte  geueth  me,  &  my 
noble  corage  telleth  me,  that  I  am  the  sonne  of  the  noble 
Duke  of  Orleaunce,  more  glad  to  be  his  Bastarde,  with  a 
meane  liuyng,  then  the  lawfull  sonne  of  that  coward 
cuckolde  Cauny,  with  his  foure  thousand  crounes  [a 
year].'  "—Halle's '  Chronicle,'  ed.  1809,  pp.  144, 145. 

What  authority  had  Halle  for  this  story? 
I  have  not  found  it  in  Monstrelet  and  his  con- 
tinuators  ("  Chroniques  Nationales  Franchises,"  ed. 
Buchon).  It  is  not  noticed  in  Courtenay's  '  Com- 
mentaries'  nor  in  the  '  Variorum  Shakspere,'  1821. 
A  similar  story  is  recorded  by  Stow,  under  the 
year  1213  :— 

"Morgan  Prouost  of  Beuerley,  brother  to  K.  John 
was  elected  byshop  of  Durham,  but  he  comming  to 
Rome  to  be  consecrated,  returned  againe  without  it,  for 
that  he  was  a  bastard,  and  K.  Henry  father  to  K.  John 



.  I.  FEB.  20, 

had  begotten  him  of  the  wife  of  one  Radulph  Bloeth, 
yet  would  the  Pope  haue  dispensed  with  him,  if  he 
would  haue  called  himselfe  the  son  of  the  knight,  and 
not  of  the  king.  But  he  vsing  the  aduise  of  one  William 
of  Lane  his  Clarke,  aunswered,  that  for  no  worldly  pro- 
mation,  he  would  deny  the  kings  blood." — Stow's  '  An- 
nales,'  1605,  p.  256. 

Stow's  authority  appears  to  be  "  LibFer]  Bermond- 
[sey]  »  W.  G.  STONE. 

Walditch,  Bridport. 

xii.  424). — The  allusive  arms  of  Shakspeare  may 
be  seen  on  his  monument  in  the  chancel  of  the 
church  at  Stratford-upon-Avon,  Or,  on  a  bend 
sable  a  spear  of  the  first,  the  head  arg.,  as  granted 
to  his  father  John  Shakspeare  in  1596. 

A  variation  of  the  name  occurred,  apparently, 
when  John  Shakeshaft,  woolcomber,  and  Anne 
his  wife  claimed  successfully  the  flitch  of  bacon 
at  Dunmow  in  1751.  This  single  event  in  his 
life  seems  to  have  rescued  his  name  and  memory 
from  oblivion.  A  picture  of  the  carrying  away 
of  the  flitch  was  painted  at  the  time  by  David 
Osborne,  in  which  the  chief  actors  are  represented 
as  chaired,  and  there  is  another  of  more  recent 
date  by  Stothard  depicting  the  procession. 


Newbourne  Rectory,  Woodbridge. 

*  ANTONY  AND  CLEOPATRA,'  I.  i. — 

In  which  I  binde 

One  paine  of  punishment,  the  world  to  weete 
We  stand  vp  Peerlesse. — Polio. 

What  is  the  exact  meaning  of  these  words  ?  The 
commentators — I  have  searched  in  half  a  dozen — 
are  unanimously  silent :  all  but  Pope,  who  is  good 
enough  to  tell  us  that  to  weete  means  "  to  know." 
Does  Antony,  then,  bind  the  world  to  know,  on 
pain  of  being  flogged  like  schoolboys  if  they  do 
not  know  ?  Near  akin  to  nonsense,  I  should  have 
thought;  but  it  is  hard  to  see  how  else  Pope's 
gloss  can  be  taken.  Two  Shakspeare  students 
whom  I  have  consulted  suggest  that  to  weet 
means  to  bear  witness,  which  will  better  serve  if 
the  word  will  carry  the  meaning.  C.  B.  M. 

COMPLEXION,  *  As  You  LIKE  IT/  III.  ii.  181. — 
Eos.  Good  my  complection. 

Dyce  has  not  the  word  in  his  *  Glossary,'  and 
Nares  was  somewhat  in  a  fog  regarding  it,  neither 
of  them  apparently  knowing  its  old  meaning. 
"Ther  be  foure  humours,"  says  Bartholome  as 
translated  by  Trevisa,  "Bloud,  Fleame,  Cholar 

[bile],  and  Melancholy These observing 

evennesse,  with  due  proportion,  make  perfect  and 
keep  in  due  state  of  health,  all  bodyes  having 
bloud."  So  according  to  the  predominance  of 
each  a  man  is  of  sanguine,  phlegmatic,  choleric, 
or  melancholic  temperament,  or,  as  they  called  it, 
"complection."  Trevisa  says,  "A  very  fleuma- 
ticke  man  is  n — and  then  he  describes  him  (as  he 

does  also  the  others),  and  then  goes  on,  "  Men  of 
this  complection."  The  same  use  of  the  word 
occurs  in  many  works  of  the  period,  as  in  Reg. 
Scot's  'Witchcraft,'  bk.  xv.  c. xxxix.  p.  461,  "from 
a  cowardly  nature  and  complexion."  It  may  be 
found  also,  as  I  believe,  in  ail  the  dictionaries  of 
that  time.  Hence  Rosalind's  words  may  be  para- 
phrased, "  Nay,  have  regard,  I  beseech  you,  to  my 
feminine  temperament  or  disposition  ;  I  am  no 
man,  though  I  attire  me  as  one." 


SHAKSPEARE'S  USE  OF  YE  AND  You. — In  his 
admirable  edition  of  Gray's  '  Selected  Poems '  for 
the  Clarendon  Press,  Mr.  Gosse  thus  annotates 
"  from  ye  blow  "  in  1.  15  of  the  *  Ode  on  Eton  Col- 
lege ' :  "A  grammatical  error,  and  now  a  vulgarism 
which  should  be  carefully  guarded  against ;  ye  is 
the  nominative,  and  the  objective  must  be  you. 
Gray  is  here  imitating  Shakespeare,  who  uses  the 
two  forms  without  any  distinction  "  (p.  95).  While 
urging  a  valuable  stricture  as  regards  modern 
prose,  this  criticism  is  too  sweeping  in  its  charge 
against  Shakspeare.  It